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Imperial medicine and the ‘civilising mission’ Imperial medicine and the ‘civilising mission’

Imperial medicine and the ‘civilising mission’ - PowerPoint Presentation

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Imperial medicine and the ‘civilising mission’ - PPT Presentation

HI269 Week 8 The White Mans Burden Take up the White Mans burden Send forth the best ye breed Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives need To wait in heavy harness ID: 239381

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Slide1

Imperial medicine and the ‘civilising mission’

HI269

Week

8Slide2

The White Man’s Burden

“Take up the White Man's burden--

Send forth the best ye breed-

Go, bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.”Rudyard Kipling, ‘The White Man’s Burden’, 1899Slide3
Slide4

WHOSE burden?

"The White (?) Man’s Burden"

The "white”

colonial powers being carried as the burden of their "colored” subjects.First printed in Life, March 16, 1899.Slide5

Imperialism and

‘Progress’Slide6

Defining Characteristics of Imperial and Colonial

Medicine

universalising

claimscreation/reproduction of race and gender stereotypes pathologizing the bodies of colonial peoplesused as a source of political authority and social control, legitimationprofound role of environment in determining medical priorities, interpretations, policiesmedicine state-oriented, state-dependent, expressive of imperialist ideologiesclose links with military establishmentoften enclavist, privileging European health over that of nativessanitary and public health measures have strong component of population controlaimed at creating and reinforcing European hegemony, cultural, political and socialSlide7

Case Study: Smallpox, Sitala

, and the Civilising missionSlide8
Slide9
Slide10

From inoculation to vaccinationSlide11

A case study in colonial medicine: chronology and context of vaccination in

India

 

Time frame -- This is by no means an exhaustive or definitive chronology, but merely aims to suggest the context and phases of colonial medicine in India.  1763 Britain defeats France in India1780s Indian Medical Service begins to expand (IMS)1784 India Act puts India under parliamentary control (administered by East India Company [EIC]); Asiatic Society of Bengal founded1803 Mughal Emperor accepts British protection1804 First attempt to ban variolation, and impose vaccination (unenforced,

unenforceable

)

1813

Charter Act forces EIC to accept responsibility for education of the Indian

people

, particularly in ‘Oriental and Occidental science,’ as counterpoise

to

missionary education

1818

First vernacular newspaper started (by missionaries)

1822

Native Medical Institution founded in Calcutta, to train Indians in w. med. for

army/civilian

govt.

1827

Calcutta

Madrasa

and Calcutta Sanskrit College offer classes in

unani

and

ayurveda

respectively

1828

Brahmo

Samaj

, an org. supporting western-style education and the printing

of

Hindu works in vernacular, founded by native

reformers

;Slide12

1833

East India Company monopoly revoked

1835

Official policy supporting Western-style education and westernization (esp in languages, science and medicine); support withdrawn from Madrasa, Sanskrit College, NMI, and Calcutta Medical College founded instead, offering English-language medical training1836 first dissection in modern times performed by an Indian vaidya (formerly a medical instructor at Sanskrit College)1840s Conquest of Sind and Punjab1844 Calcutta Medical College founded1853 India loses dominance in cotton textiles and becomes importer of Lancashire cotton cloth; first railway line opens1857 Universities established in the three Presidencies; two would subsequently

exclude

vernacular languages from their courses of study

1857-8

‘Mutiny’ or first Indian Uprising

1860s

Medical men calling for regulation of native Indian medical practitioners

;

Contagious

diseases Act, just passed in Britain, swiftly enacted in India as

well

1864

Sanitation Boards established in each Presidency

1865

Govt of Bengal prohibited

variolation

in Calcutta

1868

Indian Pharmacopoeia published, aimed at IMS personnel

1869

Suez opens, hugely facilitating trade and travel between Europe and

IndiaSlide13

1870-71

rumours of compulsory vaccination spark riots in Delhi

1877

Govt. of Bombay passes Vaccination act, making vaccination compulsory for infants1880 permissive legislation passed allowing local govts to mandate vaccination1885 1st Indian National Congress1890s plague epidemics1897 Plague Act granting Govt. draconian powers over people, property, trade, pilgrimage, sanitation, passed over heads of Indian local, regional governments, in order to suppress plague (which was threatening European trade with India). Legislation and subsequent actions provoked unprecedented civilian resistance and violent rioting (Chairman of Plague Committee assassinated

)

1905

1st mass agitation

1909

Indian Councils Act, making majority of legislative council seats directly

elective

, w/ separate electorates for Muslims and Hindus. India

representatives

to viceroy’s council and to secretary’s council in UK.

1917

policy promoting Indian self-government first announced; deemed inadequate

by

Indian nationalists

1919

‘anti-sedition’ laws enabling detention without trial etc., for Indian nationalist

activists

; influenza epidemic and mass famines; sanitation and education

matters

transferred from Governor’s portfolio to Indian ministers

1920

first non-cooperation campaign and boycott on British goods

1935

Government of India Act

1947

Independence and Partition

.Slide14

Medical Mandates and Civilising Missions

“In no country does the public health more urgently demand the aid of that science. But the ignorance, prejudice, and suspicions of the people on one hand, and the vast demands upon the revenues for more visibly and perhaps more urgently needed public works on the other, do not leave sanitation a chance

.” India, 1872 (in response to epidemic cholera)

“The basis of all sanitary achievement... must be a knowledge of the people and the conditions under which they live, their prejudices, their ways of life, their social customs, their habits, surroundings and financial means...” Sir Harcourt Butler, November 1911. Slide15

Letter of donation of a Tropical Medicine Laboratory to the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum, Sudan

.

1901

, from Sir Henry Wellcome to General Sir Reginald Wingate KCMG, KCB, DSO etc. Governor General of the Sudan.   September 28th,1901, London.  Sir, I beg to offer for the acceptance of  the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum , a complete equipment for Chemical and Bacteriological  Laboratories for Analytical and Research Work. The Laboratories would be designed: To promote technical education.To undertake the testing and assaying of agricultural, mineral and other substances of practical interest in the industrial development of the Sudan. To carry out such tests in connection with waters, food stuffs and sanitary matters as may be found desirable.

To aid in criminal investigation in poisoning cases (which are so frequent in Sudan) by detecting and experimental determination of toxic agents , particularly those obscure potent substances employed by the natives.

To study

bacteriologically

and physiologically tropical disorders especially the infective diseases of both man and beast peculiar to the Sudan, and to render assistance to the officers of health and the clinics of civil and military hospitals

.…

It

is anticipated that the work of the laboratories will prove beneficial to both the European and native population. It is my desire that the laboratories be made as far as practicable self-supporting, by the charging of such reasonable fees as will aid in covering the cost of maintaining them.

In

the event of your doing me the honour of accepting my offer, I propose that the equipment shall be delivered either at Alexandria or Port Said, as you may prefer.

I have the honour to be, Sir

your obedient Servant.

(signed) Henry S.

WellcomeSlide16
Slide17