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Dialectology. Dialectometry. Festival for . Martijn. . Wieling. . 29 June 2012 . Rijksuniversiteit. Groningen . J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto. Liberating. ID: 508094

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Slide1

Liberating

Dialectology

Dialectometry Festival for Martijn Wieling 29 June 2012 Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Slide2

Liberating

Dialectology

Dialectometry Festival for Martijn Wieling 29 June 2012 Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Slide3

Liberating

Dialectology

Dialectometry Festival for Martijn Wieling 29 June 2012 Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Louis

Gauchat

(1866-1942)

Slide4

Liberating

Dialectology

Dialectometry Festival for Martijn Wieling 29 June 2012 Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Louis

Gauchat

(1866-1942)

Takesi

Sibata

(1918-2007)

Slide5

Liberating

Dialectology

Dialectometry Festival for Martijn Wieling 29 June 2012 Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

J.K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Louis

Gauchat

(1866-1942)

Takesi

Sibata (1918-2007)

Jan

Czekanow

ski

(1882-1965)

Slide6

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Slide7

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Dialectology is quantitative

variationist

and social

Slide8

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

Dialectometry applies sophisticated statistical methods to huge corpora

Slide9

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

Dialectometry applies sophisticated statistical methods to huge corpora

relatively undeveloped at evaluating variable strength and social significance

Slide10

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

Dialectometry applies sophisticated statistical methods to huge corpora

relatively undeveloped at evaluating variable strength and social significance

Martijn’s theme— we need a better balance

Slide11

Recognizing that dialectology can be dialectometry

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

we take it for granted that

Slide12

Recognizing that dialectology can be dialectometry

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

we take it for granted that

for more than a century

qualitativeinvariantregional

Slide13

Recognizing that dialectology can be dialectometry

Dialectology is quantitative variationist and social

we take it for granted that

for more than a century

qualitativeinvariantregional

A few visionaries saw through the

structuralist

rigidity

• their achievements usually had little or no immediate impact

• looking back reveals something about the core values of our discipline

Slide14

Jan Czekanowski (1882-1965), Polish anthropologist

cosmopolitan: studied in Warsaw, Zurich (D.Sc.1906); worked in Museum of

Ethology

, Berlin, curator in Ethnology Museum, St. Petersburg; professor of anthropology University of

L’vov

1913-41(Poland till 1939,

then Ukraine

), and Poznan 1946 (at 64).

Slide15

Jan Czekanowski (1882-1965), Polish anthropologist

cosmopolitan: studied in Warsaw, Zurich (D.Sc.1906); worked in Museum of

Ethology

, Berlin, curator in Ethnology Museum, St. Petersburg; professor of anthropology University of L’vov 1913-41(Poland till 1939, then Ukraine), and Poznan 1946 (at 64).

1942 he convinced German “race scientists” that Karaim, a Polish-Lithuanian ethnic group, were Turkic although they practised Judaisim and used Hebrew as liturgical language (according Great Soviet Encyclopedia www.allvoices.com )

Slide16

Jan Czekanowski (1882-1965), Polish anthropologist

cosmopolitan: studied in Warsaw, Zurich (D.Sc.1906); worked in Museum of

Ethology

, Berlin, curator in Ethnology Museum, St. Petersburg; professor of anthropology University of L’vov 1913-41(Poland till 1939, then Ukraine), and Poznan 1946 (at 64).

1942 he convinced German “race scientists” that Karaim, a Polish-Lithuanian ethnic group, were Turkic although they practised Judaisim and used Hebrew as liturgical language (according Great Soviet Encyclopedia www.allvoices.com )

1920s compared cultural relatedness by counting shared cultural features 1927 compared Polish dialects based on shared morphology features 1928 compared Indo-European dialects using same methods 1929 compared Slavic dialects by this method

Slide17

Czekanowski’s method

• compile list of linguistic features

• calculate correlation coefficients for each pair of dialects using formula known as Q6—

number of features present in both

number of features absent in both

the number present in the first but absent in the second

the number absent in the first but present in the second

Slide18

Czekanowski’s method

• compile list of linguistic features

• calculate correlation coefficients for each pair of dialects using formula known as Q6—

number of features present in bothnumber of features absent in both the number present in the first but absent in the secondthe number absent in the first but present in the second

Czekanowski

, Jan (1931) Róznicowanie sie Dialectów Prastowinskich w Swietle Kryterjum Ilociowego [Differentiation of Ancient Slavic Dialects….] Prague: First Congress… 1928

pairwise

comparisons— multivariate statistics in future

Slide19

Czekanowski’s ‘map’

• dialects are arranged in sequence of their values

• each one correlates perfectly with itself

Czekanowski

, Jan (1931) Róznicowanie sie Dialectów Prastowinskich w Swietle Kryterjum Ilociowego [Differentiation of Ancient Slavic Dialects….] Prague: First Congress… 1928

Slide20

Czekanowski’s ‘map’

