Network Guide to Networks

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Network Guide to Networks




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Presentations text content in Network Guide to Networks

Slide1

Network+ Guide to Networks7th Edition

Chapter 5 Network Cabling

© 2016 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Slide2

ObjectivesExplain basic data transmission concepts, including signaling, data modulation, multiplexing, bandwidth, baseband, and broadband

Describe the physical characteristics and Ethernet standards of coaxial cable, STP, UTP, and fiber-optic mediaCompare the benefits and limitations of different networking media

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Network+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition

Slide3

ObjectivesExplore the connectors, converters, and couplers for each cabling typeExamine common cable problems and differentiate between various tools for troubleshooting those problems

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Transmission BasicsTransmission techniques in use on today’s network are complex and variedThis section covers fundamental characteristics that define today’s data transmission

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Slide5

Analog SignalingAnalog signals - vary infinitely and continuously

Appear as a wavy line when graphed over timeAnalog signals are characterized by four properties:AmplitudeMeasure of strength at given point in timeFrequencyNumber of times amplitude cycles over fixed timeWavelength

Distance between one peak and the next

Phase

Progress of wave over time compared to a fixed point

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Analog SignalingNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Analog SignalingNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

Edition7Drawback of analog signals

Varied and imprecise voltage

Susceptible to transmission flaws

Slide8

Digital SignalingDigital signalsPulses of voltages

Positive voltage represents a 1Zero voltage represents a 0Network+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition

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Slide9

Digital SignalingNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide10

Data ModulationData relies on digital transmissionNetwork connection may handle only analog signals

ModemAccomplishes this translationModulator/demodulatorData modulationTechnology modifying analog signals into digital signals and vice versa

Make

analog signals suitable

for carrying

data over a communication pathNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition10

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Data ModulationCarrier waveCombined with another analog signal

Produces unique signalTransmitted from one node to anotherPreset propertiesPurpose: convey informationInformation wave (data wave)Added to carrier wave

Modifies one carrier wave property

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Data ModulationFrequency modulationCarrier frequency modified by application of data signal

Amplitude modulationCarrier signal amplitude modified by application of data signalDigital subscriber line (DSL)Also makes use of modulation

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Data ModulationNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide14

Baseband and BroadbandBaseband transmission

Digital signals that are carried on a single channelRequires exclusive use of wire’s capacityExample: EthernetBroadband transmission

Multiple transmissions share a single media

Transmission sharing the same media rely on multiplexing to manage multiple signals

Example: Cable TV and cable Internet

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MultiplexingMultiplexing

A form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one mediumSubchannelsLogical multiple smaller channelsMultiplexer (mux)Combines many channel

signals

Required at the transmitting end of the channel

Demultiplexer (demux)

Separates the combined signalsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition15

Slide16

MultiplexingTDM (Time division multiplexing

)Divides channel into multiple time intervalsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7

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MultiplexingStatistical multiplexingTransmitter assigns slots to nodes

According to priority, needMore efficient than TDMNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7

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Slide18

MultiplexingFDM (Frequency

Division Multiplexing)Unique frequency band for each communications subchannelCellular telephone transmissionDSL Internet access

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MultiplexingWDM (Wavelength

Division Multiplexing)One fiber-optic connectionCarries multiple light signals simultaneouslyNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide20

MultiplexingDWDM (Dense

Wavelength Division Multiplexing)Used on most modern fiber-optic networksExtraordinary capacityTypically used on high-bandwidth or long-distance WAN linksCWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing)

Developed after DWDM in an effort to lower the cost of the transceiver equipment needed

Channels are spaced more widely apart across entire frequency band

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Throughput and BandwidthThroughput Amount of data transmitted during given time period

Also called payload rate or effective data rateExpressed as bits transmitted per secondBandwidth (strict definition)Difference between highest and lowest frequencies medium can transmitRange of frequencies

Both are commonly expressed as bits transmitted per second, called bit rate

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Throughput and BandwidthNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide23

