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Jeyabalan 2 Ashraf Ali 2 1 Department of Pharmacy Himachal institute of Pharmacy Paonta Sahib HP India Email ramandeeppharmayahoocom 2 Department of Pharmacy Sunrise University Alwar Rajasthan India This paper presents a review of plants identified ID: 36031

Jeyabalan Ashraf




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ISSN 2278- 4136 ZDB-Number: 2668735-5 IC Journal No: 8192 VolumeIssuewww.phytojournal.com Journal of Pharmacognosy and PhytochemistryVol.No.2012 An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Ramandeep Singh, Sarabjeet Singh, G. Jeyabalan2 , Ashraf AliDepartment of Pharmacy, Himachal institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib (H.P), India. This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for of life. To overcome the problem of Male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction various natural aphrodisiac plants potentials are preferred. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. Erectile Dysfunction, Male Impotence, Aphrodisiac, Herbal Drugs, Sexual Dysfunction. 1. Introduction Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Pageantihypertensive, antipsychotic, antidepressant therapeutic drugs. Organic causes of ED like Hypogonadism, hyperprolactinaemia, and neurological disorders. Treatment of ED involves several natural aphrodisiac potentials. Aphrodisiac is described as any substance that enhances sexual pleasure. Sexual dysfunction caused by various factors such as psychological disorders like Anxiety, depression, stress, fear of sex, neurological disorders, stroke, cerebral trauma, Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and chronic disorders–diabetes, hypertension, vascular insufficiency, Atherosclerosis, penile disease–phinosis, peyronies, life style–chronic alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking, aging, decrease in hormone level with age. Systemic diseases – cardiac, hepatic, renal, pulmonary, and cancerer. The importance of sexuality in human life is well recognized in the Ancient Indian medicine ayurveda as an entire specially is devoted to it under the name “Vijakarna” or virilification therapy. Vijakarna therapyincludes aphrodisiacs for erectile dysfunction, causes of infertility, spermatogenesis, semenogenesis, reproduction, methods of correcting defective semen and sexual satisfactionon. 1.1 Mechanism involved in Aphrodisiac potentials On sexual stimulation (visual (or) otherwise the famines of the axons of parasympathetic nerves release nitric oxide (NO) gas. The gas diffuses into smooth muscle cells that line those arteries of the corpus cavernosum (spongy erectile tissue) and activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase (GC). The later converts the nucleotide guanosine triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The cGMP in turn causes the smooth muscle cells around the penis to relax, leading to dilation and increased flux of blood into the penile tissue. This blood is essentially trapped in the penis and results in an erection. The erection ceases after a while because cGMP is hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase type-5 enzyme (PDE-5) into inactive GMP. (The PDE-5 enzyme resides in the penile tissues). Aphrodisiac potentials inhibit the hydrolyzing action of PDE-5 with the result that active cGMP can accumulate. ‘Undisturbed’ and prolong the erection through increased blood . Traditional Plants Containing Aphrodisiac Potentials No. Name of Plant Common name Family Part used Reference Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Bhindi Malvaceae Root [11] Abelmoschus moschatus Musk mallow Malvaceae Seed [12-13] Abrus precatorius Linn. Ganja Fabaceae Seed [14] Abrus precatorius L. Crab's Eye Papilionaceae Seed [15-16] 5. Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Thuthi Malvaceae Seed, root, bark, leaf [12] Acacia catechu Willd. Catechu Mimosaceae Heartwood [12,18] Acacia nilotica L. Willd. Gum Arabic tree Fabaceae Bark [19] Achyranthes aspera Apamarg, Latjeera Amaranthaceae Root [11] Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.Attesh Ranunculaceae Root [11] 10. Acorus calamus Linn. Sweet flag Araceae Rhizome [20-21] 11. Actiniopteris radiata Sw. Morshikha Actinopteridaceae Whole plant [22] 12. Adenanthera pavonina Baragunchi Mimosaceae Bark, seeds, leaves [23] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page13. Alchornea floribunda Mull. Niando Euphorbiaceae Root [24] 14. Allium tuberosum Chinese chive Zingiberaceae Seed [25-26] 15. Allium sativum L. Garlic Liliaceae Bulb [12,14,28] 16. Allium cepa Piaz Liliaceae Bulb [105] 17. Zimbabwe Aloe Asphodelaceae Leaf [29] 19. Aloe vera L. Dhritkumari Liliaceae Gel extracted from leaves [105] 20. Alpinia galanga Willd. Java galangal Zingiberaceae Rhizome [30] 21. Amaranthus spinosus Chaulai Amaranthaceae Leaves, Whole plant [11] 22. Anacyclus pyrethrum AkarakarabhaCompositae Root [31] 23. Asparagus racemosus Willd.Asparagus Liliaceae Root [32-33] 24. Arachis hypogaea LinnPeanut Fabaceae Seeds [23] 25. Argyreia nervosa Adhoguda Convolvulaceae Root [34] 26. Artocarpus heterophyllus LinnJack tree Moraceae Fruit, Seed, Leaves, root 27. Aristolochia indica Iswaramul Aristolochiaceae Whole plant [105] 28. Atylosia scarabaeoides L. Vantuvar Papilionaceae Whole Plant [105] 29. Azadirachita indica Neem Meliaceae Root [11 ] 30. Bacopa monnieri L. Brahmi Scrophulariaceae Whole plant [11] 31. Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. Manja Mandaram Caesalpiniaceae Seed [12] 32. Bauhinia vahlii Camel’s Foot climber Caesalpiniaceae Seed [12] 33. Bauhinia variegate Linn. Bauhinia Caesalpiniaceae Bark [12] 34. Benincasa hispida Cogn. Ash gourd Cucurbitaceae Fruit [12] 35. Blepharis edulis Linn.Utangan/ Shikhi Acanthaceae Seeds [35] 36. Boerhavia diffusa Punarnava Nyctaginaceae Root [11] 37. Bombax ceiba Linn Silk-Cotton Tree Bombacaceae Bark [12] 38. Boesenbergia rotunda Temu kunci Zingeberaceae Rhizomes [25,36] 39. Bryonia laciniosa Linn.Shivlingi Cucurbitaceae Seed [105] 40. Bussea occidentalis Kpayeli Caesalpiniaceae Bark, seed [37] 41. Butea frondosa Roxb. Flame-of-the-forest Papilionaceae Whole plant [12, 25] 42. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Arhar Fabaceae Root [11] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page43. Carica papaya L. Papita Caricaceae Fruit [11] 44. Cannabis indica L. Indian hemp Cannabinaceae Leaf [38] 45. Cannabis sativa Bhang Cannabinaceae Leaf [11 ] 46. Capparis erythrocarpus Isert. Pitipiti Capparidaceae Root [39] 47. Capsicum annuum L. Capsicum Solanaceae Seed [40] 48. Cassia mimosoides L. Patwa ghas Caesalpinaceae Seeds, Root [105] 49. Cassia occidentalis Linn. Kasondhi Fabaceae Leaf [41] 50. Cassia sieberiana DC African laburnum Caesalpiniaceae Leaf [37] 51. Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Vandangul Celastraceae Seeds [105] 52. Chenopodium album L. White goosefoot Chenopodiaceae Seed [42-44] 53. Chlorophytum tuberosum Safed musli Liliaceae Whole plant [45] 54. Chlorophytum arundinaceum Musli Liliaceae Root [105] 55. Cissus quadrangularis Edible stemmed vine Vitaceae Root [12] 56. Cocculus cordifolius Linn Guduchi Menispermaceae Stem, leaf, Root 57. Cocos nucifera Linn. Coconut Arecaceae Endosperm [14,47] 58. Cola acuminate Schott. Cola Malvaceae Seed [48] 59. Cola caricaefolia G.Don Baoguan Leaf Sterculiaceae Leaf [37] 60. Cola gabonensis Schott & Endl. Kola nut Sterculiaceae Fruit [24] 61. Cola