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Organic Foods Policies, Perceptions and Performance Organic Foods Policies, Perceptions and Performance

Organic Foods Policies, Perceptions and Performance - PowerPoint Presentation

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Organic Foods Policies, Perceptions and Performance - PPT Presentation

Roger Clemens DrPH CFS CNS FACN FIAST Chief Scientific Officer Horn rclemensethorncom Research Professor USC School of Pharmacy clemensuscedu USC Health Center Pharmacy Disclosures for Roger Clemens ID: 750346

food organic foods conventional organic food conventional foods 2012 2013 national milk program health agricultural difference tomatoes evidence consumer

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Slide1

Organic FoodsPolicies, Perceptions and Performance

Roger Clemens, DrPH, CFS, CNS, FACN, FIASTChief Scientific Officer, Hornrclemens@ethorn.comResearch Professor, USC School of Pharmacyclemens@usc.edu

USC Health Center PharmacySlide2

Disclosures for Roger Clemens

AFFILIATION/FINANCIAL INTERESTS

CORPORATE ORGANIZATION

Grants/Research Support:

None

Scientific Advisory Board/Consultant:

Almond Board of California,

AuthenTechnologies

,

Biothera

,

Blytheco

,

Daedelus

Humanitarian, McDonald’s, California Walnut Commission,

FoodMinds

, Quaker Oats,

Spherix

Consulting, TAAG,

U.S.

Pharmacopeia,

Numerous Law Firms,

Numerous PR Firms

Speakers Bureau:

Pro Bono

ASN, IFT, USC + Numerous Media Outlets

Stock Shareholder:

None

Other:

NoneSlide3

ObjectivesIdentify key elements in the National Organic ProgramAssess and separate consumer perceptions relative to organic foods and agricultural practices

Evaluate, apply and communicate scientific information to quality of organic foods3Slide4

Organic Illusions

http://www.american.com/archive/2012/october/organic-illusions

Accessed November 19, 2013Blake Hurst, October 1, 2012“ … the whole point of organic food is that it’s more nutritious.” Michael Pollan

, September 4, 2012“ … published literature lacks strong evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods.” Smith-Spangler et al., Ann Intern Med 2012;157:348-66

4Slide5

Artisanal Organic Burger

1,080 Kcal

$12

McDonald’s

Big Mac

550 Kcal

$3.99

See related “war” article by David Freedman

,

How Junk Food Can End

Obesity

, Atlantic, July/August 2013

5Slide6

National Organic Program(21CFR 205.300)

Organic crops. The USDA organic seal verifies that irradiation, sewage sludge, synthetic fertilizers, prohibited pesticides, and genetically modified organisms were not used.Organic livestock.

The USDA organic seal verifies that producers metanimal health and welfare standards, did not use antibiotics or growth hormones, used 100% organic feed, and provided animals with access to the outdoors.

6Slide7

Consumer PerceptionsWhat are consumer perceptions of organic foods?Are there differences in agricultural practices?

Conventional farmingIntegrated pest managementOrganic controls 7Slide8

2013 Food & Health Survey

Consumer Attitudes Toward Food Safety, Nutrition & Health

May 2013

International Food Information Council FoundationSlide9

Eating a more balanced diet generally—and more fruits and vegetables and fewer sweets in particular—are the most common ways Americans would improve their diets.

9

What do you think you would need to do to give your diet a better grade / improve your diet further?

Top responses to open-ended question

2013 All (n=1,006) Slide10

The minority of consumers report regularly buying products because they are advertised as “natural” or “organic” on the label.

10

Which of the following, if any, do you do on a regular basis

(that is, most times when you shop for food and beverages)?

(% Yes)

2013 All (n=1,006)

W Y

Women

and

younger

consumers (18-34 year olds) are especially likely to have

purchased foods or beverages for several of these reasons.

E

Highly

educated c

onsumers (college grads) are more apt to have purchased organic.

Y

W

Y

W

E

Y

W

WSlide11

Food Biotechnology:Impact on Behavior Impact on Behavior

13%

Q24A.

During the past few months, have you taken any action or done anything because of any concerns you may have about foods produced using biotechnology?

Q24B.

