0K - views

“ Antiurolithic activity of Extracts of Roots of

Ricinus. . Communis. ”. .

Embed :
Download Link

Download - The PPT/PDF document "“ Antiurolithic activity of Extracts ..." is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.

“ Antiurolithic activity of Extracts of Roots of






Presentation on theme: "“ Antiurolithic activity of Extracts of Roots of"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

“Antiurolithic activity of Extracts of Roots of Ricinus Communis”

PRESENTED BY JUHI TIWARI

Slide2

1. Introduction

Herbal medicine : Medicinal plants are used by all the cultures across the world . According to W.H.O estimates around 80% of population in developing countries use herbal drugs for some aspects of primary health care. Herbs are the staple of medical treatment in many developing countries.The urinary system: The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.

Kidney: kidneys are the principal regulators of the internal environment of the body. The composition of all body fluids is either directly or indirectly regulated by the kidneys as they form urine from blood plasma.

The kidneys which are two in number, lies on the posterior abdominal wall, one on each side of vertebral column, behind the peritoneal cavity and below the diaphragm. Kidneys are bean-shaped organs, about 11 cm long, 6 cm wide, 3 cm thick and weigh 150 g. They are embedded in, and held in position by, a mass of fat

(Scanlon

et al.,

2007).

Introduction to

Urolithiasis

It is also called Nephrolithiasis or kidney stone.

Urolithiasis is the presence of calculi in the urinary tract.

Eighty percent of calculi are composed of calcium (either oxalate or phosphate).

Others composed of

struvite

, uric acid,

xanthine

or

cystine

.

Slide3

Slide4

Urolithiasis Martin L.J.A(2002) Urolithiasis

may be defined as the solid accumulation of the material that form in the urinary system which may be in the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder or other parts of system.This process is also known as super saturation of the urine i.e greater number of solute in a solvent. Urolithiasis

is the third most common cause of urinary tract disease , predominantly in male gender in proportion of approximately 2:1 and is characterized by a recurrence rate of 50% and reaching 70% within 10 years.

Incidence of upper urinary tract stone was 2.4 fold greater in men than in women.

Epidemiology

Joual

, A. (1997)

Slide5

Process of stone formation (Atmania et al., 2004)

Supersaturation

Saturation

Nucleation

Crystal aggregation

Crystal growth

Stone formation

Etiology of Urolithiasis

(

Pfien

et al.,

1990)

Family History of Renal Stone Disease

Occupational or Situational Risk Factors

Systemic Diseases

Medications

Dietary Factors

Bacterial

infection

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

(

Parmar

et al., 2004). Renal pain Hematuria Pyuria Dysuria Oligouria

Abdominal distension

Nausea/vomiting

Fever and chills

Postrenal

azotemia

Slide6

Classification of Kidney Stone Coe FL (2005)

Calcium containing Stone Calcium Oxalate Stone (60%)Calcium Phosphate Stone (20%)Struvite Stone (8%)Uric Acid Stone (10%)Cystine Stone(1.5%)2,8-di hydroxy adenine stone(0.5%)

Stones were formed when there is a decrease in urine volume and or

excess in stone forming substance in urine. Dehydration , different medical condition and also low level of dietary calcium intake may alter calcium oxalate balance thus resulting in increased excretion of oxalate and propensity to form oxalate stone.

Causes for kidney stone

Slide7

Need of studyThere are so many research has been already done in respect to urolithiasis but there is still need to research a safe and effective drug for the treatment of

urolithiasis because there is no satisfactory drug in modern medicine which can dissolve stone therefore physician still remain to be depend on alternate system of medicine for their better relief , which is economically costly and produces major side effects .Objective of study

To

conduct systematic phytochemical investigation of roots of

Ricinus

Communis

.

To conduct acute toxicity .

To develop

urolithiasis

model in rats .

To evaluate anti

urolithiatic

activity of extract of roots of

Ricinus

Communis

.

To evaluate antimicrobial activity of roots of Ricinus

Communis .

Slide8

RICINUS COMMUNIS : Plant profile :

Slide9

Ricinus

Communis Tewari, D.D. (2012)Ricinus Communis : Castor Oil Plant .Herbaceous plant or semi woody large , dicot , shrub or small tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae .

Reported activities

Anti asthmatic , anti inflammatory, anti microbial , anti fungal , anti histaminic activities, Anti

hepato

toxicity,

Antinociceptive

, Antimicrobial activity, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial activity.