nitida Schott & Endl. Kola nut Sterculiaceae Seed [24] 62. Cola pachycarpa Schott & Endl. Kola nut Sterculiaceae Seed [24] 63. Cola rostrata Schott & Endl. Kola nut Sterculiaceae Seed [24] 64. Commiphora caudata Wt. & Emporium of medicinal plants Burseraceae Root, leaf [12] 65. Commiphora mukul Hook. ex Stocks Indian bdellium tree Burseraceae Root, leaf [12] 66. Coriandrum sativum Linn. Coriander Apiaceae Leaf [42] 67. Corynanthe pachycerus Schum. Ivory coast Rubiaceae Stem, Bark [39] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page68. Crocus sativus Linn. Saffaron Iridaceae Stigma [25] 69. Curcuma amada Roxb. Mango ginger Zingiberaceae Rhizome [12-13] 70. Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Tikhur Zingiberaceae Rhizome [105] 71. Curcuma aromatica Roxb. Jangli haldi Zingiberaceae Rhizome [105] 72. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Lemongrass Poaceae Whole plant [12] 73. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo. Marsh Orchid Orchidaceae Root [20,49] 74. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb Shisham Fabaceae Wood [41-42] 75. Daucus carota Carrot Umbelliferae Root [50] 76. Desmodium gangeticum Linn.Desmodium Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) Root [12] 77. Diodia scandens Ivory coast abuse Fabaceae Roots [108] 78. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn Wild Yam Dioscoreaceae Whole plant [41] 79. Diospyros melanoxylon RoxbEast Indian ebony Ebenaceae Flower [12, 41] 80. Dolichos lablab LinnFlat bean, sem Fabaceae Seeds [23] 81. Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Huru. Putjev Euphorbiaceae Leaf juice [41] 82. Durio Zibethinus Durian Fruit Bombacaceae Fresh fruit [25,51] 83. Echinacea purpurea Indian head, comb flower Compositae Leaves [52] 84. Ekerbegia capensis Sparrm. Isongoroit Meliaceae Root [29] 85. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Emblic Euphorbiaceae Fruit [53-54] 86. Eriodendron Anfractuosum White silk cotton tree Bombaceae Whole plant 87. Euadenia eminens Hook.f. Dinsinkro Capparidaceae Root [39] 88. Euphorbia hirta Dudhi Euphorbiaceae Leaves [37] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page89. Eurycoma longifolia Jack Tongkat Ali Simarubaceae Whole plant [55-63] 90. Evolvulus alsinoides L. Shankhahuli Convolvulacae Whole plant [23] 91. Fadogia agrestis Schweinf.Ex Heim Black aphrodisiac Rubiaceae Stem [64-65] 92. Ferula hermonis Shilsh-el-zallouh Umbelliferae Root [66] 93. Ficus arnottiana Paras Pipal Moraceae Bark [67] 94. Ficus racemosa L. Gular Moraceae Fruit [11] 95. Ficus religiosa Linn. Peepal tree Moraceae Bark [12] 96. Ficus retusa Chilkan Moraceae Latex [68] 97. Ficus bengalensis L. Bor Moraceae Latex [17] 98. Flueggea virosa Roxb. ex Willd. White-berry bush Euphorbiaceae Whole Plant [48] 99. Garcinia afzelii Engl Bitter kola Guttiferae Bark [37] 100. Garcinia kola Heckel Bitter kola Guttiferae Bark [37] 101. Gmelina arborea Roxb Coomb teak Verbenaceae Fruit [12] 102. Gossypium arboreum Kapas Malvaceae Bark, seeds, leaves, root 103. Grewia asiatica L. Phalsa Tiliaceae Fruit [42] 104. Harissonia abyssinica Oliv Zigua Simaroubaceae Bark [37] 105. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis China rose Malvaceae Leaf [12] 106. Hibiscus lobatus Jungli Bhindi Malvaceae Whole Plant [105] 107. Hibiscus sabdariffa Roselle Malvaceae Seed, leaf [12] 108. Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. Holostemma Asclepiadaceae Root [12] 109. Hygrophila auriculata SchumKatathua Acanthaceae Seeds [105] 110. Hygrophila schulli (Ham.) Marsh Barbel Acanthaceae Root, leaf, seed [12] 111. Ipomoea mauritiana Giant potato Convolvulaceae Root [12] 112. Jatropha curcas Bakarandah Euphorbiaceae Seeds [105] 113. Kaempferia parviflora Krachaidam Zingiberaceae Rhizomes [69] 114. Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Bottle gourd Cucurbitaceae Fruit [12] 115. Landolphia dulcis Hama-fufu Apocynaceae Root, Bark [39] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page116. Linum usitatissimum Alsi Linaceae Seed [11] 117. Litsea chinensis Medh Lauraceae Bark [108] 118. Lycium barbarum Goji berry Solanaceae Polysaccharides [108] 119. Mallotus philippensis LamRohini Euphorbiaceae Glandular hair on frutome [105] 120. Lepidium meyenii Walp. Maca Brassicaceae Root [70-71] 121. Mangifera indica L. Mango Anacardiaceae Bark [12] 122. Maranta arundinacea Linn. Arrowroot Zingiberaceae Rhizome [12] 123. Massularia acuminata Chewing stick Rubiaceae Stem [72] 124. Mezoneuron benthamianum Senegal Caesalpiniaceae Twig or Stem [37] 125. Microdesmis keayana Senegal Pandaceae Roots [107] 126. Mimosa pudica L. Thottasiniki Mimosoideae Aerial part [73] 127. Mirabilis jalapa Four o’ clock plant Nyctaginaceae Root [54] 128. Momordica charantia Descourt Bitter Melon Cucurbitaceae Leaf [74] 129. Mondia whitei White's ginger Periplocaceae Root [75] 130. Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. Zoapatle Whole plant [76] 131. Morinda lucida Brimstonetree RubiacaeaeLeaves [77] 132. Mucuna pruriens Linn. DC. Poonai kali Fabaceae Seed [41] 133. Murdannia edulis StokesSiyamusli Commelinaceae Dried root [105] 134. Myristica fragrans Houtt Nutmeg Myristicaceae Seed [12, 25] 135. Nerium indicum Kaner/Kanail Apocynaceae Roots [41] 136. Ocimum gratissimum Vana Tulsi Labiatae Leaves [12] 137. Orchis latifolia Linn. Munjaataka Orchidaceae Roots [78] 138. Oxyantllus unilocularis Hiern Ghana akan Rubiaceae Fruit, leaf [37] 139. Palisota hirusta K. Schum. Ghana Commelinaceae Leaf [79] 140. Panax ginseng Ginseng Araliaceae Root [80] 141. Passiflora incarnate Wild Passion Flower Passifloraceae Leaf [81] 142. Papaver somniferum L. Poppy plant Papaveraceae Flower [12] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page143. Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.Schum.) Pierre Yohimbin Rubiaceae Bark [82] 144. Pfaffia paniculata Suma Papilionaceae Root [83] 145. Pedalium murex Burra Gokhru Pedaliaceae Whole plant [84] 146. Phyllanthus emblica Aonla Euphorbiaceae Fruit [105] 147. Piper guineense Schumach. West African Pepper Piperaceae Root [39] 148. Piper officinarum DC Chavica officinarum Piperaceae Fruit [12] 149. Piper betle Linn. Vettrilai Piperaceae Leaf [73] 150. Polyalthia suaveolens Engl. Polyalthia Annonaceae Fruit, root, leaf [85] 151. Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) AllSolomon's Seal Liliaceae Root [20] 152. Prunus amygdalus batsch Badama Rosaceae Kernel [23] 153. Psoralea corylifolia Linn.Bavaci Fabaceae Fruit [23] 154. Ptychopetalum olacoides Potency wood Olacaceae Bark & Root [106] 155. Punica granatum Anar Punicaceae Fruit [11] 156. Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. poison devil's pepper Apocynaceae Root [86-87] 157. Rhododendron anthopogon DonBallu Ericaceae Leaf, flower [20] 158. Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex D. DonSnow Rose Ericaceae Leaf, flower 159. Ricinus communis L. Castor Euphorbiaceae Seed [12] 160. Rosa damascene Mill Rose Rosaceae Petal [88] 161. Saccharum spontaneum Linn.Kasa Poaceae Root stock [14,28] 162. Santalum album Linn. Sandal wood Santalaceae Heart wood [88] 163. Scindapsus officinalis Schott. Gajapipali Arecaceae Fruit [14, 28] 164. Securidaca longepedunculata Slash Violet tree Polygalaceae Root bark [25] 165. Sesamum indicum Linn Tilli / Til Pedaliaceae Seds [41] 166. Shorea robusta geartn Sal, Kabba Dipterocarpaceae Bark, leaves, fruit [23] 167. Sida cordifolia Linn Countary-mallow Malvaceae Root, seed [12] 168. Sida acuta Burn.FBala Malvaceae Whole plant [11] 169. Sida rhombifolia Bagauli Malvaceae Root [11] 170. Solanum americanum Makoi Solanaceae Whole plant [105] 171. Solanum indicum Linn Indian night Shade Solanaceae Root [12] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page172. Solanum melongena Linn Brinjal Solanaceae Unripe fruit [12] 173. Solanum nigrum Linn. Aguaragua Solanaceae Berries [12] 174. Sphaeranthus africanus Botobotonisan Asteraceae Whole plant [12] 175. Sphaeranthus indicus LinnMundi Asteraceae Seeds [11] 176. Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Strychnine tree Loganiaceae Seed [89] 177. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & PerryClove Myrtaceae Dried flower bud [90-91] 178. Tabernanthe iboga (L.) Nutt. Iboga Apocynaceae Root, bark, stem [24, 92] 179. Tabernanthe manii Baill. Tabernanthe Apocynaceae Root [24,92] 180. Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind Fabaceae Bark [93] 181. Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst Athel tamarisk Tamaricaceae Bark [42] 182. Taxus baccata Linn. Birmi Taxaceae Leaf [12,14] 183. Terminalia arjuna Roxb. Arjuna Combretaceae Bark [12] 184. Tinospora cordifolia Miers Hk. Tinospora Menispermaceae Whole plant [12-13] 185. Tribulus terrestris L. Puncturevine Zygophyllaceae Fruit, seed [94-97] 186. Tricholepis glaberrima Compositae Aerial parts [108] 187. Trichosanthes dioica L. Methi Fabaceae Seed [12] 188. Trichopus zeylanicus Senna Trichopodaceae Leaves [98] 189. Turraea heterophylla Ahunanyakwa Meliaceae Root, bark, Seed [39] 190. AphrodisiacaDamiana Turneraceae Areal part [99] 191. Turnera diffusa Mexican damiana Turneraceae Leaf [108] 192. Tynanthus panurensis (Bur.) Sandw. Clavo huasca Bignoniaceae Bark, wood [100-101] 193. Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. Rasna Orchidaceae Flower, Root [102-103] 194. Valeriana jatamansi Wall Jatamansi Valerianaceae Root [104] 195. Vanda tessellata Orchidaceae Flower [108] 196. Withania somnifera Linn. Ashwagandha Solanaceae Leaf, Root [12,41,42] 197. Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) Ivory tree Apocynaceae Seed, Leaf, bark [12] 198. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Gingembre Zingeberaceae Rhizome [48] Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012                                                 www.phytojournal.com                                                 Page2. Conclusion: Most of the natural plants in this review are those with aphrodisiac potentials. In this review some medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic formulations as aphrodisiac potentials to enhance performance as well as to increase vigor and vitality. Herbals drugs have a potential to treat the various types of body ailments. The demand of herbal drugs is increasing day by day in developed as well as developing countries because they are safer and well tolerated as compared to those of allopathic drugs. The information is recorded in plant’s scientific name, common name of plant, family, part used for the aphrodisiac activity & reference. Scientists from divergent fields are investigating new plants with an eye to their aphrodisiac usefulness. Further investigation on the plants can increase the isolation of the newer molecules which will be helpful for the treatment of Sexual dysfunction. These plants should be subjected to animal and human studies to determine their effectiveness. 4. Acknowledgments Authors wish to express humble and sincere thanks to Honrable Director, Dr. Gourav Gupta, Himachal institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib (H.P) for his intense support and providing necessary facilities to prepare this review. 5. 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