What actions have you taken? [OPEN END]

No

87%

Approximately 9 in 10 Americans are not taking any actions out of concern about biotechnology

Among those taking any action

:

Eat less/Don’t eat/ 15%

Don’t buy

Nothing 11%

Read labels 10%

Sign petitions/protest/ 10%

write letters

Eat organic 6%

Buy local/grow own food 6%

Research products 6%

Other 9%

Don’t know 2%

Missing/Refused 22%

11Slide12

Consumer PerceptionStudy

115 people from a local shopping mall Evaluate 3 pairs of products— 2 yogurts, 2 cookies and 2 potato chip portions

One item from each food pair was labeled “organic”, while the other was labeled “regular” Note: all of the product pairs were organic and identical ResultsOrganic labels evoked lower calorie estimations and higher willingness-to-pay

Organic labels yielded more positive nutritional evaluations toward the food The health halo effect was primarily driven by heuristics

Lee WC, et al. Food Quality Preference 2013;29:33-39

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY USA

12Slide13

Consumer Beliefs and BehaviorSurvey among 1,054 “organic” consumersContend positive health benefits

Contend environmentally friendlyContend better tastingZagata L. Appetite 2012;59:81-89Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

13Slide14

Myth: Organic Foods Are Free Of Pesticides.

The National Organic Program (NOP) regulations currently allow use of inert ingredients which appear on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) List 4A – Minimal Risk Inert Ingredients, and List 4B – Other ingredients for which EPA has sufficient information to reasonably conclude that the current use pattern in pesticide products will not adversely affect the public health or the environment14

National Organic Program Handbook, September 2010Slide15

Are Organic Foods Free Of Pesticides?

Neem (Azadirachta indica) – used on crops to control pests on crops and inhibit CO2 emissions from urea-amended soil (may be reproductive inhibitor, although

approved by EPA)Nicotine sulfate – used for insect control; not safe for humans (potent neurotoxin) (limited availability)Pyrethrum – insecticide (e.g., mosquitoes and similar insects) from Chrysanthemum seeds (potent paralytic and neurotoxin)Rotenone – insecticide, acaricide (spiders, ticks, mites), piscicide (fish); from plants (Lonchorcarpus

or Derris); inhibits cellular respiration; moderate toxin (lethal at 300-500 mg/kg bw;NOAEL ~ 0.4 mg/kg bw/d) (comparable to LD50 caffeine – aspirin)Sabadilla – insecticide from lily-like plant in Mexico and Central

America; stomach poison; risk assessment incomplete

15

http://organic.lovetoknow.com/Permitted_Chemicals_List_for_Organic_Farming

http://

www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5068682

Accessed November 26, 2013

Some chemicals are allowed in organic farming.

Sabadilla

lilySlide16

What about Natural Pesticides?Cabbages contain at least 49

natural pesticides and their metabolitesSome are known mutagensChlorogenic acid  caffeic acid [also found in coffee]

Aromatic cyanides  HCN + aldehydesSome are known carcinogensAllyl isothiocyanate (induces bladder papillomas in male rats; classified as carcinogen by National Toxicology Program)

Carvone (metabolites provide caraway and spearmint aromas; classified as carcinogen by National Toxicology Program)Ames et al., Proc Natl Acad

Sci USA 1990;87:7777-81

16Slide17

What about Natural Carcinogens?

Rodent CarcinogenConcentration (ppm)PlantSource

HealthConsideration5-/8-methoxypsoralen 1 14Parsley (and celery)

MOP medication for psoriasis ; potential negative impact on reproduction (in mice)P-hydrazinobenzoate 2 11

MushroomsDNA damage

D-limonene

3

31

8,000

Orange juice

Black pepper

Potential topical anti-carcinogen

in cell culture cancer models

Safrole

4

3,000

Nutmeg

Provokes

apoptosis human leukemia cell models

Benzyl acetate

5

230

15

Jasmine tea

Honey

Fragrance

-

methylbenzyl

alcohol

6

1.3

Cocoa

Flavoring agent;

cosmetic ingredient ; not carcinogenic at 375 or 750 mg/kg; renal toxicity

1. National Toxicology Program, 1986;

Fattahi

et al., 2013

2. McManus et al., 1987; Oikawa et al., 2006

National Toxicology Program, 1990; Miller et al., 2012

Miller et al., 1986; Yu et al., 2012

Luo

et al., 1988;

McGinty

et al., 2012

National Toxicology Program, 1990;

McGinty

et al., 2012

17Slide18

Are Organic Foods Are More Nutritious?