Slide10

Animals And Experiments. Sprague Dawley rats , weighing 100+

5 gm from the animal house of Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute, Bhopal. Animal maintenance and handling were in accordance to CPCSEA. Extraction Pradnya Onkar et.al (2012)

The powdered roots of

Ricinus

communis

was extracted by means of maceration process .

powder was subjected to cold maceration with pet ether initially and afterward marc was treated with hydro-alcoholic solution in a jar, for about 7 days at room temperature.

Authentication

Botansit

: Dr.

Pradeep

Tiwari

and Herbarium No. Bot./Her./B/1123 was deposited in the herbarium of the

Hari

Singh Gaur

Vishwa

Vidyalaya

,

Sagar (Madhya Pradesh). cont.

Slide11

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL TESTING Khandelwal K.R., (2003)

The crude extract of Ricinus Communis was screened for the presence of different phyto chemical substanceTest for alkaloids : Dragendorff’s test, Mayer’s test, Hager’s test, Wagner’s test. Test for saponins

Test for Glycosides : Legal’s test, Baljet’s test, Keller killani test and Borntrager’s

test. Test for carbohydrates : Molisch test, Fehling’s test, Benedict’s test

5) Test for tannins and

phenolic

compound

6) Test for

flavonoids

Slide12

Acute oral toxicity OECD 2001- guideline Acute oral toxicity study of hydro alcoholic and petroleum ether extract was carried out according to OECD 423 guidelines.

Slide13

Anti microbial activityWell Diffusion Method (

El-Mahmood et al., 2008 & Bauer et al.,1966): Zone of inhibition was measured.Anti oxidant activity DPPH Activity (Patil et al, 2009) : percentage of inhibition was measured Hydrogen Peroxide

Scavanging Assay (

Patil et al, 2009) : percentage of inhibition was measured

Reducing Power Assay (

Jayanthi

and

Lalitha

2011) :

Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates the reducing power of the Samples.

Total

Phenolic

Content (

Maurya

S , Singh D, 2010) :

Line of regression from Gallic acid was used for estimation .

Total

flavonoid

Content (

Maurya S , Singh D, 2010) :

Line of regression from rutin was used for estimation

Slide14

Procedure of dpph and hydrogen peroxide assayPreparation of Standard Ascorbic acid solutions

Preparation of Test solutionsPreparation of Control solutionPercentage of antioxidant activity of plant extract and Ascorbic acid was calculated by using formula:     

Slide15

Procedure of reducing power assayPreparation of Standard Ascorbic acid solutions

Preparation of Test solutions.Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates the reducing power of the Samples. Procedure of total phenolic contentDifferent concentration of gallic acid and plant extract was prepared in methanol.0.5ml of each sample was introduced into test tube and mixed with 2.5ml of a 10 fold dilute folin Ciocalteu reagent and 2ml of 7.5% sodium carbonate was prepared in methanol.

Slide16

Calculation of tpcLine of regression from Gallic acid was used for estimation of unknown phenol

content.From standard curve of gallic acid line of regression was found to be : Thus the goodness of fit was found to be good for selected standard curve. By putting the absorbance of test sample (y = absorbance) in line of regression of above mentioned GA. Total flavonoid content : Total flavonoids were measured by a colorimetric method . standard solution of rutin

was added to a 75 μl of NaNO2 solution, and mixed for 6 min, before adding 0.15

mL AlCl3 (100 g/L). After 5 min, 0.5

mL

of

NaOH

was added. The final volume was adjusted to 2.5 ml with distilled water and thoroughly mixed. Absorbance of the mixture was determined at 510 nm against the same mixture, without the sample, as a blank. Total

flavonoid

content was expressed as mg

rutin

/

g dry weight (mg

rutine

/

g DW), through the calibration curve of

Rutin

. All samples were analysed in three replications.

y = 0.005x + 0.065 and R

2

= 0.976

Slide17

Calculation of tfcLine of regression from rutin

was used for estimation of unknown flavonoid content. From standard curve of rutin, line of regression was found to be : Thus the goodness of fit was found to be good for selected standard curve. By putting the absorbance of test sample (y = absorbance) in line of regression of above mentioned rutin.   

y = 0.001x - 0.118 and R

2 = 0.985

Slide18

InVitro Assesement of Anti urolithic ActivityCalcium Oxalate crystallization (Beghalia M., Ghalem S.,Allali

H., Belouatek A.,

Marouf A.2008 ,2009) : By determining the crystal size.