• dialects are arranged in sequence of their values

• each one correlates perfectly with itself

Czekanowski

, Jan (1931)

Róznicowanie sie Dialectów Prastowinskich w Swietle Kryterjum Ilociowego [Differentiation of Ancient Slavic Dialects….] Prague: First Congress… 1928

• coefficients are subdivided and each range represented by a symbol

• Czech and Slovak correlate < .80

Slide21

Czekanowski’s ‘map’

• dialects are arranged in sequence of their values

• each one correlates perfectly with itself

Czekanowski

, Jan (1931)

Róznicowanie sie Dialectów Prastowinskich w Swietle Kryterjum Ilociowego [Differentiation of Ancient Slavic Dialects….] Prague: First Congress… 1928

• coefficients are subdivided and each range represented by a symbol

• Czech and Slovak correlate < .80

Górnoluzhitsky

correlates

w

Czech < .80 and with Slovak .80 - .60

Slide22

Czekanowski’s ‘map’

• ‘map’ only in most abstract sense

• no attempt at geographic representation of correlates

Kroeber, A.L., and C.D. Chrétien (1937) “Quantitative classification of Indo-European languages.”

Language

13: 83-103.

• but effective as cartogram

Kroeber and Chrétien (1937: 84): “If the symbol values are chosen judiciously, the diagram becomes an exceedingly effective and rapidly grasped representation of the stronger relationships, wherein

the salient features of the classification force themselves upon the eye and the mind

through the automatic clustering of symbols.”

Slide23

Applying Czekanowski’s method—30 years too soon

Alva Davis & Raven McDavid: “[in transition areas] …one is at a loss to give convincing reasons for the restriction of some items and the spreading of others”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

traditionalists

Slide24

Applying Czekanowski’s method—30 years too soon

Alva Davis & Raven McDavid: “[in transition areas] …one is at a loss to give convincing reasons for the restriction of some items and the spreading of others”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

traditionalists

David Reed & John Spicer: “the speech patterns of transition areas grow much clearer when viewed as quantitative rather than qualitative phenomena.”

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer. 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

innovators

Slide25

Case study— “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

Alva Davis and Raven

McDavid

fieldworkers for the Linguistic Atlas of the US and Canada

Slide26

Case study— “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

Alva Davis and Raven

McDavid fieldworkers for the Linguistic Atlas of the US and Canada

first survey regions (ca. 1930-43) on Atlantic seaboard

Slide27

Case study— “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

Alva Davis and Raven

McDavid fieldworkers for the Linguistic Atlas of the US and Canada

first survey regions (ca. 1930-43) on Atlantic seaboard

as it moved into more recently settled inland states, dialect patterns became less coherent

Slide28

Case study— “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

Davis and

McDavid

fascinated by small area in Ohio because “competing forms exist in it side by side.”

Slide29

“Competing forms… side by side”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I.

McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

5 towns, 2 subjects in each

• one NORM

(P1, D1, O1, V1, US1)

• one

man more educated, socially active— all aged 73-94

Slide30

“Competing forms… side by side”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I.

McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

5 towns, 2 subjects in each

competing forms usually Northern (N) vs. Midland (M) variants

lexical

pronunciation

morphological

• one NORM

(P1, D1, O1, V1, US1)

• one

man more educated, socially active— all aged 73-94

Slide31

“Competing forms… side by side”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

finding a pattern is difficult

even for subset of variants— all neighbours disagree sometimes

Slide32

“Competing forms… side by side”

Davis, Alva, and Raven I. McDavid. 1950. “Northwestern Ohio: a transition area.” Language 26: 186-89

finding a pattern is difficult even for subset of variants— all

neighbours disagree sometimes

D &

McD

: “…one is at a loss to give convincing reasons for the restriction of some items and the spreading of others”

“This sampling… [illustrates] the problems of dialect formation in this country, where speech mixture must have been the rule from the earliest colonial times.”

Slide33

D & McD: “…one is at a loss to give convincing reasons for the restriction of some items and the spreading of others”

Taking up the challenge

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.”

Language 28: 348-59.

reply in Language two years later—David Reed and John Spicer: “the speech patterns of transition areas grow much clearer when viewed as quantitative rather than qualitative phenomena.”

Reed and Spicer were fieldworkers for LAUSC in California, even more recently settled than Ohio

Slide34

D & McD: “…one is at a loss to give convincing reasons for the restriction of some items and the spreading of others”

Taking up the challenge

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.”

Language 28: 348-59.

reply in Language two years later—David Reed and John Spicer: “the speech patterns of transition areas grow much clearer when viewed as quantitative rather than qualitative phenomena.”

