Ticks and Their Diseases

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Ticks and Their Diseases - Description

Maureen Brophy, MPH. Ph.D. Student. Outline. What are ticks?. Biology. Ecology. Disease transmission. Rocky Mountain . spotted fever. What is a tick?. Arachnids, not insects. Related to spiders. External parasites of mammals, birds, and reptiles. ID: 776127 Download Presentation

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Ticks and Their Diseases




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Presentations text content in Ticks and Their Diseases

Slide1

Ticks and Their Diseases

Maureen Brophy, MPHPh.D. Student

Slide2

Outline

What are ticks?BiologyEcologyDisease transmissionRocky Mountain spotted fever

Slide3

What is a tick?

Arachnids, not insects

Related to spiders

External parasites of mammals, birds, and reptiles

>800 species describes worldwide

~80 species in the U.S.

Leading disease carriers in United States

Second to mosquitoes worldwide

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Arthropods That Feed on Vertebrate Blood

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How to Spot a Tick

Very small, but bigger after meal8 legs*Mostly oval*Except larvae

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Hard vs. Soft Ticks

Ixodid = hard ticksArgasid = soft ticks

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Life Cycle

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How to Ticks Find Hosts?

Questing

Step 1- Find grass, bush, twig, etc.Step 2- Climb to top of itStep 3- Extend forelegsStep 4- WaitStep 5- Latch onto passing host

Hunting

Step 1- Sense hostStep 2- Chase hostStep 3- Catch host

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Biology

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External Anatomy

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External Anatomy

Body

Top side- scutumFemales have “shield”Allows for body to grow during feedingCan grow many times original size after feeding

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External Anatomy

“Head”/mouth area

Basis capitulum

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External Anatomy

MouthpartsHypostomeCheliceraePalps

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Saliva

Excrete concrete-like saliva into wound, create feeding tubeContains anesthetic, anti-coagulants, immunosuppressants, vasodilatorsAlso helps with water regulation

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External Anatomy

Legs

3 pair (6 legs) as larva4 pair (8 legs) as nymph and adultGood for grabbing and climbing

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External Anatomy

Sensory

“Hairs” on legs and body sense vibrationHaller’s organ “smells” chemical cues from hostBasic eyes

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Internal Anatomy

Diverticulated gutSalivary glands grow during feedingMalpighian tubule helps absorb nutrients

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Blood Feeding Requirements

Sensory apparatus to locate vertebrate hostSpecialized piercing-sucking mouthpartsSaliva components to prevent blood coagulation and host immune responseCapacity to deal with dramatic increase in gut volume

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Number of Hosts

Depends on tick species

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Ecology

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Where Do Ticks Live?

Depends on type of tick

Dog ticks- near home, wherever they can find dogs

Soft ticks- in nests, caves, where they can find birds, bats, rodents

Other ticks (

Dermacentor,

Amblyomma

)- In wooded areas, scrub, where they can find rodents and larger mammals

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Peridomestic Environment

Dog ticks live close to home

Items in yard (old furniture, toys, appliances, trash) can provide shelter and breeding sites for ticks

Where the dogs go, the ticks go

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Ticks on Navajo Nation

Ixodid

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Dermacentor andersoni

Argasid

Ornithodoros

species

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Disease Transmission

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364D rickettsiosis 

Alpha-gal

Anaplasmosis 

Babesiosis 

Borrelia

mayonii

 

Ehrlichiosis 

Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) 

STARI (Southern tick-associated rash illness) 

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)

Tularemia 

Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis 

Borrelia miyamotoi 

Bourbon virus 

Colorado tick fever 

Heartland virus 

Lyme disease 

Powassan disease 

Granulocytic

Anaplasmosis

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How Do Ticks Get Infected?

Horizontal Transmission- pathogen is acquired from a host, develops or multiplies in tick, and is transmitted to next host

Vertical Transmission- female lays infected eggs, ticks can infect in larval form

Slide30

Tick-borne Diseases in Arizona

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Ehrlichia

canis

Tularemia

Tickborne relapsing fever

Slide31

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

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Disease Cycles

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Distribution

2014 Incidence Map: CDC

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Distribution

In Arizona, brown dog tick is vector (

Dermacentor

ticks in other parts of the country)

Higher case fatality rate

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Symptoms

FeverHeadacheRashNausea & vomitingStomach painMuscle painLack of appetiteCan be deadly if left untreatedMost common in young children

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Risk Factors

Roaming dogs

Dogs not spayed/neutered

Clutter in yard

Dogs can get RMSF too

Dogs CANNOT give humans RMSF

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Prevention

Check for ticks

Remove ticks immediately if found

Reduce yard clutter

Apply tick collar or topical pesticide on dogs

Use environmental pesticide (properly) if there is a tick infestation

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Prevention

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Treatment

Doxycycline ASAP

If you have RMSF symptoms and (might have had) exposure to ticks, seek medical care (and tell them to test for RMSF)

Doxycycline is safe and does not stain children’s teeth

Slide40

Maureen Brophy

PhD Student

University of Arizona

Brophymk@email.arizona.edu


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