Twisted-Pair CableColor-coded insulated copper wire pairs0.4 to 0.8 mm diameter

Encased in a plastic sheathEvery two wires are twisted together

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Slide24

Twisted-Pair CableMore wire pair twists per footMore resistance to cross talk

Higher-qualityMore expensiveTwist ratioTwists per meter or footHigh twist ratioGreater attenuation

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Slide25

Twisted-Pair CableHundreds of different designsTwist ratio, number of wire pairs, copper grade, shielding type, shielding materials

1 to 4200 wire pairs possibleWiring standard specificationTIA/EIA 568Most common twisted pair typesCategory (cat) 3, 5, 5e, 6, 6a, 7CAT

5e

or higher used in modern LANs

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Slide26

Twisted-Pair CableAdvantagesRelatively inexpensive

FlexibleEasy installationSpans significant distance before requiring repeaterAccommodates several different topologiesTwo categoriesShielded twisted pair (STP)

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

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STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)Individually insulatedSurrounded by metallic substance shielding (foil)

Barrier to external electromagnetic forcesContains electrical energy of signals insideMay be groundedNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7

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Slide28

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)One or more insulated wire pairsEncased in plastic sheath

No additional shieldingLess expensive, less noise resistanceNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide29

Comparing STP and UTPThroughputSTP and UTP can transmit the same ratesCost

STP and UTP vary in costConnectorSTP and UTP use Registered Jack 45Noise immunitySTP more noise resistantSize and scalabilityMaximum segment length for both: 100 meters

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Slide30

Ethernet Standards for Twisted-Pair CablingNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide31

Cable PinoutsProper cable termination is a requirement for two nodes on a network to communicateTIA/EIA specifies two methods of inserting wires into RJ-45 plugs

TIA/EIA 568ATIA/EIA 568BNo functional difference between the two standardsJust make sure you use the same standard on every RJ-45 plug and jack

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Slide32

Cable PinoutsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide33

Cable PinoutsStraight-through cableTerminate RJ-45 plugs at both ends identically

Crossover cableTransmit and receive wires on one end reversedRollover cableAll wires are reversedTerminations are a mirror image of each otherAlso called Yost cables or Cisco console cablesUsed to connect a computer to the console port of a router

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Slide34

Copper Connectors and CouplersMedia converter Enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals

Coupler Passes data through a homogenous connection without any modification

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Slide35

PoE (Power over Ethernet)PoE - IEEE 802.3af standard which specifies a method for supplying electrical power over twisted-pair Ethernet connections

Amount of power provided:15.4 watts for standard PoE devices25.5 watts for newer PoE+ devices (802.3at standard)PoE standard specifies two types of devices:PSE (power sourcing equipment)PD (powered devices)

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Slide36

PoE (Power over Ethernet)The IEEE standard requires that a PSE device first determine whether a node is PoE-capable before attempting to supply it with power

On networks that demand PoE but don’t have PoE-capable equipment, you can add PoE adaptersNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition

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Slide37

Fiber-Optic CableFiber-optic cable (fiber)

One or more glass or plastic fibers at its center (core)Data transmissionPulsing light sent from laser or light-emitting diode (LED) through central fibersCladdingLayer of glass or plastic surrounding fibers

Different density from glass or plastic in strands

Reflects light back to core

Allows fiber to bend

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Slide38

Fiber-Optic CablePlastic buffer outside claddingProtects cladding and core

Opaque to absorb escaping lightSurrounded by Kevlar (polymeric fiber) strandsPlastic sheath covers Kevlar strandsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7

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Slide39

Fiber-Optic CableBenefits over copper cablingExtremely high throughputVery high noise resistance

Excellent securityAble to carry signals for longer distancesIndustry standard for high-speed networkingDrawbacksMore expensive than twisted pair cableRequires special equipment to splice

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Slide40

Fiber-Optic CableThroughputProven reliable in transmitting data at rates that can reach 100 gigabits per second per channel

