Chapter 24 New  Worlds: Chapter 24 New  Worlds:

Chapter 24 New Worlds: - PowerPoint Presentation

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Uploaded On 2019-03-20

Chapter 24 New Worlds: - PPT Presentation

The Americas and Oceania The Spanish Caribbean Spanish mariners meet indigenous Taíno Arawaks The Spanish Caribbean Spanish mariners meet indigenous Taíno Arawaks Columbus uses Hispaniola Haiti and Dominican Republic as base for trading with Taíno ID: 758385

north spanish labor natives spanish north natives labor american slaves indigenous portuguese sugar native european




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Chapter 24New Worlds: The Americas and OceaniaSlide2

The Spanish CaribbeanSlide3

The Spanish Caribbean

Spanish mariners meet indigenous Taíno (Arawaks)Columbus uses Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as base for trading with Taíno Disappointed that Taíno had no spices, silks

Recruit locals to mine gold instead


forced laborSlide4

From Mining to Plantation Agriculture

Taíno occasionally rebel, but outgunned by

Spanish military technology

Smallpox epidemics begin 1518

Spaniards launch raids to kidnap and replace workers, spread disease further


society disappears by middle of sixteenth century

Limited gold production causes new interest in exploiting Caribbean for sugarcane production

Requires massive importation of slavesSlide5

Conquest of Mexico and Peru

Spanish conquerors (



explore other territories


Cortés and 450 men bring down Aztec empire in Mexico (1519-1521)

Smallpox destroys besieged Tenochtitlan

Francisco Pizarro and 600 men bring down Inca empire in Peru (1532-1533)

Calls conference of warring Inca rulers, massacres them allSlide6

Conquest of Mexico and Peru

Three major reasons the Europeans defeated the indigenous AmericansDiseases that Americans had no immunity forSuperior fighting technology

They took advantage of factions within the American empiresSlide7

Mining in the Spanish Empire

Hunt for gold and silverConquistadores loot Aztec, Inca treasures and melt

them down for their value as raw precious metals

Extensive employment of natives


Encomienda system,



was used for

conscripted labor with Inca: 1/7 for 4 mo.

Dangerous working conditionsSlide8

Global Significance of Silver

Gold not extensive, but silver relatively plentifulFifth reserved for crown (quinto

), hugely profitable

Major resource of income for Spanish crown

Most goes across Atlantic, but some goes across the Pacific rim

Very popular with Chinese marketsSlide9

Spanish Colonial Administration

Spanish administration based in New Spain (Mexico) and New Castile (Peru)Mexico City built atop Tenochtitlan Lima in Peru


rule, but supervised by local courts called


designed to prevent buildup of local power bases Slide10

Portuguese Brazil

1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divides entire (non-Christian) world between Spain and Portugal

Portugal claims Brazil

Little interest at first, but increases as other imperial powers take notice

Exploited for sugarcane productionSlide11

Social HierarchiesSlide13

Formation of Multicultural Societies

European, African migrants primarily menRelationships with native women formed


(mixed) societies formed

People of Spanish and native parentage

Descendants of Spaniards and African slaves


Descendants of African slaves and natives




The Social Hierarchy

Race-based hierarchyTop:



i.e. migrants from Iberian peninsula


(creoles), i.e. children of migrants

Mestizos, mulattoes,



other combinations of parentage

Bottom: slaves, conquered peoplesSlide15

Women in the New World

Patriarchal structureMen/Women ratio enhanced or limited women’s experiencesRace and class shaped women’s lives

European descent were favored

Women of color, lower class women fulfilled traditional roles: food prep, laundering, weaving

Slaves worked at hard physical tasks: planting, cutting cane, laundrySlide16


Born on the Iberian Peninsula


Born in America, 100% European descent


European & Native American


European & African descent


both free and enslaved

Native Americans:

Aztec, Maya, Inca, etc.Slide17

North American SocietiesSlide19

Settler Colonies in North America

Permanent colonies in North AmericaFrance: Nova Scotia (1604), Quebec (1608)England: Jamestown (1607), Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)

Netherlands: New Amsterdam (1623)

