What is the difference between and infectious disease and noninfectious disease? - PowerPoint Presentation

 What is the difference between and infectious disease and noninfectious disease?
 What is the difference between and infectious disease and noninfectious disease?

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How are disease transmitted Disease Disease Query Go around the room and find someone who knows someone or has ever had one of these diseases Put their initial in the square You can only fill one square ID: 775030 Download Presentation

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Slide1

What is the difference between and infectious disease and noninfectious disease?How are disease transmitted ?

Disease

Slide2

Disease Query

Go around the room and find someone who knows someone or has ever had one of these diseases.

Put their initial in the square.

You can only fill one square.

Slide3

Disease

Infectious

Disease

Noninfectious Disease

Slide4

Disease

Any condition that abnormally effects the function of an organism.

Causes include pathogens (germs), environmental, and genetics.

Slide5

Noninfectious Diseases

Non-infectious diseases

(also called

Non-communicable diseases

) are those diseases that are not caused by a pathogen and cannot be shared from one person to another.

Non-infectious diseases may be caused by either

the environment-

: chemical exposure, carcinogens, air pollution, water pollution, food safety

nutritional deficiencies-

Overnutrition- is frequent overconsumption of food.

Leads to

obesity

.

Malnutrition- when your body does not get enough nutrients

.

lifestyle choices-

diet, exercise, tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and stress

genetic inheritances-

inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan and the likelihood of developing certain illnesses.

Slide6

Infectious Disease

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens.

A pathogen is a microorganism that causes a disease such as a virus, bacteria,

protist

or fungi.

Pathogens are transmitted through direct contact and indirect contact with an infected person, an infected animal, a contaminated object or food, water and soil.

A

vector

is an organism that passes a disease to humans.

Slide7

How are Pathogens Spread?

The 4 Ways Pathogens Spread:

Infected People

Infected Animals

Contaminated Object

Soil, Food, and Water

Slide8

Infected People

Pathogens pass from one person to another person…Directly - Kissing, Shaking Hands, etc. andIndirectly - Sneezing, Coughing, etc.

Slide9

Infected Animals

Infected animals can bite a person and pass the pathogen to them.Example: Ticks can transmit Bacteria to humans when they bite, giving the humans Lyme Disease.

Slide10

Vectors

Vectors - The hosts or carriers that spread pathogens and disease.Examples: Mosquitos, Ticks, Dogs

Slide11

Vector-borne Diseases

Vector-borne Disease

– Any diseases that is spread to humans through direct contact with an infected animal.

Examples: Rabies from a dog bite, Lyme disease from a Tick, Malaria from a Mosquito

Slide12

Contaminated Object

Pathogens that can survive outside the body are transferred from infected person, to an object, and then to another person.

Slide13

Soil, Food, and Water

Some pathogens occur naturally in the environment and can be transferred to people through soil, food and water.

Examples: Cholera and Dysentary are two deadly diseases that spread through food and water.

Slide14

Classwork

Using the links on your desk identify the following diseases as either infectious or noninfectious.

Choose a row or column to complete.

Slide15

The Germ Theory

States that specific germs/ pathogens cause specific diseases.

Slide16

Protists

Entamoeba histolytica Causes dysentery, a severe form of amebiasis associated with stomach pain, bloody stools, and fever.

Plasmodium, a one-celled parasite transmitted by a mosquito.

Causes malaria, which causes flu-like symptoms and intestinal problems.

Plasmodium

attacking a red blood cell

Slide17

Bacteria

Streptococcus BacteriumCauses strep throat, a painful sore throat and fever.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Causes tuberculosis, a highly contagious respiratory disease.

Slide18

Viruses

Orthomyxoviridae – Influenza virusCauses the flu, which is a respiratory infection that often causes the infected person to have a fever, headache, and body aches.

Retroviridae

-

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which is a deadly disease that attacks the human immune system.

Slide19

What is an Infectious Disease?

Infectious Disease - A disease that is caused by pathogens entering your body.Pathogen - Any organism that causes a disease.

Slide20

Pathogens

Major Human Pathogens:ParasitesBacteriaVirusesFungiProtozoans

Slide21

How are Pathogens Spread?

The 4 Ways Pathogens Spread:

Infected People

Infected Animals

Contaminated Object

Soil, Food, and Water

Slide22

Infected People

Pathogens pass from one person to another person…Directly - Kissing, Shaking Hands, etc. andIndirectly - Sneezing, Coughing, etc.

