Review Cerealbased fermented foods and beverages A
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Review Cerealbased fermented foods and beverages A

Blandino ME AlAseeri SS Pandiella a D Cantero C Webb Satake Centre for Grain Process Engineering UMIST Department of Chemical Engineering PO Box 88 Manchester M60 QD UK Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Sciences University of Ca di

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Review Cerealbased fermented foods and beverages A




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Review Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages A. Blandino , M.E. Al-Aseeri , S.S. Pandiella a, , D. Cantero , C. Webb Satake Centre for Grain Process Engineering, UMIST, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 QD, UK Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ca diz, Pol gono , o San Pedro, Puerto ,eal, --.-0, Cadiz, Spain Received 19 November 2$$2% accepted 9 December 2$$2 Abstract Cereal grains constitute a major source of dietary nutrients all over the world. Although cereals are deficient in some basic components

,e.g. essential aminoacids-, fermentation may be the most simple and economical way of improving their nutritional value, sensory properties, and functional qualities. /his review focuses first on some of the indigenous fermented foods and bev- erages produced world-wide that have not received the scientific attention they deserve in the last decades. Products produced from different cereal substrates ,sometimes mixed with other pulses- fermented by lactic acid bacteria, yeast and2or fungi are included. 3inally, newly developed cereal-based foods with enhanced health

properties will also be reviewed. 2$$4 Elsevier Science 5td. All rights reserved. Keywords0 Cereals% 3ermented foods% 3ermented beverages% 5actic acid bacteria% 6east% 3ungi $974-99792$428 - see front matter 2$$4 Elsevier Science 5td. All rights reserved. doi91$.1$172S$974-9979,$4-$$$$9-: 3ood Research ;nternational 47 ,2$$4- 52:–544 www.elsevier.com2locate2foodres Contents 1. ;ntroduction................................................................................................................. ..............................................................52? 2. Biochemical changes

during cereal fermentation................................................................................... ....................................529 4. ;ndigenous rice-based fermented foods........................................................................................... ...........................................545 4.1. ;dli....................................................................................................................... ..............................................................545 4.2.

Dosa....................................................................................................................... ...........................................................545 4.4. Dho@la..................................................................................................................... ..........................................................545 4. /raditional wheat-based fermented foods......................................................................................... .........................................545 4.1. Soy

sauce................................................................................................................... ........................................................545 4.2. Aish@...................................................................................................................... ...........................................................547 4.4. /arhana.................................................................................................................... .........................................................547 5. /raditional corn-based fermented

foods.......................................................................................... ..........................................54: 5.1. Bgi........................................................................................................................ .............................................................54: 5.2. Aen@ey..................................................................................................................... .........................................................54: 5.4.

Pozol...................................................................................................................... ............................................................54: 7. /raditional sorghum-based fermented foods ....................................................................................... ......................................54: 7.1. ;njera..................................................................................................................... ............................................................54: 7.2.

Aisra...................................................................................................................... ............................................................54? * Corresponding author. /el.9 D44-171-2$$-4429% fax D44-171-2$$-4499. E1mail address0 s.pandiellaEumist.ac.u@ ,S.S. Pandiella-.
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1. Introduction Since the beginning of human civilisation there has been an intimate companionship between the human being, his fare and the fermentative activities of micro- organisms. /hese fermentative activities have been uti- lised in the production of fermented

foods and beverages, which are defined as those products that have been subordinated to the effect of microorganisms or enzymes to cause desirable biochemical changes. /he microorganisms responsible for the fermentation may be the microflora indigenously present on the substrate, or they may be added as starter cultures , Garlander, 1992 -. 3ermentation is one of the oldest and most econom- ical methods of producing and preserving food , Billings, 199?% Chavan H Aadam, 19?9 -. ;n addition, fermenta- tion provides a natural way to reduce the volume of the material to be