Reed and Spicer were fieldworkers for LAUSC in California, even more recently settled than Ohio

for Reed and Spicer, heterogeneity seemed normal, as it does to us today

viewing it as

quantitative

was decades ahead of its time— and their

mapping technique probably

did not help their cause

Slide35

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

R & S applied

Czekanowski’s

method

• for each pair of speakers, determine presence or absence of each variant

• derive correlation coefficients by the Q6 formula

Slide36

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

R & S applied Czekanowski’s method• for each pair of speakers, determine presence or absence of each variant• derive correlation coefficients by the Q6 formula• map the results using isogrades (after Wilhelm Milke 1935)

Slide37

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

• 5 sub-maps, one for each town as reference point (technically require 10)• each town correlates perfectly with itself (1.0)

Slide38

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

• 5 sub-maps, one for each town as reference point (technically require 10)• each town correlates perfectly with itself (1.0)

• rough (imperfect) correlation— the closer the town, the higher the coefficient

Slide39

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

• 5 sub-maps, one for each town as reference point (technically require 10)• each town correlates perfectly with itself (1.0)

• rough (imperfect) correlation— the closer the town, the higher the coefficient

• more accurate— the two southern towns are most similar to one another, and the northern one is most different from the others

Slide40

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

• 5 sub-maps, one for each town as reference point (technically require 10)• each town correlates perfectly with itself (1.0)

• rough (imperfect) correlation— the closer the town, the higher the coefficient

• more accurate— the two southern towns are most similar to one another, and the northern one is most different from the others

• mapping schema is very complicated and unrevealing

• variable pattern must be inferred from 5-way relationships

• inferences far too complex and subtle to be readily conceptualized

Slide41

Reed, David W., and John L. Spicer 1952 “Correlation methods of comparing dialects in a transition area.” Language 28: 348-59.

Quantifying the Ohio data with Q6

• 5 sub-maps, one for each town as reference point (technically require 10)• each town correlates perfectly with itself (1.0)

• rough (imperfect) correlation— the closer the town, the higher the coefficient

• more accurate— the two southern towns are most similar to one another, and the northern one is most different from the others

• mapping schema is very complicated and unrevealing

variable pattern must

be inferred from 5-way relationships

• inferences far too complex and subtle to be readily conceptualized

definitely fails Kroeber’s test— the schema is not a “rapidly grasped representation of the stronger relationships”

the “salient features” do not “force themselves upon the eye and the mind”

Slide42

Were Reed & Spicer ahead of their time?

• their reanalysis had no impact on the field— American dialectology remained qualitative, etc.

• Reed and Spicer apparently gave up dialect studies soon after— the California survey of LAUSC has never been completed

Slide43

Were Reed & Spicer ahead of their time?

• bivariate statistics, a breakthrough at the time, now looks primitive

• retaining geographical mapping obscures rather than reveals

• their reanalysis had no impact on the field— American dialectology remained qualitative, etc.

• Reed and Spicer apparently gave up dialect studies soon after— the California survey of LAUSC has never been completed

Slide44

Were Reed & Spicer ahead of their time?

• bivariate statistics, a breakthrough at the time, now looks primitive

• retaining geographical mapping obscures rather than reveals

• their reanalysis had no impact on the field— American dialectology remained qualitative, etc.

• Reed and Spicer apparently gave up dialect studies soon after— the California survey of LAUSC has never been completed

50 years later, reanalysis with multivariate statistics (correspondence analysis)

Chambers, J.K. and Peter Trudgill 1998 Dialectology. Cambridge University Press. 144-48.

Slide45

Were Reed & Spicer ahead of their time?

• bivariate statistics, a breakthrough at the time, now looks primitive

• retaining geographical mapping obscures rather than reveals

• their reanalysis had no impact on the field— American dialectology remained qualitative, etc.

• Reed and Spicer apparently gave up dialect studies soon after— the California survey of LAUSC has never been completed

50 years later, reanalysis with multivariate statistics (correspondence analysis)

Chambers, J.K. and Peter Trudgill 1998 Dialectology. Cambridge University Press. 144-48.

essentially Northern

essentially Midland

mixed

Slide46

Geographical correlates?

veals

statistical program encoded NO geographic information.

Chambers, J.K. and Peter Trudgill 1998 Dialectology. Cambridge University Press. 144-48.

essentially Northern

essentially Midland

mixed

Slide47

Geographical correlates?

veals

statistical program encoded NO geographic information.

Chambers, J.K. and Peter Trudgill 1998 Dialectology. Cambridge University Press. 144-48.

essentially Northern

essentially Midland

mixed

Why does geographic distance match statistical distance?

Because people who live close together tend to speak more like one another than people who live further away

no matter how you measure it

Slide48

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

s

uccinct statement of the main thrust of dialect studies in the 21

st

century

Slide49

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Martijn’s

thesis shows that we have come a long way in a fairly short time

succinct statement of the main thrust of dialect studies in the 21

st

century

Slide50

Martijn

Wieling’s theme in his thesis—

“Increasing the dialectology in dialectometry”

Martijn’s

thesis shows that we have come a long way in a fairly short time

His theme reminds us that we still have a long way to go

Slide51

for further information, check our website

www.chass.utoronto.ca

/~chambers

Slide52

Slide53


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