Procedure

Preparation of synthetic urine.

Simulation of the sedimentary crystal formation

The crystal size development by microscope was carried out at different time intervals of formation of crystals . Calculated percentage of Inhibition was based on the formula:

I% = [(TSI- TAI) / TSI] * 100

Slide19

Ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced urolithiasis model was used to asses the antiurolithiatic activity in rats. Cystone was taken to serve as a standard for anti

urolithic activity. Preparation of doses : All the doses were prepared in hydro alcoholic and DMSO solvent . In all cases, the concentration was prepared according to body weight of animal. Evaluation of Antiurolithic activity

: Animals were divided into 7 groups containing six animals in each group and kept in a metabolic cages individually for entire duration of experiment. All animals had free access to regular rat chow and drinking water ad

libitum .

In vivo

assesement

of anti

urolithic

activity

Anil T.

Pawar

(2012)

Slide20

Experimental design for Antiurolithiatic activity

Group I- Control groupGroup II- Lithiatic ControlGroup III- Preventive RegimenGroup IV- Preventive RegimenGroup V- Preventive RegimenGroup VI- Preventive RegimenGroup VII- Cystone treatedDescription of groups Group I- Control group: Normal saline was given to the rats.Group II- Control group: Lithiatic induction was done by ethylene glycol and ammonium

chloride.This group serve as control for gp. III to gp

. VI.Group III- Hydroalcoholic extract of Ricinus

Communis

200 mg / kg

bwt.was

given with inducing agent to determine the

antiurolithic ability of extract. Cont…

Slide21

Group IV- Hydroalcoholic extract of Ricinus Communis

400 mg / kg bwt.was given with inducing agent to determine the antiurolithic ability of extract. Group V- Petroleum ether extract of Ricinus Communis 200 mg / kg bwt.was given with inducing agent to determine the antiurolithic ability of extract.Group VI- Petroleum ether extract of

Ricinus Communis 400 mg / kg bwt.was

given with inducing agent to determine the antiurolithic ability of extract.

Group VII- Animals was treated with standard drug

cystone

750 mg/kg

bwt

. To compare the result of extracts.

All rats were housed in metabolic cages individually for entire duration of the experiment. On 22

nd day all the groups was sacrificed.

After the termination of experiment blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum was separated by centrifugation at 15,000 rpm for 10 min.

Slide22

Histopathology Divakar K et .al

The abdomen was cut open to remove either kidney from each animal. Isolated kidneys were cleaned off extraneous tissue and preserved in 10% formalin. One of the isolated kidneys was then embedded in paraffin using conventional method and cut into 5 µm thick sections and stained using hematoxylin-eosin dye and finally mounted in diphenyl xylene. Then the sections were observed under microscope for histopathological changes in kidney architecture and their photomicrographs was taken. Measurement of Biochemical Marker Creatinine , BUN , Urea , Uric Acid , Phosphate , Calcium was determined by the method given in the protocol of Erba

Diagnostic Ltd..Creatinine :

Creatinine react with alkaline picrate to produce an orange-yellow color

. The absorbance of the orange-yellow

color

formed is directly proportional to

creatinine

concentration .

Creatinine

was calculated by determining the ratio of change in absorbance of test and standard multiplied by concentration of standard. Cont….

Slide23

Blood urea nitrogen and urea :The estimation of urea in serum involves the enzyme catalysed reactions in which the urea is react with water to form ammonia, which in turn reacts with

α-ketoglutarate and NADH to form glutamate. The rate of decrease in absorbance is monitored at 340 nm and is directly proportional to urea concentration in the sample.Uric Acid : Estimation is done with a modified Trinder peroxidase method using TBHB. Estimation of uric acid requires reaction with water and oxygen forming hydrogen peroxide which reacts with 2, 4, 6 Tribromo 3- hydroxyl benzoic acid and 4 Aminoantipyrine to form Quinoneimine

. This is proportion to uric acid concentration. Calcium :

Calcium has numerous function within the body , not only as a structural factor in bones and teeth , but also in normal neuro muscular function and the clotting of the blood .OCPC reacts with calcium in alkaline solution to form a purple coloured complex . The intensity of the purple colour formed is proportional to the calcium concentration .

