Sumatra 2004 Quake and Tsunami
Presentations text content in Sumatra 2004 Quake and Tsunami
Sumatra 2004 Quake and Tsunami
By: Conrad Ricks, Liz Anderson, Melissa Prater & Michelle Carleton
“On Sunday, 26 December 2004, the greatest earthquake in 40 years occurred about 150 kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra Island in Indonesia. The earthquake generated a disastrous tsunami that caused destruction in 11 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.”- Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis
Animation of 2004 Indonesia Tsunami
Press F5 for slide show to view animation.
Intensity on Mercalli ScaleSlide6
Tsunami Wave MapsSlide8
Causes of Earthquakes
The movement of plates along their boundaries is the cause of most earthquakes. The process of faulting (a surface sliding on another surface) causes friction which causes rocks to rupture along faults. This breaking and rupturing causes sudden movement which produce shock waves along the fault plane. This is the cause of earthquake belts like we see here.
Plate Tectonics and Boundaries
A rupture that propagated 1300-1600 km NW between the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate for around 10 minutes was the
cause of the quake.
Measuring Earthquakes Magnitude
The moment magnitude scale allows scientists to measure the size of an earthquake and report it in some form of a decimal number. “[It] is determined from an estimate of the area that ruptured along a fault plane during the quake, the amount of movement or slippage along the fault, and the rigidity of the rocks near the focus of the quake.” The Sumatra-Andaman quake was classified as a (MW) 9.2
Moment Magnitude Scale
Modified Mercalli Scale
http://www.sanandreasfault.org/feelit.html retrieved Jan.30, 2012
The Modified Mercalli Scale is a tool used to measure the effects of an earthquake in a qualitative way. It uses Roman numerals to describe the intensity of the quake. The intensity can vary depending on how close you are to the epicenter of the quake.
In the Aceh Province shaking lasted for 5-6 minutes and would’ve been classified as VIII-IXSlide11
The epicenter is the location on the
earth’s surface above where the rocks ruptured (known as the hypocenter or focus) causing the quake.
The epicenter was about 250 km off the west coast of Aceh Province and the focus was 10 km deep.
An earthquake will cause shifts in the surface due to the types of seismic waves that are released. As a result of this shift in the ocean floor, massive ocean waves can form and cause Tsunamis.
The Tsunami waves that struck Aceh Province ranged from 4-39 meters high and destroyed more than 250 coastal communitiesSlide13
Landslides in SumatraMud volcano Gas emissions Water level fluctuations
Effects of a single disaster can cause a handful of other disasters. Liquefaction, changes in land elevation, diseases and lack of natural resources are among a few of the effects that can occur.
Previous Tsunamis in the Bay of Bengal 1881, 1883, 1907and 1941.Previous Earthquake and Tsunami- 1881 and 1941. 1881 quake measured at (Mw) 7.9 with Tsunami waves around 1 m high.1941 quake measured at (Mw) 7.7 with waves around 1-1.5 m high.
Future ruptures for the area are possible. There is no historical data of the plate boundary just north of the Andaman Islands slipping. However, there is no evidence of a Quake or Tsunami of this size occurring for hundreds of years.
Intensity from a natural disaster can be minimized if we take initiative and prepare for what could happen. - Building codes can be put in place Restrictions on areas in which construction can occur Warning systems can be installed Emergency evacuation planNatural blocks such as tree lines planted on coastsIf we utilize the knowledge that we have gained from past experiences, we can keep a disaster from turning into a catastrophe.Slide16
“The great tsunami of 2004 was one of the worst disasters in history.”
In total, it is estimated that at least 283,100 people were killed, 14,100 are missing, and 1,126,900 were displaced after the earthquake and tsunami.Damage in several countries contributed to this death toll.
“The most destructive series of tsunami waves in recorded history.”
Damaged was sustained in 11 countries.About 250 coastal communities damaged or destroyed.
“Houses were swept inland or out to sea.”
Eye Witness Account
“The buildings have been flattened for miles and entire communities—probably something like a hundred thousand people—have been swept out to sea.”“The medical situation is just as daunting. Hundreds of thousands of survivors are refugees, squatting in makeshift camps wherever you go.”“Everywhere I go I have to be careful I don't step on a corpse.”“People are dying because they are unable to get this basic medical attention.”“The survivors are still numb and seemingly emotionless. They show no emotion in their eyes. They're still in shock. But it remains an ordeal for them to come near the ocean. People are still traumatized. Many will not go down to the beach. One driver I hired absolutely refused to go down to the beach. They're terrified of the ocean.”
been going through a lot of aftershocks. What people elsewhere would consider major earthquakes happen here all the time now. Magnitude 6 aftershocks wake us up at night, making everyone rush outside.”
Given by Chris Rainier in Banda Aceh, Indonesia for National Geographic News
Quote Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/01/0111_050111_tsunami_sumatra.htmlSlide21
The M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in December of 2004 was caused by a
zone between the India and Sudan plates. A resulting tsunami struck several surrounding countries, destroying 250+ coastal cities in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Nearly 300,000 lives were lost in total.Slide22
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