transported, to destroy undesirable com- ponents, to enhance the nutritive value and appearance of the food, to reduce the energy required for coo@ing and to ma@e a safer product , Simango, 199: -. Since the dawn of civilisation, methods for the fer- mentation of mil@s, meats, vegetables and cereals have been described./he earliest records appear in the 3ertile Crescent ,Middle East- and date bac@ to 7$$$ BC. Bf course, the preparation of these fermented foods and beverages was in an artisan way and without any @nowledge of the role of the microorganisms involved. Gowever, by the middle of the

nineteenth century, two events changed the way in which food fermentations were performed and the understanding of the process. 3irstly, the industrial revolution resulted in the concen- tration of large masses of populations in towns and cities. As a consequence, food had to be made in large quantities, requiring the industrialisation of the manu- facturing process. ;n the second place, the blossoming of Microbiology as a science in the 1?5$s formed the biological basis of fermentation, and the process was understood for the first time , Caplice H 3itzgerald, 1999 -. Ever since, the

technologies for the industrial production of fermented products from mil@, meat, fruits, vegetables and cereals are well developed and scientific wor@ is actively carried out all over the world Girahara, 199?% Pagni, 199? -. 3ermented foods are produced world-wide using var- ious manufacturing techniques, raw materials and microorganisms. Gowever, there are only four main fermentation processes9 alcoholic, lactic acid, acetic acid and al@ali fermentation , Soni H Sandhu, 199$ -. Alcohol fermentation results in the production of ethanol, and yeasts are the predominant organisms ,e.g.

wines and beers-. 5actic acid fermentation ,e.g. fermented mil@s and cereals- is mainly carried out by lactic acid bacteria. A second group of bacteria of importance in food fer- mentations are the acetic acid producers from the 2cet1 o3acter species. 2ceto3acter convert alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of excess oxygen. Al@ali fermenta- tion often ta@es place during the fermentation of fish and seeds, popularly used as condiment , McAay H Baldwin, 199$ -. /he preparation of many indigenous or traditional fermented foods and beverages remains today as a house art. /hey are produced

in homes, villages and small-scale industries. Bn the contrary, the preparation of others, such as soy sauce, has evolved to a bio- technological state and is carried out on a large com- mercial scale , Bol H de Ios, 199: -. ;n the distant past, there was no verified data on the economic, nutritional, technical and quality control implications of the indi- genous fermented food. Gowever, in the last 2$ years, the number of boo@s and articles dealing with indigen- ous fermented beverages and foods found around the whole world have rapidly increased , Stein@raus, Ayres, Ble@, H 3arr, 1994

-. ;n this context, this review aims to list and summarize the production processes of some of the most common traditional cereal-based fermented foods. ;n addition some of the microbiological and :. /raditional cereal-based fermented beverages.................................................................................... ........................................54? :.1. Beers...................................................................................................................... ............................................................54? :.2.

Sa@e....................................................................................................................... ............................................................54? :.4. Bouza...................................................................................................................... ...........................................................54? :.4. Chicha..................................................................................................................... ..........................................................549 :.5.

Mahewu..................................................................................................................... ........................................................549 :.7. Boza....................................................................................................................... ............................................................549 ?. New cereal-based probiotic foods................................................................................................ ..............................................549 ?.1. 6osa

....................................................................................................................... ...........................................................549 9. Conclusions.................................................................................................................. ..............................................................54$ References ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................54$ 52? 24 Blandino et

al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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nutritional properties of those foods and the technolo- gical improvements which have been achieved on its production will be highlighted. Some cereal-based fer- mented products recently developed will also be reviewed. 2. Biochemical changes during cereal fermentation Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people all over the world. Gowever, the nutritional quality of cereals and the sensorial properties of their products

are sometimes inferior or poor in comparison with mil@ and mil@ pro- ducts. /he reasons behind this are the lower protein content, the deficiency of certain essential amino acids ,lysine-, the low starch availability, the presence of determined antinutrients ,phytic acid, tannins and polyphenols- and the coarse nature of the grains , Cha- van H Aadam, 19?9 -. A number of methods have been employed with the aim of ameliorate the nutritional qualities of cereals. /hese include genetic improvement and amino acid supplementation with protein concentrates or other protein-rich sources such as