Slide23

Infected Animals

Infected animals can bite a person and pass the pathogen to them.Example: Ticks can transmit Bacteria to humans when they bite, giving the humans Lyme Disease.

Slide24

Vectors

Vectors - The hosts or carriers that spread pathogens and disease.Examples: Mosquitos, Ticks, Dogs

Slide25

Vector-borne Diseases

Vector-borne Disease

– Any diseases that is spread to humans through direct contact with an infected animal.

Examples: Rabies from a dog bite, Lyme disease from a Tick, Malaria from a Mosquito

Slide26

Contaminated Object

Pathogens that can survive outside the body are transferred from infected person, to an object, and then to another person.

Slide27

Soil, Food, and Water

Some pathogens occur naturally in the environment and can be transferred to people through soil, food and water.

Examples: Cholera and

Dysentary

are two deadly diseases that spread through food and water.

Slide28

Non-Infectious Diseases and your Health

Slide29

Brainstorm…

What things affect your health?

In your opinion, what affects your health the most…

Lifestyle choices?

Environmental factors?

Genetics?

Slide30

Noninfectious Diseases

Diseases that are not caused by pathogens and not transmitted from person to person. *Also known as Non-communicable diseasesOver history, infectious diseases have decreased, noninfectious have increased.Examples: diabetes, heart disease, cancer

Slide31

Causes of Noninfectious Diseases

Lifestyle Choices

: diet, exercise, tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and stress

Environmental Factors

: chemical exposure, carcinogens, air pollution, water pollution, food safety

Genetics

: inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan and the likelihood of developing certain illnesses.

Slide32

Lifestyle choices

Diet: Eating a healthy diet can reduce the risk of certain diseases.

Slide33

Diet (lifestyle choice)

Digestion

is the process that allows your body to get the nutrients and energy it needs from the food you eat.

Overnutrition

- is frequent overconsumption of food.

Leads to

obesity

.

Malnutrition

- when your body does not get enough nutrients.

Slide34

Diseases related to Diet and Exercise

Diseases:HypertensionHeart DiseaseType II Diabetes

Causes:

High salt in diet

High Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

Sugary Diet, Excess weight, Inactivity

Slide35

Tobacco (lifestyle choice)

Tobacco products contain carcinogens and the addictive substance nicotine.Tobacco use and/or secondhand exposure increases risk of cancer, heart disease, asthma, and emphysema.

Slide36

Alcohol (lifestyle choice)

Overuse of alcohol can lead to cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and heart disease.Pregnant women who drink may cause their baby to be born with fetal alcohol syndrome. FAS babies may have mental disabilities, physical deformities, and other birth defects.

Slide37

Environmental Factors

Radon gas: lung cancerAir pollution: asthma and cancerWater pollution: cancer and birth defectsUV radiation: skin cancer

Slide38

What is Cancer?

Cancer- abnormal cells divide out of control (uncontrolled mitosis)Carcinogens – Chemicals that cause cancer

Slide39

Genetics

Genetics play a factor in a person’s susceptibility to certain diseases.This explains why some people can smoke their whole lives and do not get cancer and some people smoke for a year and get cancer. Example: Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a Genetic Mutation in a person’s DNA

Slide40

Virus, Bacteria, Fungus and Protists

Essential QuestionsIdentify unique characteristics for each type of microbes.Compare and Contrast these three groups of microbes.

Slide41

Viruses

Viruses are a tiny, nonliving particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell.A virus is composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) inside a protein coat.

Slide42

Viruses

Viruses are specific to certain host cells.A bacteriaphage is a virus that infects bacteria.

Slide43

Viruses

A virus must infect a host cell in order to use the cells materials to reproduce more viruses.Viruses can cause disease.

Slide44

Viruses

Active vs. Hidden virusesActive viruses multiply immediately after injecting its genetic material into the host cell. Example- Influenza virusHidden viruses can wait to multiply even after injecting its genetic material into the host. Example- Cold Sore

Slide45

Viruses

Diseases caused by viruses include: Influenza, polio, chicken pox, Ebola, and AIDS Treatments: antiviral medications 

Slide46

Bacteria

Bacteria are single celled organisms but can form chains or clumps of independent cells.Shapes include rod, sphere, and spiral.They are prokaryotes, the genetic material is not found in a nucleus, but floats freely in the cytoplasm. Bacteria do NOT contain organelles other than ribosome’s.

Slide47

Bacteria

Bacteria can reproduce through sexual and asexual reproduction.Asexual- called Binary fission- A cell first duplicates its genetic material and then divides into two identical cells.Sexual- called Conjugation- Bacterium transfers some of its genetic material into another bacterium through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells.

