Mixed Methods Research Anneke Fitzgerald

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Mixed Methods Research Anneke Fitzgerald




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Presentations text content in Mixed Methods Research Anneke Fitzgerald

Slide1

Mixed Methods Research

Anneke Fitzgerald

Slide2

Objectives

To

identify the advantages and disadvantages of employing multiple research methods;

To consider those factors that influence the choice of research method and sequence of the multiple methods;

To understand triangulation and its variations;

To

examine the management and analysis of data in the context of multi method research;

To consider the need for clear planning and managing a mixed methods approach

Slide3

Methods, Data

Analyses, Data Displays

& Stories

GOAL

:

Achieve Desired

Balance to tell Different Types of StoriesTheme/category-basedTime-basedEvent-basedPerception-basedMental model-basedRole-basedCognition-basedCohort-basedGroup-basedIntervention-basedHypothesis-basedPattern-basedImpact-basedChange-basedRelationship-basedCross-caseGeneralisingData integrationHybrids of aboveEmergent stories . . .

Interaction-based strategies

Structured, Semi-structured, Unstructured interviews; Focus groups

Participant-centred strategies

Mapping & drawing; Storytelling; Self-recording

Observation-based strategies

Participant observation; Systematic observation; Unobtrusive observation

Document-based strategies

Textual evidence gathering; Multimedia evidence gathering; Meta-analysis; Secondary database methodsExperience-structuring strategiesExperiments/Quasi-experiments; Organising frameworks; Projective techniques; Process-tracing methods; Simulations & gamesMeasurement strategiesObjective tests & assessments; Self-report instruments; Physical measurements

STRATEGIC

CHOICES

Slide4

In a group of 3-4 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using multi-methods

Slide5

Advantages

Each

method can enhance the unique qualities of the other and result in vast opportunities for reciprocal advantages

Multi-method research overcomes the weaknesses of individual approaches, whereby one method’s strength may compensate for the other method’s weakness

It appreciates the complexity of a research

problem

Multi-method research reduces biasIt might increase response rateIt elicits more detailed informationIt enhances theory buildingIt enhances hypothesis testingIt enhances generalisationsIt enhances validityIt enhances accuracy of perceptionsIt might bridge macro and micro levels of social realityMulti-method research exposes the researcher to different ways of thinking (and behaving)

Slide6

Disadvantages

Multi-method research requires more time in planning and analysing the data

It requires more effort in planning and analysing the data

It requires more sensitivity because researchers have to synthesise the techniques to achieve synergy among them

Slide7

Merging

approaches

C

oncurrent

– convergent parallel design – triangulation models

A

two-phase design (qual and quant)A dominant / less-dominant design (embedded)Sequential – exploratory designEmphasis on reflective learning and contextualised understandingEmphasis on early learning providing feedforwardSequential – transformativeQuant – qual – action for changeSequential – multiphase –discrete yet linked studiesStudy 1 informs Study 2 informs Study 3 (mixed methods)

Slide8

Mixed Methods Approaches - Prototypes

[Adapted from: Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L, (2011).

Designing and conducting mixed methods research

(2

nd

Ed.

). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 69-70.]Quantitative Data Collection and AnalysisQualitative Data Collection and AnalysisInterpretationCompare or relate(a) Concurrent - Convergent parallel design ~ triangulation models

Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis

Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis

Interpretation

Follow up with

(c) Sequential – Explanatory design – emphasis on reflective learning &contextualised understanding

(d) Sequential – Exploratory design ~ emphasis on early learning providing

feedfoward

Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis

Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis

Interpretation

Builds to

Quantitative (or Qualitative Design

Quantitative (or Qualitative)

Data Collection and Analysis

Qualitative (or Quantitative)

Data Collection and Analysis

(before, during, or after)

Interpretation

(b) Concurrent - Embedded design w/ differential emphasis on data types

(f) Sequential - Multiphase design ~ discrete, self-contained yet linked studies

Study 1:

Qualitative

Informs

Overall

Program

Objective

Study 2:

Quantitative

Study 3:

Mixed Methods

Informs

(e) Sequential - Transformative design ~ guided by an over-arching framework for achieving change/improvement; may have implied or explicit feedback loops or learning cycles, as in action research

Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis

Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis

Interpretation

Follow up with

Transformative framework

Actions for change

Slide9

Thinking of your own study, which merging approach are you taking and why?

Slide10

Sequence selection?

The

research topic

What does your discipline suggest about the order of data collection methods?

The research question

Is there a validated research tool that will answer your question?

TimingIs there a holiday period that will impact your ability to recruit participants?Should you interview or utilise your survey first? You should probably administer the survey first and follow up with interviews to avoid biasing the responses of research participants to the survey.The context within which the research will take placeWhere will you be conducting the research?What else will be going on in your life at that time?The resources availableDo you need money to conduct the research?Do you need access to particular computer software packages?

Slide11

Triangulation

Triangulation is the use of several different research techniques in the same study to confirm and verify data gathered in different ways.

Triangulation

adds

rigour, richness and depth to the design and to the data.

Slide12

Types of triangulation

Source

triangulation

Investigator

triangulation

Theory triangulationMethodological

triangulationRecruitment triangulationData collection and analysis triangulationResearch team triangulationInterdisciplinary triangulation

Slide13

Developing a

Mixed Methods

Mindmap

[Adapted from: Cooksey, R.W. & McDonald, G. (2011).

Surviving and thriving in postgraduate research.

Prahran, Vic: Tilde University Press, p. 346.].

Slide14

Research quality

Is the research story, as a whole, convincing with respect to the arguments being made?

Context

Juxtapositioning

with other research

Contextual knowledge

Researcher positioningRealizationInternal coherenceAnalytical integrityExtensional reasoning – implications to other contextsExplicationHandling of unexpected outcomesValue for learningFertilization of new ideasAcknowledgement of limitationsPresentation to audience

Slide15

[

adapted from

Cooksey, R.W. (2008). Paradigm-independent meta-criteria for social & behavioural research.

Proceedings of the 2

nd

Annual Postgraduate Research Conference

, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, pp. 4-17.]

Slide16

MANAGING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

Slide17

Some

Useful

Mixed Methods

References

Bergmann, M.M. (ed.) (2008).

Advances in mixed methods research: Theories and applications

. London: Sage Publications.Brocklesby, J. (1997). Becoming multimethodology literate: An assessment of the cognitive difficulties of working across paradigm. In J. Mingers & A. Gill (Eds.), Multimethodology: The theory and practice of combining management science methodologies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 189-216. Cooksey, RW & McDonald, G. (2011). Surviving and thriving in postgraduate research. Prahran, VIC: Tilde University Press.Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches,(2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L. (2011) Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.International Journal of Mixed Methods in Applied Business & Policy Research, online journal, SageInternational Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, e-Content Management.Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Sage.Morse, J.M. & Niehaus, L. (2009). Mixed method design: Principles and procedures. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.Plano Clark, V.L. & Creswell, J.W. (2008). The mixed methods reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Tashakkori

, A. &

Teddlie,

C. (Eds). (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social &

behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Teddlie, C. & Tashakkori

, A. (2009).

Foundations of mixed methods research: integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Slide18

MIXED METHODS

Special Interest group at ANZAM

Launch of the

Mixed Methods

SIG is on

Wednesday 7 December

1400, Amora 4(with thanks to Ray Cooksey)


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