Did Henry VII Invent the War of the Roses?

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Did Henry VII Invent the War of the Roses?

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Did Henry VII Invent the War of the Roses?

HIST 1016



The Lancasters


Beauforts, and Tudors

1373 – John of Gaunt fathers illegitimate son, John Beaufort, with Katherine Swynford1396 – John of Gaunt marries SwynfordPapal bull recognizes the Beauforts as legitimate children1397 – Act of Parliament recognizes Beauforts as legitimate childrenHenry IV – recognizes Beaufort half-brother as legitimateInclude proviso, cannot inherit throne


The Lancasters


Beauforts, and Tudors

1397 – John Beaufort named Earl of SommersetAfter 1399 – Beauforts are Lancaster loyalistsSons include Edmund, Duke of Sommerset, killed at the First Battle of St. AlbansBrother, Henry Beaufort = Cardinal Beaufort, advisor to Henry VI, Joan of Arc’s trial


The Lancasters


Beauforts, and Tudors

Margaret Beaufort, John Beaufort’s granddaughterInherits father’s lands and titles at age 11455 - at age 12, married to Edmund Tudor (24), Welsh noble, son of Owen Tudor and Henry V’s widow Catherine1456 – Edmund dies in a Yorkist prisonMargaret left widowed and pregnant at 13


The Lancasters


Beauforts, and Tudors

1457 – Henry Tudor bornLancaster + Welsh nobility?Tudors claim descent from Cadwaladr, last legendary British KingWelsh aristocrats who side with Owain Glyndwr against Henry IVHenry V’s reconciliation brought Owen Tudor into Lancaster courtY Mab Darogan – The Prophesized Son


Tudors and the War of the Roses

1457 – Margaret and Henry at Pembroke Castle with Henry’s uncle Jasper Tudor

1461 – Jasper goes into exile

Pembroke falls to William Herbert, with Margaret and Henry1469 – Warwick switches to LancastersJasper returns to England and takes Henry to court1471 – York’s victory send Jasper and Henry to Brittany


Richard III (r. 1483-1485)

Best known for purge of


and Princes in the TowerFocus on CommonersCourt of Requests – court of grievances for people without legal representationBail reform – protect suspected felons and prevent property seizureLift and ban restrictions on printing and sale of booksWritten Laws and Statutes translated from French to EnglishCollege of Arms – register of heraldry and genealogical research


Buckingham’s Rebellion (1483)

May be a misnomer

Supporters of Edward IV

rise up against RichardThe murder of Edward V becomes publicRichard’s ally, the Duke of Buckingham, raises an army against himBuckingham married to a Woodville…After the Princes in the Tower, who’s next in line?


Buckingham’s Rebellion

It’s Henry Tudor!

Buckingham’s plan –

marry Henry to Edward IV’s eldest daughter ElizabethLancaster + York = TudorStorms prevent Henry’s arrival in EnglandRichard defeats Buckingham1484 – Plan to marry Richard III to ElizabethRichard’s supporters are anti-Woodville


Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)

France finances a second

invasion by Henry

5,000 Lancaster/Tudor forces vs. 8,000 YorkistWas Richard betrayed by Baron Stanley, Margaret Beaufort’s new husband?Richard attempts to kill Henry directly (comes within a swords length)Instead Richard killed (last English king to die in battle)


Henry VII (r. 1485-1509)

Marriage to Elizabeth of York

Repeal of

Titulus RegiusRetroactively declared king the day before Bosworth FieldWhy does it matter?Bonds – written contracts of loyalty with monetary penaltiesRecognisances – formal acknowledgements of debts to the crownBans on livery – retainers wearing a lord’s badge and uniform


Henry VII and Control of the Nobility

Limits on maintenance – the number of male servants a lord may employ… Why?


Council/Privy Council – Advisors with both advisory and executive abilitiesTaken from Parliament, clergy, military, judges, and diplomatsCourt of the Star Chamber – Secret court where nobility could be tried by Privy CouncilNo witnesses presentJustices of the Peace – representatives in every shire/countyguarantee laws are enforcedRotated annually


Henry VII and Economic Reform

Stability in the treasury

“Morton’s Fork” and tax collection

1490 – Treaty of Medina del Campo – diplomatic marriage with Spain (including 200,000 crown dowry) and free trade1492 – Peace of Étaples – France pays England 50,000 crowns per year1496 – political concessions for opening trade with the NetherlandsExpansion of navy


Henry VII

End of


, beginning of the Tudors1502 – Arthur Tudor, Henry’s air diesFive months after marrying Catherine of AragonAttempts to marry Catherine to Henry or his son1503 – Queen Elizabeth dies in childbirth1509 – Henry VII diesHenry VIII (r. 1509-1547) –Only legitimate son to survive hisfather


The Tudor Rose


Rivals to the Tudors

Beginning a new dynasty should clear away past claims to the throne

Union of Lancaster and York should satisfy major claimants

Yorkist revolts in 1486, 1487, 1490Lambert Simnel – impersonated the imprisoned Duke of Warwick, son of ClarencePerkin Warbeck – impersonated Richard, Duke of York, younger Prince of the Tower, invaded England in 1491, 1495, 1496, and 1497Forgiveness of nobles who would take oaths and bonds


Henry VIII

Charged with preserving Tudor


Marriage to Catherine of AragonThe King’s Great MatterNo legitimate sonsA daughter, Mary, too young to produce a grandsonHenry FitzRoy, Duke of RichmondSecond Succession ActAnnul marriage to CatherinePapal authority and the English Reformation


Henry VIII

1527 – argument for annulment

presented to Pope Clement VII

1531 – Catherine banished from courtStrained relationships with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, and Catherine’s nephew1532 – marriage to Anne Boleyn1534 – Act of Supremacy and the Church of England


Henry VIII

1536 – Catherine of Aragon


Henry orders a celebrationInjured in a joustQueen Anne miscarries a sonMoves against Boleyn familyAnne accused of adultery and treason and executedMarriage to Jane Seymour1537 – Prince Edward bornJane dies shortly after


Henry VIII

Second Act of Succession –

delegitimizes previous

childrenContinued marriages to secure successionAnne of Cleaves – 1540 (six months)Catherine Howard – 1540-1542Executed for adulteryCatherine Parr – 1544-15471547 – Henry VIII dies


The Tudors after Henry VIII

Edward VI (r. 1547-1553)


ied heirless at the age of 15Mary I (r. 1553-1558)Daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon“Bloody Mary”Married Philip II of SpainDied heirlessElizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)Daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn“Virgin Queen”


Akira Kurosawa’s

Throne of Blood


Shakespeare’s Macbeth set in JapanSengoku or Warring States Period (ca. 1467-1603)Emperor – Shogun – daimyo – samuraiPlot: Washizu and Miki are samurai commanders serving the daimyo Tsuzuki. Returning from battle, they receive a prophecy from a spirit about their futures…

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