Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall - PowerPoint Presentation

Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall
Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall

Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall - Description

Nixons New Conservatism Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more conservative direction with a sense of order The US was intensely divided over Nam Nixon felt LBJs Great Society programs gave the federal government too much responsibility ID: 313815 Download Presentation


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Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallSlide2

Nixon’s New Conservatism

Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more conservative direction with a sense of order

The US was intensely divided over Nam

Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society programs gave the federal government too much responsibility

Nixon’s plan was

New Federalism

which was to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local government

Under the

Revenue Sharing Plan

state and local gov. could spend Fed. $ how they saw fitSlide3

Welfare Reform -_FAP

Nixon wanted to overhaul welfare which he felt had grown inefficient

In 1969 Nixon introduced the

Family Assistance Plan (FAP)

which a family of four would receive a basic family income of $1,500 to $4,000, job training would be given and any job would have to be accepted by the participant

It passed the House, but was attacked by both parties in the Senate and the bill was defeatedSlide4

Two Sides to New Federalism

The Nixon administration increased Social Security, Medicare, Medicare and made food stamps more accessible

Yet Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in 1970 he denied funding for (HUD)

By 1973 Nixon had


more than $15 billion in funds for housing, health, and education (Courts overturned the impounding)

Nixon abolished the Office of Economic OpportunitySlide5

Law and Order Politics

Nixon pledged to end the war in Vietnam

He pledged to mend American divisions

He played to the “

silent majority

Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate American dissidents and political enemies


IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil rights activists tax returns

Nixon had a “

enemies list

” of who to harass

VP Agnew

attacked liberals, the media, and anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)Slide6

Causes of Stagflation

Between 1967-1973 the US faced

high unemployment and high inflation




High Inflation

was caused by LBJ funding the war and the Great Society through deficit spending

Increased International Competition

in trade

Floods of

new workers

(Domestic Baby Boomers and Foreign)

Heavy dependence of foreign oilSlide8

Nixon Battles Stagflation

To reverse deficit spending Nixon raised taxes and cut the budget

(Congress opposed)

Nixon tried to reduce the amount of $ in circulation by pushing for higher interest rates

Nixon took the US off the gold standard

In 1971 Nixon froze wages, rents, fees and prices for 90 days it helped in the short term but the recession continuedSlide9

OPEC and War

During the 1960’s the

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

raised the price of oil

The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices

The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel, Egypt and Syria causes increased prices

The US sent massive military aid to Israel, Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (

Oil Embargo


By 1974 price increased 4x, the market price for oil rose substantially, from $3 a barrel to $12

Major gas lines and shortages in the US early, mid 1970’sSlide10

Nixon and the Environment

Nixon supported the creation of the

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Nixon improved the Clean Air Act of 1963

Nixon supported the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970

In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was passed

Membership in the

Sierra Club

took off due to new concerns over the environment

On April 2nd, 1970 the first

Earth Day

was heldSlide13

The Pentagon Papers


was angry with the extension of the war into Cambodia, and in Dec. 1970 they

repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

In June 1971,Former Defense Dept. worker Daniel Ellsberg released the

Pentagon Papers

to the press

The papers stated that the government had drawn up plans for entering the war as early as 1964

, and they showed their was never any plan to end the war even if it was unsuccessful.Slide16

Dirty Tricks

Dirty Tricks

” were used by the administration to withhold information from the public, discredit critics, and gain illegal campaign contributions for the 1972 election

The “


” were established to stop leaks of information

Former CIA agent

E. Howard Hunt and FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy headed the re-election team

“The Enemies List”

First target was Daniel Ellsberg who released the Pentagon PapersSlide17

Hunt and Liddy


The Imperial Presidency

Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with little thought of Constitutional Checks

Impoundment of funds for fed. programs

Invading Cambodia without the approval of Congress

Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above the lawSlide19

The President’s Men

Fierce loyal advisors

H.R. Haldeman

–Chief of staff

John Ehrlichman

– Chief Domestic Advisor

John N Mitchell

– Attorney General

John W. Dean III

– White House CouncilSlide20

The Drive Towards Re-election

Nixon feared losing elections

Committee to Re-elect the President

was formed (CREEP) with Mitchell as its leader

CREEP hired a security team to bug the DNC headquarters at the


Office Complex in DC

On June 17, 1972 five men were caught by a security guard Frank Wills

The group’s leader

James McCord was former CIA and Security Coordinator for CREEPSlide21

The Cover-Up

Nixon was concerned about the break-in

Documents were shredded in Haldeman’s office

The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop investigating the break-in

CREEP passed out $450,000 to the burglars to buy their silence

The burglary was of little interest to the public and the press

Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein kept on the story

( Received info. from Mark Felt) FBISlide23

The 1972 Election


ran a successful negative campaign against

Senator George McGovern (D)

They let the press know that McGovern’s VP candidate Senator Thomas Eagleton had undergone shock therapy for depression

Voter turnout was an all time low

With promises of peace in Vietnam Nixon won in a landslideSlide25

The Cover-Up Unravels

In Jan. 1973

McCord sent a letter to Judge John Sirica

(Presiding Judge)

He lied under oath, and hinted others were involved

On April 30



Nixon fired John Dean and announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindiest

Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a “Special Prosecutor” be appointed to investigate WatergateSlide27

The Senate Investigates

Senator James Ervin began calling Administration officials to give testimony

Dean admitted the President had been deeply involved in the cover-up

(White House denial)

Presidential Aid Alex Butterfield revealed the tapes of Oval Office Conversations

A year long battle for the tapes began


The Saturday Night Massacre

Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox took Nixon to Court in 1973

Nixon ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox

Richardson refused the order and resigned

(Saturday Night Massacre)

Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Cox

New Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski wanted the tapes as well

A few days earlier

VP Agnew resigned

for accepting bribes while Gov. of MD


VP Gerald Ford

was appointedSlide29

The Fall of Nixon

In March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted seven presidential aids on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury

Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited transcripts

In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to give up the unedited tapes “

I am not a crook!”

In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5 min. gap (Rose Mary Woods accidentally erased the most crucial part)Slide30

Impeachment or Resignation

The House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment:

obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress

On August 8


, 1974 Nixon announced his resignation

Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments “were wrong”

Gerald Ford

was sworn in as President

Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon

25 administration members served prison termsSlide31

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