An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy - PowerPoint Presentation
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Robert Vineberg Metropolis Seminar Edmonton January 20 2010 Contents Admissions 17911867 PreConfederation 18671914 Populating Canada 19141945 War Boom Bust and War 19451985 Federally Led Immigration ID: 712544 Download Presentation
System:. Some History, Facts & Stats. All information adapted from ‘the public policy framework- fostering immigration’, York University, 2012. Brainstorm. Why does Canada need immigrants?. We need them possibly because….
Social Studies 9. Immigration. Chapter 5 Questions & predictions?. What . factors influence. immigration policies in Canada?. How does Canada . benefit. from immigration?. What . criteria. are used when .
W. Craig Riddell. University of British Columbia. Symposium on Immigration and Citizenship Policies of Canada and Europe. Atlantic Metropolis Centre. Halifax, N.S.. May 30, 2011. Overview. Canada’s immigration system is currently undergoing significant change.
Canadian immigration policy he felt would be a good place to start this inquiry Like many law students and rece nt graduates before and afte r me I was fortunate enough to work with Michael in the early days th is idea was germinating What began as
George J. Borjas. Harvard University. April 2012. Immigrants in workforce. Trends . in immigrant share, by education, . Percent wage differential between immigrant and native men. An interesting question.
Immigration. Why do people move?. There are many reasons why people migrate, or move, to a new place. There are two categories that we can divide these reasons:. Push Factors: . These cause people to want to leave their current location. Examples include: lack of political/religious freedom, war, famine, poverty, climate change, natural disasters, and unemployment..
Bernard . Wolfsdorf. Attorney At Law. firstname.lastname@example.org. Wolfsdorf. Rosenthal LLP. Bernard Wolfsdorf. WOLFSDORF ROSENTHAL LLP. State Bar of California Certified Specialist in Immigration & Nationality Law.
Three Types of Immigration. We have lots of space, but can’t accept everyone without overwhelming the economy. A . system was needed to . fairly determine who would be accepted and who would be turned away. .
Robert Vineberg. Metropolis Seminar. Edmonton, January 20, 2010. Contents. Admissions. 1791-1867 - Pre-Confederation. 1867-1914 - Populating Canada. 1914-1945 - War, Boom, Bust and War. 1945-1985 - Federally Led Immigration.
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An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy
Presentation on theme: "An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy"— Presentation transcript:
An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy
Robert VinebergMetropolis SeminarEdmonton, January 20, 2010Slide2
Admissions1791-1867 - Pre-Confederation1867-1914 - Populating Canada1914-1945 - War, Boom, Bust and War1945-1985 - Federally Led Immigration1985-Present – New Era of Shared JurisdictionQuarantine and HealthBorder ControlsEnforcement Refugees, andIntegration
Settling the LandMilitary GrantsLand Companies (Talbot, Selkirk, etc.)British actionsPassengers Act 1803Chief Agent for Emigration at Quebec 1827Provincial activities (1791-1867)Aliens ActsQuarantine ActsQuarantine Stations
Immigration Buildings, Louise Docks, Quebec City4Slide5
Populating Canada - 1
Off to a slow start (1867-1896)Reasons for low immigrationCompetition with USAClimateTransportation challenges
Immigration Hall Winnipeg c. 1890
Former Immigration Hall Edmonton 2010
Populating Canada - 2
Off and Running (1896-1914)Geopolitical Factors – US & EuropeAgricultural FactorsTransportation – the railwaysDepartment of Interior InitiativesIn EuropeRailways
North Atlantic Trading Company
In the USA
Peaks at over 400,000 in 1913
“A Stalwart Peasant
in a Sheepskin Coat ...” – Sir Clifford Sifton
War, Boom, Bust and War
Immigration cut off except from US during First World War Immigration encouraged in 1920s but only for “agriculturalists” and domesticsBritain-Canada Land Settlement AgreementsRailways AgreementsThen depression:Order in Council PC 695 of March 21, 1931And war again ...
