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Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-ray Science Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-ray Science

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-ray Science - PowerPoint Presentation

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Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-ray Science - PPT Presentation

Antonino Miceli FNAL Research Techniques Seminar April 24 2012 Outline Why Superconducting Detectors Detector Requirements Applications Overview of MKIDs MKID activities at Argonne MKID resonator readout ID: 733949

pixel energy detectors pixels energy pixel pixels detectors tes mkids amp ray detector superconducting electronics readout resolution microwave limited

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Slide1

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-ray Science

Antonino

Miceli

FNAL

Research Techniques Seminar

April 24, 2012Slide2

Outline

Why Superconducting Detectors?

Detector Requirements

Applications

Overview of MKIDs

MKID activities at Argonne

MKID resonator readout Slide3

Acknowledgements

Tom Cecil (XSD Staff)

Orlando

Quaranta

(Post-doc

)

Lisa

Gades

(XSD Staff)

Outside Collaborators:

Professor Ben

Mazin

(UCSB

)

MSD/

UChicago

TES Team (

Novosad

et al)

CNM Cleanroom StaffSlide4

Superconductors Detectors for X-ray Detector R&D

Energy dispersive

semiconductor detectors

have almost reached their theoretical

limits

e.g., Silicon Drift Diodes have energy resolution ~

150

eV

at 6

keV

Limited R&D on spectroscopic detectors

Only effort is

Silicon array detector

of Peter Siddons (BNL) and Chris Ryan (Australia

)

Using silicon arrays to achieve large collection solid angles for fluorescence experiments.

Leverages local facilities and existing projects.

ANL’s Center for

Nanoscale

Materials for device fabrication

Many groups with thin film deposition experience

Superconducting Transition Edge Sensors for

UChicago’s

SPTpol

ANL’s Material Science DivisionSlide5

Detector Requirements

Solid angle coverage

Pixel area and sample-detector distance

Count-rate

Need lots of pixels (i.e. multiplexing) if you going to deal with

superconducting detectors, which tend to be slow

Peak-to-background ratio

Maximize

charge

collection Minimum of 1000:1 Limits overall sensitivity Energy resolutionDepends on applications (1-50eV at 6 keV)Slide6

Applications for superconducting x-ray detectors?

X-ray Inelastic Scattering

Access wide range of excitations.

Superconducting detectors allows broadband and efficient measurement compared to crystal analyzers (i.e., wavelength dispersive spectrographs).

X-ray

Fluorescence

F

luorescence line overlap in complex biological samples

Fluorescence Tomography

Needs pixelated energy-dispersive detectorsWhite-Beam Diffraction (ED-XRD)Versus angle-dispersive diffraction Using monochromatic incoming beam and area detector

Complex sample environments

(e.g., high-pressure cells)Slide7

Competing with x-ray spectrographs (like astronomers…)Slide8

Quasiparticle detectors

Use small Superconducting Energy Gap

Break Cooper Pairs

Use Cooper Pairs as detection mechanism (like electron hole pairs in a semiconductor)

Cooper Pair

Semiconductor Energy Gap: ≈ 1

eV

Superconductor

Energy Gap:

≈ 1

meV

How to measure

change in

quasiparticle

number? Slide9

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

Quasiparticle

generated by x-ray causes an inductance increase (i.e., “kinetic inductance”)

Measure inductance change in a LC resonating circuit

Multiplexing:

Lithographically vary geometric inductance/resonant frequency…

D

L

s

D

R

s

Observables….

1024 pixels demonstrated in 2011

People are contemplating 10k pixels now

Limited by room temperature electronicsSlide10

What has been shown already for x-rays?

62eV

Mazin et al 2006

Material

Atomic Number Z

Transition Temperature

Theoretical Energy Resolution at 6

keV

Attenuation Length at 6

keV

Lead

82

7.2 Kelvin

3.53 eV

1.86

m

m

Tantalum

73

4.5 Kelvin

2.79 eV

1.79

m

m

Tin

50

3.7 Kelvin

2.53

eV

2.60

m

m

Indium

49

3.4 Kelvin

2.43

eV

2.77

m

m

Rhenium

75

1.7 Kelvin

1.72

eV

1.31

m

m

Molybdenum

42

.92 Kelvin

1.26

eV

2.94

m

m

Osmium

76

.66 Kelvin

1.07

eV

1.18

m

mSlide11

MKIDs @ Argonne for synchrotrons

The goal is moderate energy resolution (< 20eV) with good count rate capabilities (> 200kcps) (i.e., ~200-500 pixels)

Leverages Argonne’s micro/

nano

-fab facilities (CNM) and superconductivity expertise (MSD); Astronomical TES bolometer program(MSD &

UChicago

).

Three Main Aspects:

Device Fabrication

Fabrication is completely in-house

Relatively “simple”… patterning of metal (deposition, photolithography, etching)

Film quality is very important!

Initially aim a simple device, then progress to more complex designs (e.g., membrane-suspended)

Dedicated deposition system on order.Cryogenics and Device CharacterizationWe are mostly limited by how fast we can test devices.