CostMost expensive transmission mediumNoise immunityUnaffected by EMISize and scalabilitySegment lengths vary from 150 to 40,000 metersDepends on the light’s wavelength and type of cable

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Slide41

SMF (Single Mode Fiber)Consists of narrow core (8-10 microns in diameter)Laser-generated light travels over one path

Little reflectionLight does not disperse as signal travelsCan carry signals many miles:Before repeating is requiredRarely used for shorter connections

Due to cost

The Internet backbone depends on SMF

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Slide42

MMF (Multimode Fiber)Contains a core with a

larger diameter than single mode fiberCommon sizes: 50 or 62.5 micronsLaser or LED generated light pulses travel at different anglesGreater attenuation than single-mode fiberCommon usesCables connecting router to a switch

Cables connecting server on network backbone

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Slide43

Fiber Connectors and CouplersMMF connectorsClassified by the number of fibers

SMF connectorsClassified by size and shape of the ferruleFerrule - the extended tip of a connector that makes contact with the receptacle in the jackNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7

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Slide44

Fiber Connectors and CouplersShapes and polishes used by SMF ferrules to reduce back reflection:

Physical Contact (PC)Ultra Polished Connector (UPC)Angle Polished Connector (APC)Network+ Guide to Networks, 7

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Slide45

Fiber Connectors and CouplersSMF connectors are typically available with a 1.25-mm ferrule or a 2.5-mm ferruleMost common 1.25-mm connector is the LC

Three 2.5-mm connectors are the SC, ST, and FCMost common MMF connector is the MT-RJExisting fiber networks might use ST or SC connectorsLC and MT-RJ are used on the very latest fiber-optic technology

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Slide46

Fiber-Optic Converters and Modular InterfacesConverters are required to connect multimode fiber networks to single-mode fiber networks

Also fiber- and copper-based parts of a networkBidirectional converter accepts the signal from one part of the network, then regenerates the signal and sends it to the next part of the networkGBIC - a standard type of modular interface designed for Gigabit Ethernet connectionsMay contain RJ-45 or fiber-optic cable ports

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Fiber-Optic Converters and Modular InterfacesSFP (small form-factor pluggable) transceiversProvide the same function as a GBIC, but allow more ports per inch

Sometimes known as mini GBICs or SFP GBICsTwo types: XFP and SFP+Network+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide48

Fiber-Optic Converters and Modular InterfacesInstalling a GBIC or SFP Slide the transceiver into a socket on the back of the connectivity device

Most SFPs come with a tab or latch system and keyed so that they will slide into the socket when aligned properlyNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition

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Slide49

Fiber-Optic Converters and Modular InterfacesLoopback adapterA helpful tool when testing an SFP’s functionality or checking for a mismatch

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Slide50

Ethernet Standards for Fiber-Optic CableNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide51

Transmission FlawsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Any undesirable influence degrading or distorting signal

Types of noise

EMI (electromagnetic interference)

Example: radio frequency interferenceCross-talkSignal on one wire infringes on adjacent wire signalAlien cross-talk occurs between two cablesNear end cross-talk (NEXT) occurs near sourceFar end cross-talk (FEXT) occurs at the far end

Slide52

Transmission FlawsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide53

Transmission FlawsAttenuation

Loss of signal’s strength as it travels away from sourceTwo ways analog and digital signals are boosted:Amplifier - increases the voltage, or strength, of signalsCan also boot the noise that has accumulated in the signal

Repeater - regenerates a digital signal in its original form

Without noise previously accumulated

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Slide54

Transmission FlawsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide55

Transmission FlawsLatencyDelay between signal transmission and receiptMay cause network transmission errors

Latency causesCable lengthIntervening connectivity deviceRound trip time (RTT)Time for packet to go from sender to receiver, then back from receiver to sender

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Slide56

Transmission FlawsCommon Fiber Cable Problems:Fiber type mismatch

More of a fiber core mismatchEven same-mode cables can be mismatched if the cores have different widthsWavelength mismatchSMF, MMF, and POF (Plastic Optical Fiber) use different wavelengthsDirty connectors Signal loss and other errors can start to cause problems