18Dangour AD et al., Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:680-5 (London School of Hygiene &

Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom)Comparison of content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances in organically and conventionally produced crops as reported in satisfactory-quality studies

NutrientCategory

Number ofStudies

Number

of

Comparisons

Results of Analysis

Crop

in which Nutrient is Highest

Standardized Difference (%)*

P

Nitrogen

17

64

6.7 ± 1.9

0.003

Conventional

Vitamin C

14

65

2.7 ± 5.9

0.84

ND

Phenolic compounds

13

80

3.4 ± 6.1

0.60

ND

Magnesium

13

35

4.2 ± 2.3

0.10

ND

Calcium

13

37

3.7 ± 4.8

0.45

ND

Phosphorus

12

35

8.1 ± 2.6

0.009

Organic

Potassium

12

34

2.7 ± 2.4

0.28

ND

Zinc

11

30

10.1 ± 5.6

0.11

ND

Copper

11

30

8.6 ± 11.5

0.47

ND

Titratable

acidity

10

29

6.8 ± 2.1

0.01

Organic

* Standardized Difference

= Difference between the means/grand standard deviation;

Means ± SE; ND = Not DifferentSlide19

Comparative Agriculture Practices

Production TypeMoisture (%)Crude Protein (%)

Ash (%)Lycopene (mg%)Vitamin C (mg%)Organic

92.0 (0.25)1.46 (0.04)0.065 (0.006)3.72 (0.55)11.8 (0.76)Conventional

92.6 (0.15)1.05

(0.02)

0.049 (0.005)

4.89 (0.18)

21.4 (1.6)

IPM

92.2 (0.40)

1.14 (0.018)

0.038 (0.005)

3.54 (0.20)

21.2 (3.0)

P value of

model

NS

0.0001

0.0044

0.0238

0.0056

19

Rossi F et al.,

Eur

J

Nutr

2008;47:266-72

Istituto di Scienze degli Alimenti e

della

Nutrizione

, Piacenza, Italy

Nutrient content (on a fresh basis) of tomatoes obtained with three different agricultural practices

Production Type

β

-carotene

(mg%)

Salicylic Acid

(mg%)

Cd

(ppb)

Pb

(ppb)

Cu

(ppb)

Organic

0.33 (0.04)

0.074 (0.005)

33.0

(6.3)

37.8 (15)0.49 (0.03)Conventional0.30 (0.02)0.046 (0.003)2.0 (1.7)3.4 (1.9)0.46 (0.05)IPM0.28 (0.04)0.021 (0.003)21.3 (9.2)1.6 (1.2)0.65 (0.05)P value of model0.59520.00010.01010.01070.0171Values are mean (SE); n = 10 for each type of products except for salicylate (organic = 7) and vitamin C (n=6); For all the tested phytochemicals, the analytical methods never detected samples with concentrations higher than the LOD.Slide20

Comparative Nutrient Levels*

NutrientOrganic (n)Conventional (n)P value

Ascorbic acid 1141 13060.48-Carotene

114 1140.83-Tocopherol 60

601.00

Calcium

484

500

0.68

Phosphorus

353

374

< 0.001

Magnesium

352

362

0.66

Iron

350

300

1.00

Protein

93

108

1.00

Fiber

73

90

0.97

Total

flavanoids

96

96

1.00

Total phenols

401

401

0.007

* 237 studies met inclusion criteria; 223 studies compared organic and conventional fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, poultry, milk or eggs directly

Smith-Spangler et al., Ann Intern Med 2012;157:348-66

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA USA

Median difference: 0.15 mg/kg

Maximum difference: 530 mg/kg

Median difference: 31.6 mg/kg

Maximum difference: 10,480 mg/kg

20Slide21

What about Cultivation Systems?

Hallman E. J Sci Food Agric 2012;92:2840-48

Department of Functional Food and Commodity, Division of Organic Food, Warsaw, Poland.

Standard Tomato

Cherry Tomato

For Total Flavonoids:

Growing system: p=0.033

Type of Tomato: p=0.0001

21Slide22

What about Agricultural Stress?

Oliveira et al., PLOS One 2013;8:e56354Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) about 60% higher in Organic vs Conventional tomatoes.

Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) activity, a developmental and stress indicator, was about 140% higher in Organic vs Conventional tomatoes. PAL also rate limiting enzyme in phenolic synthesis.

22

MDA:

malondialdehydeSlide23

What about Agricultural Stress?

Mass and size were about 40% higher among Conventional vs Organic tomatoes.

Conventional tomatoes presented lower total phenolic concentrations vs Organic fruit.

23Oliveira et al., PLOS One 2013;8:e56354Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza-CE, BrazilSlide24

What about Soil Composition?

