Skilled migration, women and the role of education and trai

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Slide1

Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia:Interim findings NCVER funded research project

Sue Webb, Denise Beale, Miriam Faine & Reshmi Roy

Faculty of Education

Monash University

Slide2

1st July 2011

Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

2

Outline of presentation

An overview of regional skilled migration

The research

rationale

Research

questions

Design and methodology

Emerging findings

Exemplar migratory trajectories

Concluding thoughts

Invitation for feedback

Slide3

1st July 2011

Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Regional skilled migration

Regional

migration programs

aim

to attract migrants into regional

areas to fill skills shortages.

Between 1998 and 2009, the numbers of skilled migrants settling in regional Australia rose from 10% to 14.7% (Cully, 2010).

73% of permanent migrants settling in regional areas arrived originally on 457 temporary visas (Cully, 2010).

More than 50 per cent of these migrants were secondary applicants (Cully, 2010).

An increase in the number of places under the Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme in 2011-12 (Crean, 2011).

Slide4

Rationale for the research

The growing number of migrants in regional areas.Migrants as primary visa holders may be sponsored but what about their spouses? The limited research evidence suggests these women face a number of challenges in finding work and education that supports their entry into work.Evidence from the LFS (2007) suggests skill underutilisation.If having a job is a measure of social inclusion, this an issue for retaining some migrants & their families in the regions

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Slide5

How can VET contribute towards socially inclusive outcomes for migrant women and their families in regional Australia?How can the cultural capital and assets of migrant women be harnessed in the context of regional industry, community development and social cohesion?

1st July 2011

Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Research questions

Slide6

The research design and methodology

Case study approach—in-depth study of one regional centre

Three levels of inquiry:

The ‘demand-drivers’, particularly regional and migration policies and labour markets.

The supply-side organisations that support new migrants and provide education and training to assist the migrant into employment.

The individual migrant woman and the role of learning in a regional location.

Slide7

Key considerations shaping the study

What is the relationship between VET and migration?

How does skilled migration in the regions affect VET?

What does social inclusion look like for migrants in the regions? Is it just being employed in any job or is it something more?

What part does VET play in achieving socially inclusive outcomes in regional areas particularly for migrant women and their families?

Slide8

The regional case

1st July 2011

Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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The regional city of Greater

Shepparton

in Victoria.

A mixed ‘food bowl’ economy: agricultural, manufacturing and food processing; retail; services including health, social assistance and finance; transportation.

Drift of young people to cities; lower than median individual and household income; higher proportion of public housing than national average (Pope, 2011)

Unemployment rate estimated to be nearly 8%, above Victorian mean (ABS, 2011)

Population growth – estimated to be 1% per annum (ABS, 2012)

Targeted by Federal Govt. for humanitarian settlement; and state govt. for regional skilled migration.

Growth of overseas born population between 2001 and 2011 of approximately 40%, with nearly 30% of that increase occurring between 2006 and 2011 (ABS, 2012).

The area health service and hospital relies on overseas trained health professionals mainly from the Indian sub-continent, the Philippines and the UK.

Slide9

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Source: Google Maps 22/6/2012

Slide10

Migratory trajectories

Untroubled Risky

Policy frames -Modes of entry, Regulations

Socio-cultural contexts – sending receiving countries

Migrants’ strategies, resources & networks

Strategies & exclusionary or inclusionary practices of networks, employers, VET & HE providers

Gender

Race

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Slide11

Untroubled

International female student to PRSpanish speaker from MexicoTertiary educated on entryBA in Economics3 years financial analyst in retail sectorIn Australia – gained MA and employment through University networksIn regional city because of husband’s job – she gained employment via recruitment agentWorking as financial analyst for public bodyRunning own small fitness business

Risky

International female student to PRFemale from West Africa & Canada, French speakerTertiary educated in Australia, Business Administration, worked as bank teller during studiesHas MBA but failed to find graduate level jobAs single parent, moved to regional city for quality of life and low costBecame involved in community and voluntary workHas started own business, now employing humanitarian migrants

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Trajectories

Slide12

Trajectories

Untroubled

Skilled migrant – RSMS Female, English speaker from India, via England, employed by hospitalHusband secondary applicant, now owns franchise for food outletHusband tertiary educated – management Actively sought work in any management field, travelled to another regional city to workBuilt networks in community, able to respond to opportunity to buy franchiseNow employing other migrants

Risky

Skilled migrant PR partner, English speaker from IndiaTertiary educated on entry, PhD Chemistry, 8 years research/teaching Tertiary level & high schoolsEntered Australia without a job; moved to regional city because husband found a job not related to previous employmentBecame stay at home mum until in-laws came to supportNow working in Community Development, after voluntary work & paid ESL teaching gave first referenceAmbition to re-qualify as a teacher in Australia taking Grad Dip in local HEI

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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Slide13

Trajectories

Untroubled

Case 1Maintained & built professional capital & networks during the moveCase 3Migration supported by employer helped partner secure new entrepreneurial networks & social capital

Risky

Case 2Migration unsupported even by Australian HEI, own resilience, entrepreneurship & community networks vital Case 4Disrupted professional capital & networks in the move, rebuilding via ‘migrant’ multicultural pathway in TAFE and Voluntary Sector

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Slide14

Concluding thoughts

Skilled migration is premised on matching of needs of receiving country with rational allocation of jobs to those with human capitalCase study has shown employment in Australia depends on maintenance of professional networks & social capitalModes of entry can disrupt these networks and lead to lost capitalAustralian experience counts, the first reference is importantMigrants rebuild networks most easily when institutions (e.g.VET, HEIs, Employers) actively intervene to segue path to employmentMigrants outside fall back own resilience & entrepreneurialism Different networks access different resources and labour markets The voluntary sector provides easy access to networks but these are embedded in different socio-cultural relationships from the voluntary sector of established local social clubs and societies.

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

14

Slide15

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Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia

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A strategic decision

Source: The Age, 4/6/2012

‘I played netball which I really don’t like but I did it purely for the social inclusion and now I am included, I don’t need to play it anymore.’

Slide16

Feedback and comments

We invite your comments on any aspect of the project.

Please contact:

Dr Denise Beale

Research Fellow

Faculty of Education

Monash University

Clayton VIC 3800

denise.beale@monash.edu

.

Thank you

Slide17

References

ABS (2007)

Labour force status and other characteristics of recent migrants

,

cat.no

. 6250.0, Canberra: Australian Bureau

of Statistics.

ABS (2011)

National regional profile, Greater Shepparton (C), 2006-2010

, cat.no.1379.0.55.001, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

ABS (2012)

Time series profile. Greater Shepparton (C)

, cat.no.2003.0, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Crean

, S. (2011)

Budget 2011-12. Investing in regional Australia

, Canberra: Treasury

.

Cully

, M. (2010)

The contribution of migrants to regional Australia

, Canberra: Department of Immigration and Citizenship

.

DIAC (2011)

Population flows: Immigration aspects 2009–10 edition

,

Canberra: Department of Immigration and Citizenship.

Pope, J. (2011)

Change and disadvantage in the Hume region, Victoria

. Melbourne: Department of Planning and Community Development.


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