Slide48

Bacteria

Bacteria may have simple, single stranded flagella that rotates and allows the bacteria to move.Bacteria can cause disease but are also useful in oxygen and food production, environmental recycling and medicine production.Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacterial cells.

Slide49

Bacteria

Examples: :Rabies, Lyme Disease and Leprosy.Treatments: antibiotics such as Penicillin, amoxicillin, or others

Slide50

Protists

Most protists are single celled organisms, but some are multi cellular.Protists are eukaryotes; they have a distinct nucleus containing genetic material.Protists have a variety of other organelles including vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc.)Protists may contain flagella or cilia that allow the cell to move. Some contain pseudopods which are temporary bulges of the cell used for movement and trap food.

Slide51

Protists

Many Protists are carried by a vector, a carrier of a disease that passes it on to a human host ie. mosquito, tick.Diseases caused by Protists include: Malaria (Plasmodia) Amoebic Dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica) Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia)

Slide52

Protists

There are 3 types of protists:Plantlike forms (Euglena) that get energy through photosynthesis are autotrophes.

Slide53

Protists

Animal-like forms (Amoeba and Paramecium) that move through their environment and eat other organisms or decaying parts of other organisms are heterotrophes.

Slide54

Protists

Fungus-like (Slime mold) that absorb nutrients from their environment are heterotrophes.

Slide55

Types of Pathogens

Describe the characteristics of different types of pathogens.Classify pathogens by their characteristics.

Slide56

Viruses

Viruses are a tiny, nonliving particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell.A virus is composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) inside a protein coat.

Slide57

Slide58

Viruses

Viruses are specific to certain host cells.A bacteriaphage is a virus that infects bacteria.A virus must infect a host cell in order to use the cells materials to reproduce more viruses.Viruses can cause disease.

Slide59

Viruses

Active vs. Hidden virusesActive viruses multiply immediately after injecting its genetic material into the host cell. Example- Influenza virusHidden viruses can wait to multiply even after injecting its genetic material into the host. Example- Cold Sore

Slide60

Viruses

Slide61

Bacteria

Bacteria are single celled organisms but can form chains or clumps of independent cells.Shapes include rod, sphere, and spiral.They are prokaryotes, the genetic material is not found in a nucleus, but floats freely in the cytoplasm. Bacteria do NOT contain organelles other than ribosome’s.

Slide62

Bacteria

Bacteria can reproduce through sexual and asexual reproduction.Asexual- called Binary fission- A cell first duplicates its genetic material and then divides into two identical cells.Sexual- called Conjugation- Bacterium transfers some of its genetic material into another bacterium through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells.

Slide63

Bacteria

Bacteria may have simple, single stranded flagella that rotates and allows the bacteria to move.Bacteria can cause disease but are also useful in oxygen and food production, environmental recycling and medicine production.Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacterial cells.

Slide64

Protist

Most protists are single celled organisms, but some are multi cellular.Protists are eukaryotes; they have a distinct nucleus containing genetic material.Protists may contain flagella or cilia that allow the cell to move. Some contain pseudopods which are temporary bulges of the cell used for movement and trap food.

Slide65

Fungus

Most fungi are eukaryotes, they have a distinct nucleus.They obtain energy from their environment, meaning they are heterotrophes.They live in wet, moist environments.

Slide66

Fungus

Reproduction: They reproduce through both sexual and asexual reproduction.Asexual reproduction- similar to mitosis and binary fission certain fungi go through budding or create spores. Sexual reproduction- fungi will exchange DNA and produce spores with the new DNA.

Slide67

Fungus

Examples of Fungal infections are ringworm, and Athlete’s foot (Tinea).Treatments include antifungal medications.

Slide68

Classwork

PathogenCard #ReasonVirusBacteriaProtist

On page 83 of your notebook:

Slide69

Classwork

1. Using the Cards at your desk classify each microorganism based on their description.

Virus

Bacteria

Protist

Slide70

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

Let’s Review

How are infectious diseases spread?