Readout electronics

Initially the analog readout for characterization.

Digital FPGA-based array readout

in the near future.Slide12

Anatomy of an MKID – Our work (one design)

1

pixel

15 pixels

2 mm

First x-ray pulses at APS in January 2012!

Fe-55 and Cd-109

1 micron WSi

2

(XSD)

Inductor/Absorber

CapacitorSlide13

Detector Testing

Be window

(x-ray transparent)

Cryostat

Microwave Electronics

Cryostat

Cryogen Free ADR

T = 100

mK

for 2 days

3-4 hour recycle time

Microwave Electronics

Vector Network Analyzer

IQ mixing

Control & Data Analysis SoftwareSlide14

Inside the cryostat…

LNA

Stainless Steel

coax

NbTi

(superconducting)

coax

Attenuator

Sample box

@ 60

mK

m

-metal shield

0.5K stage

60 K stage

4 K stageSlide15

VNA

Measure the transmission through the device (S21)

Wide range of frequency: 0.3 - 20 GHz

Easily identify resonators:

R

esonance frequencies, Quality Factors (

Q

r

, Q

c

, Q

i

)

Cannot measure pulses nor noiseSlide16

Signal

G

enerators

IQ Mixer

Variable

attenuator

IQ mixing (Pulses and Noise)

Homodyne mixing

Demodulate to 0 Hz (DC) and monitor for changes in Re(S21) and

Im

(S21) (i.e.,

I & Q)

Amplitude =

sqrt

(I

2

+ Q

2

)

Phase=

arctan

(Q/I

)

IQ MixerSlide17

IQ Fitting and parameter extraction

Frequency (GHz)

Real (S21)

Imag

(S21)Slide18

Pulses

Pulse fitting

Decay Time ->

Quasiparticle

life time

Phase pulse height -> Energy of the incident photon

The signal in phase is larger than amplitude

Phase

I &Q

Amplitude

Time (

m

s

)Slide19

Tungsten Silicide MKIDs

We have been searching for dense materials for x-rays.

WSi

x

is a material with low

T

c

, high kinetic inductance fraction and good quality factors.

Similar to Titanium NitrideMaybe also be interesting for optical MKIDs.arXiv:1203.5064v1Slide20

Optical MKIDs (Mazin et al) --

Spectrophotometry

Mazin

et al.

, Optics Express 2012

R=E/

Δ

E=16 at 254

nm

Limited by LNA/power handling/QSlide21

A readout for large arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (McHugh, Mazin

et al, arXiv:1203.5861v1)

How to readout 1024 MKIDs….Slide22

Another technology – Transition Edge Sensors

TES have the best energy resolution (not

Fano

limited)

However, TES require relatively complex cryogenic electronics which makes multiplexing difficult.

Limited to 200 pixels right now.

Also, larger pixel means slower response….Slide23

TES are evolving towards MKID/resonator readout

“Microwave SQUIDs”

Eventually would like a wideband, quantum-limited LNA for MKIDs (i.e., don’t need SQUID anymore)

Josephson parametric

amp (J.

Gao

et al)

arXiv:1008.0046v1

Kinetic Inductance

parametric amp (P. Day et al)arXiv:1201.2392v1

Superconducting microwave resonant circuits for the detection of photons from microwaves through gamma

rays

, Irwin, K.D

., et al.

Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International , vol., no., pp.1-4, 5-10 June 2011

B. Mates et al

ApL

2008 (NIST)Slide24

Conclusions

Superconducting detector development has started at the APS.

Testing infrastructure (

cryo

, electronics, analysis software) is complete.

Now focusing on device fabrication and iterating on designs

MKIDs are a path towards high count rates and higher solid angle coverage.

Has the potential to provide a very unique capability (detector/instrument) for the APS.

MKIDs are a relatively young technology and there is room for R&D.

Thank you!Slide25

The EndSlide26

Extra SlidesSlide27

Comparison of Silicon Drift Diode, MAIA, TES and MKID

Area

Sensor-Window Distance

Energy Resolution @ 6keV

Max Count rate (per pixel)

P/B ratio

Energy Range

State of maturity

Silicon

Drift Diode

40mm

2

5mm

250eV

250kHz

5000:1 (?)

< 20keV

Commercially

Available

175eV

100kHz

MAIA

1mm

2

x 384

5mm

250eV20kHz per pixel5000:1 (?)< 20keV

Semi-commercial??NIST TES0.14 mm2 per pixel (256+ pixels)

1 cm

3eV @ 6keV

18eV @ 40keV

70eV @ 100keV

10-100 Hz/pixel

(256+ pixels)

??

300eV

– 100keV

Semi-commercial

MKIDs

0.14 mm

2

per pixel

1 cm

60eV (2006)

2eV is theoretical

limit

4000Hz/pixel

(256+ pixels)

??

