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itwillbefoundthattheNandirestricttheirworktotheessentialsanddonotforth


1wiceadaythecattlearetakentowater11andabout530pmtheyreturnhometobemilkedandtofeedtheircalvesthisovertheyareabutupforthenightinthecattle-foldandthecalvesareputtobedThemonotonyofherdingisvariedbyoccasio

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Document on Subject : "itwillbefoundthattheNandirestricttheirworktotheessentialsanddonotforth"— Transcript:

1 itwillbefoundthattheNandirestricttheirwo
itwillbefoundthattheNandirestricttheirworktotheessentials,anddonot,forthemostpart,troublethemselvesfurther.Beingthemainindustry,theherdingoflive-stockisnaturallythechiefoccupationofthepeople,eveninthesedaysofagriculturaldevelopment.Herdingiilanendinitself:topossesscattle,andtoseethemdaybydayseemstobethehighestgoodtowhichtheNandimindcanaspire,andaccountspartlyfortheprejudiceaaginstusingoxenforworking.ANandioncetoldmeasmuch:if,hesaid,ouroxenwork,whatshallwehavelefttoherd?Yetyearsoffamiliaritywiththeircattle,andhandlingofthemsincebirth,havenotproducedanynoticeabledegreeoftamenessinNandilive-stock,butrathertheopposite;forwhilethecowsBubmit,8S8rule,quietlyenoughtobemilked,theyarewithdifficultyhandledforotherpurposesevenbytheirowners.Calvesandoxenareevenmoretroublesome.Thereasonforthisseemstobeinthephysicalfearwhichmany:Nandidisplaytowardstheirowncattle-Imeanthefearofbeingkickedorhorned-whendoinganythingtothem,andinthelackofcontroltheyshow,bothoverthemselvesandthecattle

2 ,whenroundingthemup;shouting,wavingstick
,whenroundingthemup;shouting,wavingsticks,andrunningaboutarenotthebestwaysofdealingwithanydomesticatedanimals.Thepracticalpartofherdingisusuallydividedbetweentheownerandhisrelations-theprecisedegreeofrelationshipisimmaterial,andthecaretakerissometimesnotrelatedatalltotheowner,thoughheisalwaysamemberofthesamemilitarydivision,andgenerallyofthesameclan.Someofthecattleliveattheowner'shomestead,whiletheremainderaresentouttograssinthechargeofacaretaker,atwhosehomesteadtheylive.Suchaplacewhereamankeepspartofhisherdisreferredtobyhimas"thecattle-place,"5withoutapossessivepronoun;andpartofhisworkistovisitthe"cattle-place"toinspecthisanimals.Sometimesitisclosetohisownhut,oritmaybemanymilesoff;andinrarecasesitisnoteveninNandi,butinanotherReserve(foritmustnotbethoughtthat,amongtheNanditribes,aReserveortribalareaisexclusivelyinhabitedbypeopleofthattriOe:whenallspeakthesamelanguage,andhavethesamecustomsandinstitutions,politicalboundariesinpeacetimemeanverylittle).Asregardsgrazin

3 grights,thelandisthecommonpropertyofthet
grights,thelandisthecommonpropertyofthetribe,andsubjecttocertainrestrictions,theNandiareatlibertytoliveandpasturetheirstockwherevertheylike.Thisfreedomis,however,limitedbythefifteendivisionsofthetribewhichwemaycallinEnglish"militarydivisions."6Originallyappliedtogroupsofpeoplewhichformedindependentfightingunits,thenameincourseoftime6Kaptich.6Pororiet,plur.pororosiek.Thisisusually,thoughquitewrongly.spokenofas"clan";thuswehearof"theactivitiesoftheKapchepkendiclan."whereasthereisnosuchclan,thenamebeingthatofamilitarydivision.Astothenames,seeHollis,"Nandi,"p.4;andmynotesinJ.R.A.I.lvii.432-434.252 1wiceadaythecattlearetakentowater,11andabout5.30p.m.they,returnhometobemilkedandtofeedtheircalves;thisover,theyareabutupforthenightinthecattle-fold,andthecalvesareputtobed.,Themonotonyofherdingisvariedbyoccasionalvisitstoasalt-liek,uabouttwiceamonthifthereisonenearby,lessoftenifitisfaraway.AtKiptorosnear,Kt\psabetincentralNandithereisalargesalt-lickonthenorthsideoftheKamnetu