English take it in 1664, rename it New YorkSlide20

North American Societies

Higher ratio of French, English female migrants than in South AmericaHigher social stigma attached to relationships with natives, African slavesFur traders have relationships with North American native women



Colonial Government

Exceptionally difficult conditionsStarvation rampant, cannibalism occasionally practicedFrench and English private merchants invest heavily in expansion of colonies

Greater levels of self-government than Spanish and Portuguese coloniesSlide22

Relations with Indigenous Peoples

North American peoples loosely organized, migratoryUnlike Aztec, Inca empiresEuropean colonists stake out forested land, clear it for agriculture

Increasing number of Europeans arrive seeking land, displace indigenous people and trespass on hunting groundsSlide23

Conflict with Indigenous Peoples

English settlers negotiate treaties, poorly understood by nativesMilitary conflict frequentNatives also devastated by epidemic diseaseSlide24

North American PopulationsSlide25

New World EconomicsSlide26

The Hacienda

Large estates – think of the Manor System in EuropeProduce products of European originWheat, grapes, meat


system of utilizing native labor force

Rampant abuses 1520-1540

Gradually replaced by debt peonage

Peasants repay loans with cheap laborSlide27

A Hacienda in ChileSlide28

Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil

Sugar mill: engenho, refers to complex of land, labor, etc. all related to production of sugar

Sugarcane to molasses, or refined to sugar for export Slide29

Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil

Unlike Spanish system of forced native labor, Portuguese rely on imported African slavesNatives continually evaded Portuguese forcesLarge-scale importing of slaves begins 1580s

Working conditions poor: 5-10% die annually

Approximately one human life per ton of sugarSlide30

Fur Trading in North AmericaIndigenous peoples trade pelts for wool blankets, iron pots, firearms, alcohol

Beaver hunts cause frequent incursions into neighboring territories, conflictsBeaver Wars, Iroquois against


European settler-cultivators also displacing natives from traditional lands

Initially dependent on native assistance, as European grains did not grow well in many areasSlide31

Development of Cash Crops

Products developed for European marketsTobaccoRice



Increases demand for imported slave labor

European indentured servants, 4- to 7-year terms

Chronically unemployed, orphans, political prisoners, and criminalsSlide32

Export of Tobacco from VirginiaSlide33

Slavery in North America

African slaves in Virginia from 1619Increasingly replace European indentured laborers, late seventeenth to early eighteenth centuriesLess prominent in north due to weak nature of cash-crop industry

Slave trading still important part of economy

Also, products made through slave labor

Rum, based on sugar from plantationsSlide34

Missionary and Religious Activity in the AmericasSlide36

Missionary Activity in the Americas

Franciscan, Dominican, Jesuit missionaries from sixteenth centuryTaught Christian doctrine, literacyOften accumulated cultural knowledge to better communicate their message

Due to conquest and plague, many natives in Spanish America concluded gods had abandoned them; converted to Catholicism

Often retained elements of pagan religion in Christian worshipSlide37

The Virgin of GuadalupeSlide38

French and English MissionsLess effective than Spanish missions

Spaniards ruled native populations more directlyMigration patterns of North American natives made it more difficult to conduct missions

English colonists had little interest in converting nativesSlide39


Australia and the Larger World

Broadly similar experiences to American nativesPortuguese mariners long in the region, but Dutch sailors make first recorded sighting of Australia in 1606VOC surveys territory, conclude it is of little value

Limited contact with indigenous peoples

Nomadic, fishing and foraging societies

British Captain James Cook lands at Botany Bay, 1770

Convicts shipped to Australia, outnumber free settlers until 1830Slide41

Australian AborigineSlide42

Pacific Islands and the Larger World

Spanish Manila galleons interested in quick trade routes, little exploration of PacificIslands of Guam and the Marianas significant, lay on trade routes1670s-1680s took control

of islands, smallpox destroys

local populationSlide43

Manila Galleon Route and the Lands of Oceania, 1500-1800Slide44

Pacific Islands and the Larger World

James Cook visits Hawai`i in 1778Good relationship with HawaiiansSailors spread venereal disease

Cook not welcomed in 1779, killed in dispute over petty thefts

Crash Course Captain Cook