Phosphorus

:

The principle of the method is based on the reaction in which phosphorus reacts with ammonium

molybdate

to form

phosphomolybdate

. This unreduced Complex (

phospho

molybdate

) is directly proportional to inorganic phosphorus present in sample.

 

 

 

Slide24

Kidney Homogenate Analysis Spakal VD (2008)

Another isolated left kidney was then homogenized. The homogenate was centrifuged at 2,000 rpm for 10 min and supernatant separated. The enzymatic estimation of kidney homogenate was determined by SOD , GSH and LPO. Preparation of homogenateOrgan was rinsed with ice cold normal saline followed by 0.15 M tris HCl (pH 7.4).Then the organ was divide and 10% w/v tissue was homogenize with 0.15 M tris HCl and 0.1 M Phosphate buffer . Then this homogenate was centrifuged at 15,000 rpm ,15 min , 4 °C, and take supernatant as sample. Supernatant was preserved in deep freeze at 2 °C.

Slide25

Analytical Parameter of Kidney homogenateSuper oxide Dismutase

, (Spakal VD 2008) : Percentage of inhibition was measured. Lipid Peroxidase, (Spakal VD 2008) : Obtained result are equivalent to MDA.Glutathione

(Spakal VD 2008) :

5,5’-dithio bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid is reduced in presence of GSH to produce a yellow compound. The reduced chromogen is directly proportional to GSH conc.

Slide26

 SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASEChemicals Used

: sodium pyrophosphate buffer, phenazine methosulphate ,Nitroblutetrazolium , NADH. Take OD at 560 nm (take butanol as blank)LIPID PEROXIDE : Chemicals Used : SDS , acetic acid ,TBA, butanol , pyridine , Take OD at 532 nm (blank – butanol

: pyridine / 15:1) (this absorbance will be of total MDA formed).Glutathione :

Chemicals Used : TCA, EDTA , Ellman’s reagent, sodium citrate solution. Take OD at 412 nm (water as blank)

Slide27

ResultPhysical Characters of Extracts : Hydroalcoholic

Petroleum EtherColor Brown Greenish Brown Odour Sweet Aromatic Appearance Sticky Sticky

%age yeild

6.82% 1.45% Phytochemical testing : Carbohydrate , reducing sugar,

flavonoids

, glycosides, tannin and

phenolic

compound are present in

hydroalcoholic

extract whereas tannin and

phenolic and triterpenoids

and steroids are present in petroleum ether extract.

Slide28

Graphs showing antioxidant activity

DPPH AssayHydrogen peroxide scavenging assay

% Inhibition of DPPH by PE Extract at different concentration

% Inhibition of DPPH by HA Extract at different concentration

Inhibition of Hydrogen peroxide by PE Extract at different concentration

Inhibition of Hydrogen peroxide by HA Extract at different concentration

Slide29

Graphs showing Antimicrobial activity

Zone of inhibition due to Ricinus communis

HA extract in different microorganism

Zone of inhibition due to

Ricinus

communis

PEEextract

in different microorganism

Slide30

Graph showing invitroanti urolithic activty

% inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal

at different time interval due to HAE

% inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal

at different time interval due to PEE

Slide31

Acute Oral ToxicityNo mortality was observed up to 2000 mg/kg, hence 2000 mg/kg was considered as NOAEL.1/10th and 1/5

th of NOAEL, i.e.200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were selected as dose for further in vivo investigation.InVivo Antiurolithic Activity (Serological Analysis)CREATININE BUN

Graph showing serum creatinine concentration in different groups.

Graph showing blood urea nitrogen

concentration in different groups.

Slide32

URIC ACID UREA

Graph showing uric acid concentration

in different groups.

Graph showing urea concentration

in different groups

.

PHOSPHATE

Graph showing phosphate concentration

in different groups.

CALCIUM

Graph showing serum calcium concentration in different groups.

Slide33

Graph showing effect on enzyme involved in oxidative stressLIPID PEROXIDASE

Graph showing effect on

LPOenzyme

due

to both extract in various groups

.

SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE

Graph showing effect on SOD enzyme

due to both extract in various groups

GLUTATHIONE

Graph showing effect on glutathione enzyme due to both extract in various groups

Slide34

Recently, there is increasing evidence that many healthy natural food and medicinal herbal and supplements have the potential to become valuable complementary therapy in the treatment of various renal disorders. In spite of tremendous advances in the field of medicine, there is no truly satisfactory drug for the treatment of urolithiasis.