4 iriver,occupyingseveralacres,whichserves
iriver,occupyingseveralacres,whichservesalargearea;herepitshavebeendugforthesalt-earth,13whichisputintoshallowtroughsdugintheground,andmixedwithwater.Theyoungeranimalsarebroughttothesetroughs,whiletheadultstocklickthebareearth,whichindryweatherismoistenedwithwater.Thehousingofthecattleisaverysimplematter.'l'hefull-grownanimalsarekeptatnightinanopencircularfold14madeofpolesfixedinthegroundatintervals,theinterveningspacesbeingfilledwithsticks,thorn,andbrushwood.Thereisoneentrance,15formedofuprightforkedpostswithacross-baratthetop,againstwhich,ontheinnerside,arestooduprightpolesinsuchawaythattheanimalscannotgetout.Thedungisremovedeverymorningbythewomen,whoscrapeitoutwiththeirhands,usingasmallpieceofhrdetohelpwhenitisverywet,andflingitoutsideontoadung-heaJ2..C8sometimesneartheentrance,thoughoftenthe.dungiscollected~undtheenclosure.Thecalvesarehousedintheowner'shut.Nandihutsaredividedbyacentralwallwithadoorwayinit:inthefrontpartofthehut,11wherethehearthis,thepeopleslee

5 p,togetherwiththesheepandgoats;intheback
p,togetherwiththesheepandgoats;inthebackpart18thecalvesareput.Byday,whentooyoungtowalkabout,calvesarekeptinthehuttiedwithathongtoapost:whenolder,theywanderaboutoutsidepickingupwhatgrazingtheycan.TheNandidonotgivecalveswater,believingthattheywillgetEastCoastFeveriftheydrink;buttheydonotinterfereifthecalvesfindtheirownwaytotheriver.Atcalving-time,abedofgrassorleavesispreparedforthecowtodropitscalfupon.Whenthecalfappears,theowner,orwhoeverhiinattendance,wipestheviscidfluidfromthecalf'smouthandnostrils,andstandsbytillthemotherhaslickeditdry:thenheputsitintothehut.Incasesofdifficultdeliverytheattendantsometimesinsertshishandtoturnthecalf;andinprotractedcasesa"cow­doctor"maybecalledin.Thesecow-doctorshaveactuallylittlemore11Awatering-placeinariveriscalledtaparta.12figenda.13Thevalueofthesesalt-licksissaidtobeverysmall.14peut.150rmarlchet.18Kamfigototek.17Koiimaut.18injorut.254 for"mouth";andanthrax,fromaNilotiowordmeaning••swelling."Sometimestheycandiagnoseth

6 em,thoughanydiseasewhichsh~,forexample,o
em,thoughanydiseasewhichsh~,forexample,oneofthesymptomsofrinderpest,maybediagnosed••Buoh,thoughactuallyitmaybenomorethanacatarrh;andacough·willbesetdowntoeastooastorpleurowithoutfurtherenquiryorexamination.andalthoughtheexistenceofanthrax~~isknown,theaymptomsconveylittleinformation,andananimalthathasdiedofanthraxwillbeeatenwithouthesitation;deathshaveocourredintheReserve'fromthisfoolishbehaviour.NowwhilesicknessinpeopleisgenerallyattributedinSOmewayorothertotheactionofthespiritsofthedead,theincidenceofdiseaseincattle(unlessmagicalinfluenceisknowntohavebeenatwork)iBascribedtonaturalcauses.YetthesecausesaresuchasonemightexpecttofindinPliny'B••NaturalHistory,"butnotfromapeoplewhohavebehindthemcenturiesofcattle-raising.Isawnotlongagoacalfwithalargeabscessbelowtheear,whichwasprobablyduetoaninsectbite.'.I'heNandiowner,however,thoughtotherwise:itwasdue,hesaid,tothefactthatthecalfwasnotallowedtosuckitsmother;yetitwasmorethanayearoldandhadbeenweanedsom