Contaminated people

Contaminated objects

Animals

Soil, water and food

Slide71

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

Your body’s Resistance

The human body resists disease in a variety of ways

Barriers (First Line of Defense)

Your Skin

oils and sweat on the skin help kill pathogens

Pathogen may fall off or be washed off

Pathogen also has to get through a layer of dead skin cells on the surface of the skin

Breathing Passage (Respiratory System)

Nose pharynx, trachea and bronchi contain mucus and cilia

Together the mucus and cilia will trap and remove most pathogens

Slide72

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

Mouth and Stomach

Saliva in your mouth contains destructive chemicals that help destroy pathogens

Stomach-produces acids that can destroy pathogens

The Inflammatory Response (Second line of defense)

When cells in your body get damaged-your body triggers an inflammatory response

White blood cells begin to fight the pathogens

This is the second line of defense and is sometimes referred to as the body’s general defense response

Slide73

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

White Blood Cells (The Disease Fighters)

The type of white blood cell involved in destroying pathogens are called phagocytes

These cells surround and engulf pathogens

Inflammation

During the inflammation process blood vessels

widen in the area of the affected area. This

allows more blood flow to the impacted area.

Slide74

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

More blood flow means more white blood cells can get to the effected area

Fever

Sometimes in the inflammatory process a fever occurs. You may feel bad from a fever this actually helps your body fight the infection.

Slide75

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

The Immune System (Third Line of Defense)

This is a directed attach on specific pathogens

The white blood cells that can distinguish between different pathogens are called lymphocytes

Two types T cells and B cells

T cells-identify and distinguish between pathogens

Each different T cell recognize a different pathogen by identifying that pathogens unique antigen.

Antigens are markers that are specific to each pathogen and have different chemical structures

Think of antigens as different athletic uniforms

Slide76

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, and immunity

B cellsB cells produce proteins that help destroy pathogensThese proteins are called antibodiesAntibodies are specific to a specific pathogenThe antibody and the antigen fit together like puzzle pieces

Slide77

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

Preventing Infectious Diseases

Immunity-the body’s ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease.

Active Immunity

The first time your body is attached by a pathogen your body makes antibodies to that pathogen. All proceeding times your body is attached by that pathogen, the antibodies made the first time are still present and will destroy the pathogen this second time.

Slide78

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

A person acquires active immunity when their own immune system produces antibodies to fight the pathogen.

T cells and B cells keep their “memory” of the first time they fought that pathogen

Active immunity can last for several years and sometimes for life

Vaccination

The second way to acquire active immunity

Vaccination is a way harmless way that antigens are introduced to the body

Slide79

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

The vaccine is the part of the vaccination process that contains the weakened pathogen containing the antigen which triggers the active immune response to produce antibodies to the pathogenAntibiotics (Used for bacterial infections only)Antibiotics are given to fight bacterial infections

Structure of the basic penicillin backbone

Slide80

Disease Prevention Your Body’s disease fighting mechanisms and vaccines, immunity

Passive Immunity

This occurs when antibodies are given to a person—the body does not make them.

Passive immunity typically does not last much longer than a few months

Example-rabies vaccines

Slide81

Notes: Spread, Treatment, and Prevention of Disease

Slide82

What is a disease outbreak?

A disease

outbreak

happens when a disease occurs in greater numbers than expected in a community or

region

, or during a

season

.

An outbreak may occur in one

community

or even extend to several

countries

. It can last from days to

years

. Sometimes a

single

case of a contagious disease is considered an outbreak. This may be true if it is an

unknown

disease, is new to a community, or has been

absent

from a population for a long time. An outbreak can be considered an

epidemic

or pandemic.

Slide83

How do diseases spread?

Infectious diseases

spread

in many ways.

Pathogens

can be found in many places including food,

air

,

water

, surfaces.

Contact with

insects

and other animals

Insects and animals can also carry

organisms

that cause disease.

Ex.

Lyme

Disease is caused by

bacteria

that inhabit ticks.

Rabies, a deadly central

nervous

system infection is caused by a

virus

and is found in the

saliva

of infected animals, such as

bats

, raccoons, etc.

Slide84

Person-to-Person Contact

Most of the

illnesses

you have had have probably been passed to you by another

person

.

To avoid giving/receiving pathogens, you should wash your hands.

Slide85

What are Carriers and Vectors?

Carriers and vectors can spread

disease

, but generally do not get

sick

themselves.

Carrier

: a person or animal that has a disease and can

pass it on

, but does not show any

symptoms

.

Vector

: an organism (like a mosquito or tick) that

carry

pathogens from one organism to

another

.

Slide86

How do we treat and prevent diseases?

Diseases caused by

bacteria

can be treated with medicines that contain

antibiotics

.

The first antibiotics were discovered in

1928

by a scientist named

Flemming

.

Antimicrobial: something that kills

germs

(includes hand sanitizer,

antibiotics

, etc.)