grain legumes or defatted oil seed meals of cereals. Additionally, several proces- sing technologies which include coo@ing, sprouting, milling and fermentation, have been put into practise to improve the nutritional properties of cereals, although probably the best one is fermentation , Mattila-Sand- holm, 199? -. ;n general, natural fermentation of cereals leads to a decrease in the level of carbohydrates as well as some non-digestible poly and oligosaccharides. Cer- tain amino acids may be synthesised and the availability of B group vitamins may be improved. 3ermentation also provides

optimum pG conditions for enzymatic degradation of phytate which is present in cereals in the form of complexes with polivalent cations such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and proteins. Such a reduc- tion in phytate may increase the amount of soluble iron, zinc and calcium several folds , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Jillooly et al., 19?4% Gaard et al., 1999% Ahetarpaul H Chauhan, 199$% Nout H Motarjemi, 199:% Stewart H Jetachew, 1972 -. /he effect of fermentation on the protein and amino acids levels is a topic of controversy. 3or example, dur- ing the fermentation of corn meal the

concentrations of available lysine, methionine, and tryptophan increase Nanson H 3ield, 19?4 -. ;n the same way, fermentation significantly improves the protein quality as well as the level of lysine in maise, millet, sorghum, and other cer- eals , Gamad H 3ields, 19:9 -. Bn the contrary, investi- gations of the nutritive value of sorghum @isra bread showed no increase in the lysine content, although tyr- osine and methionine levels did increase , McAay H Baldwin, 199$ -. ;n the same line, it has been reported that the tryptophan content increases during uji manu- facture while a

significant drop in lysine content was mea- sured , McAayH Baldwin, 199$ -. ;t appearsthat theeffect of fermentation on the nutritive value of foods is variable, althoughtheevidenceforimprovementsissubstantial. 3ermentation also leads to a general improvement in the shelf life, texture, taste and aroma of the final pro- duct. During cereal fermentations several volatile com- pounds are formed, which contribute to a complex blend of flavours in the products , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9 -. /he presence of aromas representative of diacetyl acetic acid and butyric acid ma@e

fermented cereal- based products more appetizing ,see /able 1 -. /raditional fermented foods prepared from most common types of cereals ,such as rice, wheat, corn or sorghum- are well @nown in many parts of the world. Some are utilixed as colorants, spices, beverages and brea@fast or light meal foods, while a few of them are used as main foods in the diet. /he microbiology of many of these products is quite complex and not @nown. ;n most of these products the fermentation is natural and involves mixed cultures of yeasts, bacteria and fungi. Some microorganisms may participate in parallel,

while others act in a sequential manner with a changing dominant flora during the course of the fer- mentation. /he common fermenting bacteria are species of Leuconostoc, Lacto3acillus, Streptococcus, Pedio1 coccus, Micrococcus and Bacillus . /he fungi genera spergillus Paecilomyces, Cladosporium Fusarium, Peni1 cillium and Trichothecium are the most frequently found in certain products. /he common fermenting yeasts are species of Saccharomyces , which results in alcoholic fermentation , Stein@raus, 199? -. /he type of bacterial flora developed in each fer- mented food depends on

the water activity, pG, salt concentration, temperature and the composition of the food matrix. Most fermented foods, including the major products that are common in the western world, as well of many of those form other sources that are less well characterised, are dependent on lactic acid bacteria ,5AB- to mediate the fermentation process , Conway, 1997 -. 5actic acid fermentation contributes towards the safety, nutritional value, shelf life and acceptability of a wide range of cereal based foods , Byewole, 199: -. ;n many of those processes, cereal grains, after cleaning, are soa@ed in

water for a few days during which a suc- cession of naturally occurring microorganisms will result in a population dominated by 5AB. ;n such fer- mentations endogenous grain amylases generate fer- mentable sugars that serve as a source of energy for the lactic acid bacteria. 3ermentation is often just one step in the process of fermented food preparation. Bther operations such as sise reduction, salting or heating also affect the final product properties , Nout H Motarjemi, 199: -. 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 529
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According to