7 efourmonths.Ihavenlreadymentionedthebeli
efourmonths.Ihavenlreadymentionedthebeliefthatdrinkingwatergivescalveseastcoastfever;andifIaddthatIhaveheardaNandiexpresshisbeliefthatthebrandAM23isinitselfaprotectionagainstrinderpest(withoutthepreviousdoubleinoculation),itwillberealizedthattheirpatho­logicalknowledgeisalmostnon-existent,asonewoulp.naturallyexpectontheanalogyoftheirknowledgeofhumanailments.Ontheotherhand,theNandihavequitearespectableknowledgeoftheanatomyof.cattle,andcan.namemostoftheinternalorgans,thoughtheyknowlittleabouttheirfunctions.Anatomy,however,islargelyamatterofobservation,andbetweenitandphysiologythereisagreatgulf.Asaconsequenceofallthis,whendiseasebreaksoutinadistrict,noattemp.tismad~totr~atit.(unl~ssaveterinaryoffioertakescharge).AbonfireISmade,IIIWhIChWIldol1ve,solanum24.,andothershrubs'areburned,andthecattlearedrivenuptoit.Omensarethentakenfromtheentrailsofapregnantsheep,whichisstrangledbytwomenofclaDSthatmayintermarry:iffavourable,theherdisdrivenroundthefire,thesheeproastedandeate

8 n,andringsaremadeofitsskin,andwornbytheo
n,andringsaremadeofitsskin,andwornbytheownersofthecattle.Iftheomensarenotfavourable,thecattlearekeptwaitinguntilasuitablesheepisfound.Asimilarceremonyisheldwhencattlearepoisoned.Deadanimalsareeaten,nomatterwhatthecauseofdeathmaybe.~2purasta.saTheveterinarybranddenoting••immunetorinderpest."24.TheSolanumcampylacanthum(Ndi.lapotuet)possessescertainmagioal'firt.u••,andisusedinotherperformancesofamagicalnature.•256 ·Certainoattleareagaindifferentiatedasbeing••unluoky;'.~,becausetheyhavesomephysicalabnormalitywhichdetractsfromtheirvalue.Suchcattleareofatleastfivekinf'g:1.Those:~etailsarefrequentlycaughtineleftsoftrees,orbetweentwoclose-growingstems.2.••Thosewhichdonotswallowallthegrasstheyeat,butkeepsomeofitinthecheek."283.Thosewhichha.veahabitofgettingtheirnostrilstornbytwigsorbranches.•.Thosewhichputouttheirtonguesanabnormallylongway.5.Thosewhichgrindtheirteeth(excludingcalves).Besidestheobviousdrawbackstosomeofthese

9 peculiarities,thereisintheseanimalsthefe
peculiarities,thereisintheseanimalsthefearoftheabnormal,forathingwhichisoutoftheordinarymaybeharmful,andmustbeavoided.Hence,inacattledeal,carefulenquiriesaremade,lestamanfindhimselfsaddledwithanunluckybeast.Somespecialusestowhichcattleareputhaveresultedinadis­tinctiveterminology:thus,whilethereisageneraltermfor"cattle,"andwordsdenotinganimalsatvariousag-es,wefindthatcattleusedforcertainpurposesaregivenothernames~Thus,thecowswhicharegiventoabridebyherfatherandbyhergroom'sfatherduringthemarriageceremonyareknownas"TheFatOnes";2'andthecattlepaidbyamanasbride-priceforhiswifearecalled"Daughter-cattle."80Animalswhicharepaidbywayofafineorcompensationforamurderareoftwokinds:oneiscalled"Break-spear,"81andispaidbythemurdererhimselftotherelationsofhisvictim;theother,knownas••Head-cattle,"81arethosepaidonthemurderer'sbehalfbyhisrela­tions.AndanimalscapturedonaraidarecalledbyanamewhichcomesfromaNiloticverbmeaning"totakeacowbystealth."UThecompletedivisionofcattle,asr