Migliori et al., J Sci Food Agric 2012;92:2833-39National Council of Agriculture Research, Milan, Italy

Crops, such as tomatoes, can be affected by cultivation system and genotype (cultivar)

24Slide25

What about purported Bioactives?

25Juroszek et al., J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:1188-94

Crop and Ecosystem Management Unit, Shanhua, Taiwan

No statistical differences among cultivars, farm types or locations.Slide26

Comparative Contamination*

FoodsContaminated/Total Organic (n/N)Contaminated/Total Conventional (n/N)

P valueFruits and vegetables253 / 304145,184 / 106,755

< 0.001Apples, bell peppers, berries, bok choi, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, cucumber, leafy greens, lettuces, spring mix, scallions, spinach, summer squash, tomatoes, zucchini63 / 80339 / 1454

1.0Barley, buckwheat, corn, mixed grains, rice, rye, wheat

267 / 393

310 / 347

0.043

Baby multi-cereal,

baby rice cereal, baby semolina, barley, buckwheat, corn, maize/tapioca, oats, rice, rye, spelt, wheat

384 / 713

791 / 1641

0.93

Contamination

defined as detection of

E. coli

,

deoxynivalenol

(

mycotoxin

primarily found in grains),

ochratoxin

(

mycotoxin

produced by

Aspergillus

ochraceus

, A.

carbonarius

,

Penicillium

verrucosum

), and a spectrum of USDA pesticides.

E. coli

contamination: 7% organic produce; 6% conventional produce (NS)

* 237 studies (Jan 1966-May 2011) met inclusion criteria; 223 studies compared organic and conventional fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, poultry, milk or eggs directly

Smith-Spangler et al., Ann Intern Med 2012;157:348-66

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA USA

26Slide27

What about Organic Milk?Samples:

Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states AntibioticsAll milk, prior to release, must be negative for animal drug, including antibiotics. Any positive lot is discarded immediately.PesticidesPesticides are ubiquitous; FDA and USDA testing indicates milk is among the lowest of detectable residues, and comply with US

and International safety standardsHormonesAll cows produce bSTOrganic milk from rbST-free and regular milk yield same compositionFlavorTaste is personal preferenceType of pasteurization, breed of cow, and variations in cow feed can impact flavor profile

An Organic Cow is a Special Cow

Vicini

et al., J Am Diet

Assoc

2008;108:1198-1203

Monsanto Company LC, St Louis,

MO, USA; Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA USA

27Slide28

What about Dairy Products?

28

Palupi et al., J Sci Food Agric 2012;92:2774-81(3-year research conducted in Europe)

Mean ± 95% CI expressed as g/kg

Favor

Organic

Favor

Conventional

Review of 29 studies; 10 countries; three seasons; Forest plot of cumulative effect size and 95% CI

of

all parameters Slide29

Summary of Organic vs Conventional

There is no research available to make a clear case that an organic foods are safer than conventional foods. The flavor profiles between organic and conventional apples and like foods are indistinguishable. The nutritional profiles of organic and conventional

foods are virtually the same (e.g., depend on climate, cultivar, local pests, soil conditions) According to the USDA, the organic seal is simply confirmation of a method of production, not a safety endorsement. 29Slide30

Effective Communications

30

Conflict

Criticism

Controversy

C

Where’s the story relative to…Slide31

Framing MessagesBasic

Approaches (4)95% Rule“95% of all questions and concerns that will be raised by any stakeholder in any controversy can be predicted in advance.”Rule of 27 / 9 / 327 words, 9 seconds, 3 messagesRule of three (TTT)3 Messages Repeated 3 TimesRule of AGL-4 (Average Grade Level minus 4)Words that are clear, and language that is understood by target audience

31http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/tcp/tools/risk_communication.pdfAccessed November 26, 2013Slide32

What are the Questions?What is organic food?Is organic food grown and produced under NOP “better” than food from conventional agricultural practices?

Is organic food really better for … ?Does “organic” have a role in combating malnutrition?32Slide33

Evidence-based CommunicationsWhat are the “organic” messages based on scientific evidence?What is the value of public testimonies / social media relative to evidence-based evidence?

33Slide34

ConclusionThere is inconsistent evidence that differentiate organic food grown and produced under NOP

vs food from conventional agricultural practices?What is the message?The US enjoys one of the safest, most nutritious, and affordable food supplies in the world. Enjoy it wisely.34Slide35

Stop

Talking!