Halifax - Pier 21
The Heyday of Federally Led Immigration (1945-1985)
1947 – Prime Minister King’s statement on Immigration PolicyThree Pillars: Economic, Family, Refugee1962 – Immigration RegulationsLargely non-discriminatory1966 – The Immigration White Paper1967 – The Points System1974 – Green Paper1975 – Special Joint Committee
1976 – “New” Immigration Act
The New Era of Shared Jurisdiction (1985-Present)
1976 Act: encourages FP agreements1978: Agreements with QC, NS and SKCullen-Couture agreement gives QC selection power1991: Canada-Québec AccordTransfers selection power permanentlyTransfers settlement to Québec1990s: Other provinces want their share
Provincial Nominee Programs
Agreements with BC and Manitoba
2002: Francophone Immigration outside QC
CIC-Community Steering Committee
Quarantine & Health
Quarantine and Health
Quarantine ActsTreated seriously after Cholera outbreaks among immigrants in1830sImmigration ActsIll-health major prohibition pre-19061902-78, specific illnesses prohibited1976 Act (in effect 1978) introduces of concepts ofDanger to public health or public safetyExcessive demands on health and certain social services
Maru and HMCS Rainbow - 191416Slide17
Head tax: Chinese Immigration Acts, 1885-1903Continuous Journey RegulationsFor good reasons (US border)And questionable (against Asian immigrants)Settlement Money Requirement
For good reasons (Summer $25 / Winter $50)
And questionable ($200 for South Asians)
1919 Amendments –
may “prohibit ... any nationality or race ... because such immigrants are deemed undesirable owing to their particular customs, habits, modes of life ... and because of their probable inability to become readily assimilated ...”
Chinese Immigration Act,
Enforcement - 1
Deportation authority originally in Aliens ActsGradually enforcement provisions moved to Immigration Act1872 – authority to prohibit “criminal or other vicious class”1906 Immigration ActFirst to immigration legislation to specify excluded groups19Slide20
Enforcement - 2
Prohibited classes named until 1976“Pimps, prostitutes and procurers”“Idiots, imbeciles and morons”Crimes of “Moral turpitude”1976 Act Equivalency to Canadian crimesConcept of rehabilitationHearings and AppealsImmigration Appeal BoardImmigrant and Refugee Board
Refugees Hungarian Refugees at Pier 21
Early “refugee groups”Closed doorsPost War “DPs”Hungarians and CzechsUN Convention on the Status of RefugeesCanada accedes in 1969Indochinese Refugeesgovernment and private sponsorshipSingh Decision - 1985
New Legislation and creating the IRB - 1990
Integration - 1
In the 19th and early 20th Centuries:Help for indigent - Immigrant Aid SocietiesHealth concerns – immigrant hospitalsTransitional housing – immigration hallsPost WW IISettlement Service established in 1949
Citizenship Branch co-funds language training with provincial education departments
1966 creation of Manpower & Immigration
Settlement Service disbanded and programs transferred to Manpower division & Secretary of State
Language training only for workers
Integration - 2
1974 – Cabinet creates “Settlement Program” M&I assumes funding for settlement NGOs from Secretary of State1974 - ISAP program1984 - HOST program1986 - Settlement Language Training Program (SLTP) for adults not destined to labour market1992 – Settlement “comes home”Settlement moved to Immigration DivisionOccupational language training merged with SLTP to create LINC
Integration - 3
1991-1999 – Some provinces assume responsibility for settlement1991 Quebec1999 BC and ManitobaNew ProgrammingEnhanced Language Training - 2004Anti-Racism - 2005Foreign Credential Referral Office - 20072005-08 – Vastly increased fundingCanada-Ontario Agreement
Other provinces - first denied but then provided
2008 – New Terms and Conditions
Unified Settlement program
Story of immigration is, largely, the story of building CanadaPast policies often innovativeBut reflected the biases of those erasPost WW II, policy based on “Three Pillars”:Economic ImmigrationFamily ReunificationRefugee ProtectionRemnants of discrimination eliminatedImprovement of Settlement Programs
Cover: Arrival of SS Berlin at Pier 21, April 20, 1957, Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) - PA-187858Slide 4: Immigration Sheds at Port of Quebec– LAC – a021357Slide 6: Winnipeg Immigration Hall c1890 – LAC – c2334Slide 7: Frank Dumont – CIC EdmontonSlide 9: Galacian Immigrants at Quebec – LAC – 004745Slide 11: Halifax - Pier 21 – March 1952 – LAC - PA-000068Slide 14: Grosse Isle 2