10 ecognizedbytheNandi,maythereforebesummar
ecognizedbytheNandi,maythereforebesummarizedasfollows:Ordinaryorherdedcattle:1,Inherited;2,Acquired.Unluckycattle.Marriage-cattle.Bride-cattle.Fine-cattle.27Sigoranet,pi.Sigoranok.28'l'etanemalukuisusuektukulcheome,akotepchialakemmatanda,a'mapendimoiell.2'Chemwai.aaKoiy-o(-et),fromLuo;Koyo,••totakeacowUTuk'apchepto.forthedowrysecretlyfromoneoftherela-31Iri-figot.tions."(CatholicMission:VocabularyNilotic-82.Tuk'ammet.English.) Inashortpaper,itisimpQ8sibletodealwiththewholesubjectofoattle,andIhaveforthatreasonooufiuedmyselftothemoreprac­tioalaspeotofthematter.Suohthingsaseattie-magio,theeffectofspellsonoattle,religiousoeremomesoOJlJleotedwithtbem,audoattleinmythology,aswellasotherpracticaldetails,lhavebadwleaveout.And,ifitbethoughtthatIhavebeentoo'leveraOnmethods.I0&11onlypleadthatIhavetriedtodesoribewhattheyactuallydo.ratherthanportraythemasthe"perfeotsavage"thatexistsintheimaginationofsomewriter~.APPENDICJ11S.I.NANDINAMESOFCATTLE!)ISBASBS.Chepkiyait:ver

11 tigo;rotationofthehead.*Cheptigonit:(1)b
tigo;rotationofthehead.*Cheptigonit:(1)bile;(2)eastooastfever.Chepuonit:pleuro-pneumonia.[frompuon,•lung.']Eset:anyfever.Kipkaita,Kipkaitet:rinderpest.Kipkuit:anaplasmosis(gall-sickness).Kipkusto:blackquarter.[Fromkusto,"thefore-leg."l.Maikutiet:foot-and-mouthdisease.[Fromkut,••moutll."]Makarkarek:worms.Mokoiek:streptothricosis.Purasta:anthrax.[FromLuobur,"swelling."]Sasoito:redwater.Sutonik:contagiousabortion.Tertit:three-days'.sickness.Tungwek:catarrh.Ututik:mange."II.NANDIOATTLE-NAMESANDTYPBS.1.Oolour.Chaipis:blackandwhite.Kamarokong:blackwithwhitestripeonface.-kepe:blackwithwhiteflanks;(masc.kip-kepe,fern.chep-kepe}.Koroiit:blackandwhite.Lelgut:whitemouth.leI,lelyo:white(masc.kip-leI,fern.chep-Iel).Lelmet:whitehead.Miso:black(alsomasc.ki-miso,fem.che-miso).-mukye:partlybrown(masc.ki-mukye,fem.che-mukye).-murkut:brownmouth(masc.ki-murkut,fern.che-murkut).-naria:whiteroundeyes(masc.kim-naria,fern.chem-naria).*As,forexample,inpoisoningfromwaterpars

12 nip(Siumthunbergi),whereoneofthesymptoms
nip(Siumthunbergi),whereoneofthesymptomsisshakingorrotationofthehead.(AidstoStockowners,p.132.)269 "---/~J~--.--/'/~oFIG-0,A0SITFIG.f.SOTETNEPARA-Kill, :Rgea,v.:cleanoutacattle-fold.:Rgototek:cow-dung.*Nye,v.:chew.(Pres.nyei).Ormanchet:doorofacattle-fold.Os,v.:abort.(Pres.llse).Osit:anoldcowpastcalf-bearing.*Parpet,pI.Parpasek:placenta.Peut:cattle-fold.·Puondet;lung.*Bany,v.:turn,headoff(cattle);stopfromgoingsomewhere.Borta,Boriat:heifer.Botet:thebackboneofanox.Sigan,v.:passdung.Sigoranet:anunluckybeast.Siiyet:hoof.Soi:placewherecattlearesenttograze.•Soromyet:kidney.*Sosiot:stickofthePhoenixreclinataormkindupalmusedforclean­ingmilk-gourds.·Sotet:gourd.S.nemarich~kut,wide-mouthedgourd;S.nepara-kut,narrow-mouthedgourd.Subendo:youngfemalecalf.Sukulumdo:rump.Takolet:dewlap.Tany:anox,acow.*Taparta:ford;drinking-placeinariver.Tata:theox,thecow.·Tich:oxen,cows.Tir,v.:tobackanox.Tuka:theoxen,thecows.Tuk'apchepto,bride-price;Tuk'ammet,finepaidformurder.Ukta:hump.I

