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Uploaded On 2019-12-17


TECTONIC PROCESSES AND HAZARDS REVISION SUMMARY Aim To create summary mind maps for each sub section To look at some typical A level style questions Kilauea Earthquakes follow eruptions from Hawaii volcano May 5 ID: 770710

hazards tectonic earthquakes hazard tectonic hazards hazard earthquakes disasters management explain plate assess disaster impacts spec level earthquake volcanic




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TECTONIC PROCESSES AND HAZARDSREVISION SUMMARYAim: To create summary mind maps for each sub section To look at some typical A level style questions

Kilauea: Earthquakes follow eruptions from Hawaii volcano (May 5th 2018) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-44012046 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-44027883 Kilauea: Hawaii volcano destroys dozens of homes May 7 th 2018 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/science-environment-43902424/mesmerising-footage-shows-lava-lake-overflow-in-hawaii Mesmerising footage shows lava lake overflow in Hawaii April 25 th 2018

The topic is divided into three enquiry questions….1. Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards?2. Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters?3. How successful is the management of tectonic hazards and disasters?

How will I be questioned in the exam?Tectonics is a CORE topic so it can be tested in Paper 1 AND Paper 3It is Topic 1:Dynamic Processes and Hazards:In Paper 1 there will be :1 x 4 mark question testing quantitative skills 1 x 12 mark ‘Assess’ essay TOTAL = 16 /105 marks (15 % of the whole of Paper1) *You would be advised to spend around 20 mins on this section* In Paper 3 it could be linked to another core topic forming the basis of the whole exam so you ARE ADVISED TO REVISE THIS FULLY FOR PAPER 3 . This is worth 70 marks and 20% of your A level

EQ 1: Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards? The globa l distribution of tectonic hazards can be explained by plate boundary theory and other tectonic processes: Theory of plate tectonics and its key elements : (earth’s internal structure, mantle convection, palaeomagnetism , sea floor spreading , subduction and slab pull) There are theoretical frameworks that attempt to explain plate movements: The operation of these processes at different plate margins ( destructive, constructive, collision and transform) Earthquake waves (P,S and L waves) cause crustal fracturing, ground shaking and secondary hazards (liquefaction and landslides) Volcanoes cause lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash falls, gas eruptions, and secondary hazards(lahars, jokulhlaup) Tsunamis can be caused by sub- marine earthquakes at subduction zones as a result of sea-bed and water column displacement Distribution of plate boundaries resulting from divergent, convergent and conservative plate movements Global distribution and causes of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis Physical processes explain the causes of tectonic hazards Physical processes impact on the magnitude and type of volcanic eruption and earthquake magnitude and focal depth (Benioff zone) Causes of intra-plate earthquakes and volcanoes associated with hot spots from mantle plumes

Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 1*N.B Don’t negate the AS style questions as they could be asked in a very similar format at A level…You would be WISE to REVISE from both…..!* AS Spec 1 1a) Name one scale used to measure earthquake magnitude (1) Study fig 1 in the resource booklet. bi)Complete the scattergraph by adding the data for the earthquake of Sichun -Yunnan in china and then add a line of best fit.(2) ii) Suggest one reason why the more powerful earthquakes shown in fig 1 did not cause the most deaths (3) d) Explain the causes of tsunamis (6) AS May 2017: 1a) Plate movement can be explained by several processes. Identify 1 process that occurs only at destructive plate boundaries (1) b) study fig 1 in the resource booklet. i ) compare the data on the 2 earthquakes (2)d) Explain the tectonic hazards that may result from volcanic activity (6)

A Level Spec 1 1ai) Part completed spearman’s rank question involving tsunamis (4)Dynamic learning (p80) a) Study fig 1. Analyse the pattern of the depth of earthquake hypocentres shown on the map (4) Dynamic learning (p85) a) Study fig 1. Analyse the global pattern of the distribution of active volcanoes ( 4)Pearson (p.65) Assess the relative importance of the physical characteristics of volcanic eruptions in creating risk for people (12) Hodder Revision (p.94) AS Explain the causes of earthquakes (6)

