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Role of Dietitian Utilizing the Standardization of Nutrition Practices

Assessing Energy needs upon admission to Acute Care Unit (ACU). Assessing Protein needs upon admission to ACU. Prescribing daily Calories and Protein goals. Assessing Vitamin and Mineral intake and supplementation.

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Role of Dietitian Utilizing the Standardization of Nutrition Practices






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Slide1

Role of Dietitian

Utilizing the Standardization of Nutrition Practices Assessing Energy needs upon admission to Acute Care Unit (ACU)Assessing Protein needs upon admission to ACUPrescribing daily Calories and Protein goalsAssessing Vitamin and Mineral intake and supplementationEnsuring Glutamine and Arginine supplements are not givenOptimizing Enteral Nutrition DeliveryMonitoring & Recording Daily Nutritional AdequacySlide2

To reduce the effect of varying nutritional practices as confounding factors on the outcomes of The RE-ENERGIZE study, it is important to standardize (as much as possible) the following:

Prescription of

Enteral

and Parenteral NutritionMicronutrient deliveryWithholding Feeds for High Gastric Residual Volumes We recommend compliance with the following nutritional practices. This will allow for most current practices to continue.

Standardization of Nutrition PracticesSlide3

1) Prescribed Energy Needs

Calculated by using :

Indirect Calorimetry, a predictive equation, or a simple weight-based formula

On average, this should not lead to a prescription of less than 30 kcal/kg WeightPre-burn dry weight should be used when calculating energy needs. For Obese patients, if your standard practice is to adjust for obesity, follow your standard practice. If you do not have an obesity adjustment practice, use the formula below.Adjusted Body Weight (ABW) = Ideal Body Weight (IBW) based on a BMI of 25 + [(pre-burn dry weight – IBW) x 0.25]Slide4

2) Prescribed Protein Needs

Calculated According to % burn surface area

If > 50% burns, use 1.5g/kg/day to 2.5g/kg/day

If < 50% burns, use 1.2g/kg/day to 2 gm/kg/day Pre-burn dry weight should be used when calculating protein needs. For Obese patients, if your standard practice is to adjust for obesity, follow your standard practice. If you do not have an obesity adjustment practice, use the formula below.Adjusted Body Weight (ABW) = IBW + [(pre-burn dry weight – IBW) x 0.25]

 Slide5

3) Vitamin & Mineral Prescription

Should be given as follows or depending upon blood levels (if blood testing is done as part of routine practice):

Vitamin C: 0-1000 mg/day

Vitamin A: 0-10,000 IU/day Vitamin D: according to serum levels Vitamin E: 0-420 mg/day Zinc (not elemental): 0-220 mg/day Copper Sulfate: 0-4.5 mg/day Selenium: 0-500 micrograms/day Magnesium:0-600 mg/day

Folate

: 0-1500 mg/day

Thiamin

: 0-110 mg/daySlide6

3) Vitamin & Mineral Prescription

Early supplementation by high dose IV Vitamin C (66 mg/kg/hr) within the first 48 hrs is allowed. Standard multivitamin/mineral preparations are allowed (IV, NG or

po

).These ranges of vitamins/minerals/trace elements may be provided as supplementation over and beyond what is present in the standard enteral/parenteral nutrition.ORThese ranges of vitamins/minerals/trace elements may be

provided as the total amounts. This means that the amounts received from

enteral/parenteral

nutrition are to be subtracted from the total ranges and the remainder is given as supplements.Slide7

4) Specialized nutritional formulas

are not allowed such as:

Arginine

enriched formulas (formulas that contain >6gms arginine/L)Pivot ® (13 g/L) Perative ® (8 g/L) would not be allowed

 

Glutamine

supplements

or

formulas

enriched

with glutamine

Impact ® Glutamine (15 g/L)VIVONEX ® Plus (13.5 g/L)GLUTASOLVE ® (15 g/L) /other glutamine powdersJuven® (7 g/L)Formulas with glutamic acid inherently present are allowed

To minimize any potential contamination, patients that have received

glutamine for >24

hrs

before randomization, should NOT be included.Slide8

5)

Optimization of the Delivery of Enteral Nutrition:

Enteral

nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition Minimize interruptions to the delivery of EN – use strategies such as:Elevating the Head of the BedGastric residual volume threshold of 250 ml

Motility agents

Small bowel feeding tubes

Monitor EN volume delivery daily

Implement an action plan to ensure prescription is deliveredSlide9

Enteral Feeding Protocol

Start

Enteral

Nutrition as soon as possible after burn injury, preferably within 24 hrs of burn injury, if possibleElevate HOB to 45 degrees, if possible

If gastric feeding

, check GRVs q 4 hrs.

Is the GRV

> 250

mls

?

Is this the 1

st

GRV > 250 ml*?

1)

Refeed

gastric residual

2) Continue with

Enteral

Nutrition

1) Refeed GRV to

250

ml max

and discard the rest

2) Start

Maxeran

10mg IV q 6 hrs

3) Continue with

Enteral

Nutrition

This is a rechecked residual >250

mls

:

1) Discard the residual

2) Continue with Motility agents3) Switch to SMALL BOWEL FEEDING 4) Restart Enteral Nutrition5) Monitor enteral nutrition tolerance, but do not monitor GRVs if small bowel feeding

YES

YES

NO

NO

* Gastric residual volume (GRV) of 250

mls

is the minimum threshold volume. Volumes higher than 250

mls

are acceptable if allowed at the individual site.

WATER FLUSHES:Flush tube with at least 10 mls of sterile water:-q4hrs during feedings-after aspiration for GRVs-before and after medsBLOCKED TUBE:Pancrealipase, 8000 units, with crushed Na Bicarb 500mg in 5ml warm water via feeding tube as needed.

STOP

enteral

nutrition if the patient develops :

-

bowel obstruction

-bowel perforation

-paralytic

ileusSlide10

6

) Glycemic control:Encourage the use of a

glycemic

control protocol (or insulin) to:Avoid hyperglycemiaMinimize risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemiaMaintain glucose levels between the following ranges:

80 mg/

dL

(min) to 180 mg/

dL

(max)

4.4

mmol

/L (min) to 10

mmol

/L (max)Slide11

Recording Energy

and Protein

Needs

Recording Timing of Start and Stop of EN & PN

Dietitian will receive a copy of this formSlide12

Collect data as close to real time as possible so that action can be taken to ensure patient receives nutrition prescribed.

Dietitian will receive a copy of this formSlide13

Data

MUST be collected according to calendar day as described aboveDo NOT collect data according to your flow sheet unless it runs from

00:00-00:00

Study Days and Data Collection

Study days are defined as follows and data

must

be collected according to study days:

Study Day 1 =

ACU admit date

(not randomization) and

time

until 23:59 the same day.

Study Day 2 = the subsequent day starting at 00:00 to 23:59 that day

Example:

A patient is admitted to the ACU on Sept 8th, 2015 at 4:00 PM (16:00). The study days would be: Study Day 1 = 2015-09-08 from 16:00 to 2015-09-08 at 23:59 Study Day 2 = 2015-09-09 from 00:00 to 2015-09-09 at 23:59 Slide14

Resources online

www.criticalcarenutrition.comSlide15