In the present study, dried powder of Ricinus Communis was subjected to extraction using petrolium ether and hydro-alcohol (70% Dis.water+30% Methanol). Some part of both extracts was reserved for preliminary phytochemical investigation and rest was utilized for pharmacological screening. The preliminary phytochemical investigation of H A extract showed presence of carbohydrate , reducing sugar, flavanoids , glycoside , tannin and

phenolic compound and in PE extract tannin and phenolic compounds and triterpenoids

and steroids are present.

Conclusion

Slide35

The present study indicates that the administration of Ricinus Communis extract to rats with ethylene glycol (0.75 %) and ammonium chloride (1 %) induced urolithiasis

, reduced and prevented the growth of kidney stones and renal impairment. The hydroalcoholic extract was having significant protective effect against ethylene glycol with ammonium chloride induced urolithiasis than petrolium ether extract. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the supplementation of Ricinus Communis has a beneficial effect on urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol with ammonium chloride solution and may be also by other chemical factors.Whenever ,a patient is suffering from urolithiasis the chances of microbial infection in the kidney or urinary tract is much higher. This infection may be due to any particular pathogenesis or due to the histological damage that can occur due to sharp edges of the crystals. Some time the urinary tract itself gets injury and further microbial infection due to movement of small stone through the tract. The

Ricinus Communis

showed significant antimicrobial potential against S.aureus,

Kleibsiella

, B.

subtillus

and

E.Coli

. These microorganisms are common for urinary tract infection. Some time these microorganism themselves create an environmental condition in the kidney or urinary tract that favours

the formation of kidney stone. Thus being antimicrobial against these microorganisms the

Ricinus

Communis

extract will decrease the chances of microbial infection as well as the chances of

favourism

for the condition in support of crystal growth.

Slide36

This study also includes the in vitro antiurolithic study and it was observed that extract significantly inhibited formation of crystals. Hence extract was having some component that is avoiding formation of calcium oxalate crystals. To ascertain safety of any component intended to used inside the body, it needs to be confirmed. In present study extracts acute oral toxicity was confirmed on the basis of OECD 423 guidelines. It was observed that extract was not toxic

upto the dose of 2000 mg/kg and hence it was considered as Not Observed Adverse Effect Limit (NOAEL). As mentioned above for assessment of antiurolithic activity of HA and PE extract urolithiasis was induced by using ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride. Ist group was not having any treatment and hence was called as vehicle treated. IInd group was having only induced with vehicle and rest groups were having treatments including standard drug Cystone in last group. Assessment was done on three bases, first on the basis of kidney function test (including

Creatinine and BUN), estimation of factor involved in stone formation (Uric acid, Urea, Phosphate, and calcium), and effect of enzymes involved in oxidative stress (LPO, SOD, and GSH).

 

Slide37

It was observed that in induced group (group 2) level of Creatinine, BUN was significantly higher as compared to vehicle treated animals. In chronic renal failure and uremia, an eventual reduction occurs in the excretion of creatinine. The most frequently determined clinical indices for estimating renal function depends upon concentration of urea in the serum. It is useful in differential diagnosis of acute renal failure and pre renal condition where BUN–

creatinine ratio is increased.This confirmed that by administration of EG and AC malfunctioning in kidney occurred. In extract treated animals with HA extract has significant decrease in Creatinine and BUN level as compared to inducer group . Effect of PEextract was not significant. Uric acid, Urea , Phosphate , and calcium level in kidney were also elevated in inducer group as compared to vehicle treated group. In extract treated animals with HA extract significant decrease in Uric acid, Urea, Phosphate, and calcium level as compared to inducer group . Effect of PE extract was not significant. Level of SOD and Glutathione was significantly less in inducer treated group as compared to vehicle treated animals and LPO level was significantly higher in induced treated animals this confirmed that in inducer group oxidative stress was much higher. In extract treated animals level of GSH and SOD was significantly higher as compared to inducer group and LPO was significantly less as compared to inducer group. Thus from present investigation it can be concluded that

hydroalcoholic extract of roots of Ricinus

communis possess significant antiurolithic activity.

Slide38

THANK YOU! ANY QUERY ? ?