13 eIV.WORD8CONNECTEDWITHGRASS.Iwasto:place
eIV.WORD8CONNECTEDWITHGRASS.Iwasto:placewheregrasshasbeenburnt.Kipkirkiriet:knifeforcuttinggrass;sickle.Laluet:placewheregrasshasbeenburnt.Maleliet:placewherenewgrasshasgrownafterburning.:Rgei,v.:tocutgrass.:Rgemiat:burntgrass.S8.tyet:driedgrass,straw.Susuot,pI.susuek:grassingeneral.Warefig:aplaceorareawheregrassisburntwithoutrestriction.IIIWordsinthislistmarkedwithanasterisk*areusedalsoofotherthings.Therestareproperlyusedofcattleonly.262 Twiceadaythecattlearetakentowater,llandabout5.30p.m.theyreturnhometobemilkedandtofeedtheircalves;thisover,theyareshutupforthenightinthecattle-fold,andthecalvesareputtobed.Themonotonyofherdingisvariedbyoccasionalvisitstoasalt-lick,12abouttwiceamonthifthereisonenearby,lessoftenifitisfaraway.AtKiptorosnear,KapsabetincentralNandithereisalargesalt-lickonthenorthsideoftheKamnetuiriver,occupyingseveralacres,whichservesalargearea;herepitshavebeendugforthesalt-earth,13whichisputintoshallowtroughsdugintheground,andmixedwithwater.Theyounger

14 animalsarebroughttothesetroughs,whilethe
animalsarebroughttothesetroughs,whiletheadultstocklickthebareearth,whichindryweatherismoistenedwithwater.Thehousingofthecattleisaverysimplematter.Thefull-grownanimalsarekeptatnightinanopencircularfold14.madeofpolesfixedinthegroundatintervals,theinterveningspacesbeingfilledwithsticks,thorn,andbrushwood.Thereisoneentrance,15formedofuprightforkedpostswithacross-baratthetop,againstwhich,ontheinnerside,arestooduprightpolesinsuchawaythattheanimalscannotgetout.Thedungisremovedeverymorningbythewomen,whoscrapeitoutwiththeirhands,usingasmallpieceofhrdetohelpwhenitisverywet,andflingitoutsideontoadung-heap,16sometimesnear·theentrance,thoughoftenthedungiscollectedallroundtheenclosure.Thecalvesarehousedintheowner'shut.Nandihutsaredividedbyacentralwallwithadoorwayinit:inthefrontpartofthehut,11wherethehearthis,thepeoplesleep,togetherwiththesheepandgoats;inthebackpartl8thecalvesareput.Byday,whentooyoungtowalkabout,calvesarekeptinthehuttiedwithathongtoapost:whenolder,theywanderabo

15 utoutsidepickingupwhatgrazingtheycan.The
utoutsidepickingupwhatgrazingtheycan.TheNandidonotgivecalveswater,believingthattheywillgetEastCoastFeveriftheydrink;buttheydonotinterfereifthecalvesfindtheirownwaytotheriver.Atcalving-time,abedofgrassorleavesispreparedforthecowtodropitscalfupon.Whenthecalfappears,theowner,orwhoeveribinattendance,wipestheviscidfluidfromthecalf'smouthandnostrils,andstandsbytillthemotherhaslickeditdry:thenheputsitintothehut.Incasesofdeliverytheattendantsometimesinsertshishandtoturnthecalf;andinprotractedeasesa"cow­doctor"maybecalledin.Thesecow-doctorshaveactuallylittlemore11Awatering-placeinariveriscalledtaparta.12iigenda.13Thevalueofthesesalt-licksissaidtobeverysmall.14peut.150rmarlchet.16Kamiigototek.1TKoiimaut.18injorut.254 Certaincattleareagaindifferentiatedasbeing••unlucky,"21becausetheyhavesomephysicalabnormalitywhichdetractsfromtheirvalue.Suchcattleareofatleastfivekinds:1.Thosewhosetailsarefrequentlycaughtincleftsoftrees,orbetweentwoclose-growingstems.2.••