EQ 2: Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters? Disaster occurrence can be explained by the relationship between hazards, vulnerability, resilience and disaster Measuring Tectonic Hazards: Mercalli Moment Magnitude Scale(MMS) Richter Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Tectonic hazard profiles are important to an understanding of contrasting hazard impacts, vulnerability and resilience Comparing characteristics of earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis ( magnitude,speed of onset,areal extent, duration,frequency, spatial predictability) through hazard profiles) Inequality of access to education, housing , healthcare and income opportunities can influence vulnerability and resilience Governance (local or national) and geographical factors (pop density, isolation and accessibility, degree of urbanization) influence vulnerability and a community’s resilience Contrasting hazard events in developed, emerging and developing countries show the interaction of physical factors and the significance of context in influencing the scale of disaster Definition of a natural hazards and a disaster- the importance of vulnerability and a community’s threshold for resilience; the hazard risk equation Pressure and Release (PAR) model and the complex inter-relationships between the hazard and its wider context. Development and Governance Profiles of earthquake, volcano and tsunami events showing the severity of social and economic impact in developed, emerging and developing countries Social and economic impacts of tectonic hazards(volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis)on the people, econ and envir of contrasting locations in the developing, emerging and developed world

Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 2AS :Spec 1:e)Assess the significance of hazard profiles in relation to the effectiveness of management strategies( 12)AS :Spec 2: a)Name 1 stage of the hazard management cycle (1)b) Study fig 1 in the resource booklet. i ) Identify the % probability of lava flow reaching the locations shown(2) ii) Suggest 1 way that Mt Etna poses a hazard for people living in the town of Catania(3) A level Spec 1 b) Assess the importance of tectonic hazard profiles in understanding the severity of impacts resulting from earthquake events (12) Dynamic Learning (p.85) b) Evaluate the significance of development in the effective response to tectonic mega- hazards ( 12) Pearson (p.90) Assess the reasons why earthquakes create more disasters than volcanic eruptions (12) Hodder Revision (p.95) Assess the importance of prediction and forecasting in the successful management of tectonic disasters (12)

EQ 3: How successful is the management of tectonic hazards and disasters? Understanding the complex trends and patterns for tectonic disasters helps explain differential impacts Prediction and forecasting accuracy depend on the type and location of the tectonic hazard Theories can be used to understand the predication, impacts and management of tectonic hazards The importance of different stages in the hazard management cycle :the role of emergency planners (players) Strategies to modify the event (role of planners, engineers) include land-use zoning, hazard-resistant design and engineering defences as well as diversion of lava flowsStrategies to modify vulnerability and resilience include high- tech monitoring, prediction, education, community preparedness and adaptation (role of forecasters- models forecasting disaster Strategies to modify loss include emergency, short and longer term aid and insurance (role of players: NGOs and insurers) and the action of different communities themselves. Tectonic disaster trends since 1960 in the context of overall disaster trends.Research into the accuracy and reliability of the data to interpret complex trends Tectonic mega- disasters can have regional or even global significance in terms of economic and human impacts (Asian Tsunami 2004, Icelandic volcano, 2010Japan tsunami 2011) Tectonic hazard impacts can be managed by a variety of mitigation and adaptation strategies Use of Park’s model to compare the response curve of hazard events, comparing areas at different stages of development Concept of a multiple hazard zone : How hydrometeorological disasters can sometimes contribute to a tectonic disaster

Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 3AS Spec 1: Explain two reasons why the number of reported earthquakes has risen since 1960 (4)AS Spec 2: c) Explain two strategies that are used to modify vulnerability to volcanic hazards (4)d) Using a named location, explain how hydrometeorological hazards can contribute to a tectonic disaster (6) e) Assess how prediction can contribute to the management of tectonic hazards(12) AS May 2017: e) Assess whether development and governance are the most important factors in understanding the scale of tectonic disasters (12) A Level Spec 1: b) Assess the importance of governance in the successful management of tectonic mega-disasters (12) Dynamic Learning (p.80): b) Assess the factors that influence the management of the impacts of earthquakes in countries at different levels of development (12)