Slide87

How do we treat and prevent diseases? (cont.)

Scientists continue efforts to

prevent

and

treat

illness.

Vaccine

: a substance that contains a

weakened

or

killed

pathogen, such as a bacterium or

virus

, that stimulates

antibody

production or cellular

immunity

against the pathogen but cannot cause

severe

infection. Vaccines

prevent

illnesses (not

treat

them!). The use of vaccines has made some diseases nearly

extinct

.

Brainpop

Slide88

Antibiotics fight

pathogens

(bacteria), but they can also lead to

changes

in them.

When an antibiotic is used too

often

, bacteria can develop

resistance

, meaning it is no longer

affected

by the antibiotic.

Brainpop

The next time those bacteria

invade

your body, that particular antibiotic will not

stop

the disease.

Slide89

What is the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?

Epidemic and

pandemic

refer to the spread of

infectious

diseases among a population.

Epidemic: when a disease spreads to a

large

number of people, but remains in a specific,

local

area.

Pandemic: when a disease spreads to

numerous

places around the

world

. A widespread epidemic. In the most extreme case, the entire

global

population would be affected by a pandemic.

Slide90

Epidemic vs. Pandemic (cont.)

The terms epidemic and pandemic usually refer to the

rate

of infection, the

area

that is affected or both.

An

epidemic

is defined as an illness or health-related issue that is showing up in

more

cases than would normally be expected. It occurs when an infectious disease spreads

rapidly

to many people. In

2003

, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (

SARS

) epidemic took the lives of nearly

800

people worldwide.

Slide91

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people. In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.

Slide92

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

Epidemic and pandemic are similar terms that refer to the spread of infectious diseases among a population.

There are two main differences between epidemic and pandemic:

A

Pandemic

effects a

far higher number

of people than an epidemic.

A

Pandemic

also refers to a much

larger region

being affected. In extreme cases, the entire global population would be affected by a pandemic.

Slide93

In the case of a pandemic, even more of the

population

is affected than in an epidemic. A pandemic typically is in a

widespread

area (usually worldwide) rather than being confined to a particular

location

or region and affect global populations. An epidemic is not

worldwide

. For example, malaria can reach

epidemic

levels in regions of

Africa

but is not a threat globally.

Slide94

Epidemic vs. Pandemic (cont.)

However, a

flu

strain can begin

locally

(epidemic) but eventually spread

globally

(pandemic). This is not unusual for a

new

virus, because if people have not been

exposed

to the virus before, their immune systems are not ready to

fight

it off, and more people become ill.

Swine flu

started in Mexico city, and it was feared to lead to

epidemic

proportions in North America. Now that the flu has been found in New Zealand, Israel, Scotland and many other

countries

, it has become

pandemic

.

Slide95

The 1918

Spanish flu

and the Black Plague are extreme examples of pandemics. Keep in mind, though, that a pandemic doesn't necessarily mean millions of

deaths

—it means a geographically

widespread

epidemic.

Slide96

Influenza Pandemics

Influenza

pandemics have occurred more than once. Spanish influenza killed

40-50

million people in

1918

. The Asian influenza killed

2

million people in 1957. The Hong Kong influenza killed

1

million people in 1968.

An influenza

pandemic

occurs when a new

subtype

of

virus

arises. This means humans have little or no

immunity

to it; therefore,

everyone

is at risk. The virus spreads easily from

person

to person, such as through

sneezing

or coughing.

Slide97

As it spreads, the virus can begin to cause

serious

illness worldwide. With past flu pandemics, the virus reached all parts of the

globe

within

six

to

nine

months. With the speed of

air

travel today, public health experts believe an influenza pandemic could spread much more

quickly

. A pandemic can occur in

waves

, and all parts of the world may not be affected at the same

time

.

Brainpop

Slide98

Extreme Pandemic

The 1918 Spanish flu and the Black Plague are extreme examples of pandemics. Keep in mind, though, that a pandemic doesn't necessarily mean millions of deaths - it means a geographically widespread epidemic.

Slide99

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

How can an Epidemic become a Pandemic?

When people travel to different continents they can spread infectious diseases.

Ways it can spread to other continents…

Travel by Airplane

Travel by Boat

Migrating Animals

Slide100

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

Keep in mind,

an epidemic is not worldwide

.

For example, Malaria can reach epidemic levels in regions of Africa but is not a threat globally. Whereas a flu strain can begin locally (epidemic) but eventually spread globally (pandemic).

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