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Slide57

Troubleshooting ToolsTone generator (toner)Small electronic device

Issues signal on wire pairTone locator (probe)Emits tone when electrical activity detectedProbe kit or toner probeGenerator and locator combinationTesting requires trial and error

Used to determine where

wired

pair terminates

Not used to determine cable characteristicsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th Edition57

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Troubleshooting ToolsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Slide59

Troubleshooting ToolsMultimeterMeasures electric circuit characteristics

Resistance, voltage, and impedanceUse a multimeter to do the following:Measure voltage to verify cable is conducting electricityCheck for the presence of noiseVerify the amount of resistance is appropriateTest for short or open circuits in the wire

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Slide60

Troubleshooting ToolsCable continuity testers (cable testers)

Tests whether cable carries signal to destinationCopper-based cable testerConsists of two partsBase unit generates voltageRemote unit detects voltageSeries of lights, audible tone

Used to signal

pass/fail

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Slide61

Troubleshooting ToolsSome continuity testers verify UTP, STP wires paired correctlyNot shorted, exposed, crossed

Fiber optic continuity testerIssues light pulses on fiberDetermines whether pulses reach other endTest all cables to ensure meeting network’s required standardsHomemade or purchasedOffer convenience: portable, lightweight, low cost

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Troubleshooting ToolsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Troubleshooting ToolsCable performance tester, line tester, or certifierPerforms similarly to continuity testers but can be used to:

Measure distance to a connectivity device, termination point, or cable faultMeasure attenuationMeasure near end cross-talkMeasure termination resistance and impedanceIssue pass/fail ratings for Cat 3-7 standardsStore and print results or save to a computer database

Graphically depict attenuation and cross-talk

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Troubleshooting ToolsTDR (time domain reflectometer)Issue

signal, measures signal bounce backIndicates distance between nodesIndicates whether terminators properly installed, functionalOTDRs (optical time domain reflectometers)Measure fiber lengthDetermine faulty splice locations, breaks, connectors,

bends and measure

attenuation over cable

Expensive

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Troubleshooting ToolsNetwork+ Guide to Networks, 7th

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Troubleshooting ToolsOPM (Optical Power Meter)Also called a laser power meter or a light meter

Measures the amount of light power transmitted on a fiber-optic lineMust be calibrated precisely following highly accurate optical power standardsSurrounding room temperature, connection type, and the skill of the technician all affect the final test results

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Summary

Computers generate and interpret data signals as electrical current where voltage is finitely measured as on or off and interpreted as binary data

A channel is a distinct communication path between nodes and may be separated logically or physically

A baseband transmission is the only transmission on the media, in broadband, multiple transmissions share a single media

Broadband transmission require multiplexing

Throughput is the measure of how much data is transmitted during a given time period

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Summary

Coaxial cable was the foundation for Ethernet networks in the 1980s

Twisted-pair cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires that are twisted in pairs

STP cable consists of twisted-pair wires that are not only individually insulated, but also surrounded by a shielding made of a metallic substance

UTP does not contain additional shielding

TIA/EIA has specified two different methods of inserting wires into RJ-45 plugs: 568A and 568B

Slide69

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Summary

A rollover cable uses a reverse image of the pinout of the other end of a cable

Fiber-optic cable contains one or more several glass or plastic fibers at it core

SMF accommodates the highest bandwidths and longest distances of all network transmission media

MMF contains a core with a larger diameter

Fiber-optic cabling is the best medium for delivering high throughput

A common source of noise is EMI

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Summary

Cross-talk occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling on an adjacent wire or cable

Attenuation is the loss of a signal’s strength

Latency is the delay between the instant data leaves the source and when it arrives at its destination

A multimeter is a simple instrument that measures resistance, voltage, impedance, and other characteristics

Tools used to test cables: cable checkers, continuity testers, cable testers, and light meters (for fiber)


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