What is terrorism? Definition: political violence:
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What is terrorism? Definition: political violence: violence or the threat of violence, especially bombing, kidnapping, and assassination, carried out for political purposes, the experience of terror or fear as the proximate aim of that violence The moral question: Can terrorism ever be morally justified?
The tactic of intentionally targeting non-combatants [or non-combatant property, when significantly related to life and security] with lethal or severe violence … meant to produce political results via the creation of fear (Coady 2001: 1697). The deliberate use of violence, or threat of its use, against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating some other people into a course of action they otherwise would not take (Primoratz 2004: 24).
Zealots- 1st Century against Roman occupiers.French Revolution-”Reign of Terror’- guillotine.Irish Republic Army (1867)- today- Fenians
History of Terrorism
Russia-1881-Assasination of Tsar Alexander & his family.1893-Macedonian Revolutionaries- 1934-assasination of AlexanderMunich Massacre -1972; Lockerbie –Pan Am -1988; Olympic Park bombing-96Bali bombing-2002/5;Madrid-July 7, 2005; NY Trade Center -September 11, 2001 History of Terrorism
“Killing of innocents to affecting morale.”- Attacks on London, on Berlin, Dresden & on Hiroshima. Genocide- Turkey- Armenians; Holocaust, Bosnia, Somalia; RwandaState Terrorism ?
Stop “peace” processes.Demonstrate opposition to U.S. government or others.Punish advancing science and technology- “Unabomber”Seeking independence-Basque Different Motives
Def: “The active refusal to obey certain laws, demands, & commands of government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence.Gandhi, South Africa, M.L. King, Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience
Biological Weapons Convention-1972“The parties undertake not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins- that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes, as well as weapons and means of delivery.” Bio-Terrorism
Joint Statement- 2005We reaffirm our support for the Convention. We will continue to work to strengthen it by a work plan and to press for full implementation and compliance in 2006. (US,UK & Russian Federation) Bio-Terrorism