300eV-100keV

R&D

+Slide28

Silicon Drift Diodes

Commercially available

E.g., Vortex 4-pixel SDD (4 x 40mm

2

)

Performance of single pixel SDDs (measured)

Mn

K

a FWHM ~ 250 eV (Max Count rate ~ 250 kHz per pixel)Mn Ka FWHM ~ 175

eV

(Max Count rate ~ 100 kHz per pixel)

SDD have reached their limits of energy resolution. Only improvement to be made is more pixels to increase total count rate throughput and solid angle collection.

Thus, the MAIA detector (BNL/Australia)!Slide29
Slide30
Slide31

Speed and resolution are inverse proportional.

Controllable

 thermal conductance to bath (“G”)

SiN

membrane geometrySlide32

Phonon-Coupled MKIDs -- Single Photon Emission CT -- SPECT

SPECT Imaging (for animals)

Patrick La

Riviere

thinks phonon-coupled MKIDs might be good for this.

Also interesting for high-energy x-ray applications

Sunil

Golwala

et al Slide33

Current Status of MKID Research at APS II

Exploring various detector configurations

Quasiparticle Trapping

 Tradition Configuration

60eV resolution

and 4

000cps per pixel proven in 2006

30eV

should be “easily”

possible More is understood about noise sources

2eV is theoretical limit at 6keV

Lump-element design

(WSix

) No charge diffusion  High Peak-to-BackgroundPhonon-Coupled  Large pixels and thick silicon

(or other dielectric material for

absorption

Silicon Absorber (1mm)

SiN

membrane

Resonator

Inductor/Absorber

CapacitorSlide34

Pump-probe XAS w/o mono

3eV at 7keV

80Hz with 40 pixels (256 possible today)

80Hz * 256 = 20kHz (TDM)

80Hz * 1000 = 80kHz (CDM) This starts to be very interesting for RIXS/XES/XANESSlide35

MKIDs – Readout Scheme

Multiplexing is main advantage of MKIDs over STJs and TES

Should be able to readout

~4000

pixelsSlide36

MKID Array readout

Room temperature electronics

Transfer complexity from cryogenic electronics (TES & SQUIDs) to room temperature.

Scalable system

Array size limitation is room temperature electronics (512 is practical today)

Riding on Moore’s Law for room temperature microwave integrated circuits developed for the wireless communications industry.

X

X

IQ Mixer

Low Pass Filters

16-bit D/A

16-bit D/A

14-bit A/D

14-bit A/D

FPGA-based IQ demodulation

(Xilinx SX95T RF Engines Channel Core)

GHz SynthsizerSlide37

Quasiparticle Generation – A Cascade Process

Incoming Photon

 absorbed, ionizing atom and releasing inner-shell electron

First Stage:

Rapid energy down-conversion (electron-electron interactions  secondary ionization and cascade

plasmon

emission)

e.g. 10keV photoelectron down-conversion to a thermal population of electrons and holes at a characteristics energy ~ 1eV takes 0.1

ps

(

Kozorezov

et al )

1

st stage ends when electron-phonon inelastic scattering rate dominates electron-electron interactions. Second Stage: ~ 1eV down-convert to large number of Debye energy phononsEnergy of phonon distribution exceeds energy of electron distributionDebye energy of superconductors is larger than SC gap energy

Phonons with energy > 2

D

will generate quasiparticles.

Finally, we have a mixed distribution of quasiparticle and phonons:

N

qp ~ Ephoton/DBut scaled down because large percentage of photon energy stays in the phonon systemFor Tantalaum, 60% energy resides in qp system. (Kurakado) (Efficiency  h

)

Nqp

= hhn

/D

At 6keV and Ta absorber, D = 0.67 meV  5 Million qp

!!Slide38

Phonon Trapping

Dominant phonon loss mechanism for Ta and Al is through the substrate.

Copper Pair breaking phonons Mean Free path ~ 50nm

Effective quasiparticle lifetime is lengthened by phonon trapping.

Acoustic match between superconducting film and substrate.

Thus thicker films or membrane-suspended absorbers. Slide39

Two major classes of Superconducting Detectors

Thermal Detectors (i.e., Transition Edge Sensors)

Quasiparticle DetectorsSlide40

Transition-Edge Sensors (TES)

1/e response time = 100 μs - 1 ms

Kent Irwin, NISTSlide41

Transition-Edge Sensors (TES)

TES have the best energy resolution (not

Fano

limited)

However, TES require relatively complex cryogenic electronics which makes multiplexing difficult.

Limited to 200 pixels right now.

Also, larger pixel means slower response….

Irwin &

Ullom

, NISTSlide42

TES array at NSLS (NIST U7A)

Commissioned at NSLS this year…. Waiting for results…Slide43

Gamma-Ray TES Array

(NIST + Los Alamos)

Resolution

25

eV

at 100

keV

for 1

mm

2

20eV at 40keV for 1 mm

2

70

eV

at 100

keV

for 2 mm

2

Count Rate

10Hz/pixel (now)

25Hz/pixel (soon)

Pixels

256 (now)

1024 (soon)