Aguirre and Collins ,1994- , the term 5AB is used to describe a broad group of Jram-posi- tive, catalase-negative, non-sporing rods and cocci, usually non-motile, that utilize carbohydrates fermen- tatively and form lactic acid as the major end product ,see /able 2 -. According to the pathways by which hexoses are metabolised they are divided into two groups9 homofermentative and heterofermentative. Gomofermentative such as Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus and some Lacto3acilli produce lactic acid as the major or sole end product of glucose fermenta- tion. Geterofermenters such as

Weisella and Leuconos1 toc and some Lacto3acilli produce equimolar amounts of lactate, CB and ethanol from glucose , Aguirre H Collins, 1994% /amime H BKConnor, 1995 -. /he preservative role of lactic fermentation technol- ogy has been confirmed in some cereal products. /he antibiosis mediated by 5AB has been attributed to the production of acids, hydrogen peroxide and antibiotics. /he production of organic acids reduces the pG to below 4.$ ma@ing it difficult for some spoilage organ- isms that are present in cereals to survive , Daly, 1991% Byewole, 199: -. /he antimicrobial

effect is believed to result from the action of the acids in the bacterial cyto- plasmatic membrane, which interferes with the main- tenance of the membrane potential and inhibits the active transport. Apart from their ability to produce organic acids, the 5AB posses the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide through the oxidation of reduced nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide ,NADG- by flavin nucleotides, which react rapidly with oxygen. As 5AB lac@ true catalase to brea@ down the hydrogen peroxide generated, it can accumulate and be inhibitory to some microorganisms , Caplice H

3itzgerald, 1999 -. Bn the other hand, tannin levels may be reduced as a result of lactic acid fermentation, leading to increased absorption of iron, except in some high tannin cereals, where little of no improvement in iron availability has been observed , Nout H Motarjemi, 199: -. Another advan- tage of lactic acid fermentation is that fermented pro- ducts involving 5AB have viricidal , Esser, 5und, H Clemensen, 19?4 - and antitumour effects , Bberman H 5ibudzisz, 1997% Seo et al., 1997 -. A range of indigenous fermented foods prepared from cereals in different parts of the world

are listed in /able 4 . ;t can be observed from this table that most of those products are produced in Africa and Asia and a number of them utilize cereals in combination with legumes, thus improving the overall protein quality of the fermented product. Cereals are deficient in lysine, but are rich in cysteine and methionine. 5egumes, on the other hand, are rich in lysine but deficient in sulphur containing amino acids. /hus, by combining cereal with legumes, the overall protein quality is improved Campbell-Platt, 1994 -. Some of these cereal-based fer- mented products,

classified according to the main raw constituent will be described in the following sections. /able 1 Compounds formed during cereal fermentation , Campbell-Platt, 1994 Brganic acids Alcohols Aldehydes and @etones Carbonyl compounds Butyric Geptanoic Ethanol Acetaldehyde 3urfural Succinic ;sovaleric -Propanol 3ormaldehyde Methional 3ormic Propionic ;sobutanol ;sovaleraldehyde Jlyoxal Ialeric -Butyric Amy alcohol -Ialderaldehyde 4-Methyl butanal Caproic ;sobutyric ;soamyl alcohol 2-Methyl butanol 2-Methyl Butanal 5actic Caprylic 2,4-Butanediol -Gexaldehyde Gydroxymethyl furfural Acetic

;socaproic -Phenylethyl alcohol Acetone Capric Pleargonic Propionaldehyde Pyruvic 5evulinic ;sobutyraldehyde Plamitic Myristic Methyl ethyl @etone Crotonic Gydrocinnamic 2-Butanone ;taconic Benzylic Diacetyl 5auric Acetoin /able 2 Jenera of lactic acid bacteria involved in cereal fermentations McAay H Baldwin, 199$% Bberman H 5ibudzisz, 1997% Sus@ovic, Aos, Matosic, H Maric, 199: Jenera of 5AB Cell form Catal. Jram , Lacto3acillus Rods ,Bacilli% coccobacilli- Streptococcus Spheres in chains ,Cocci- Pediococcus Spheres in tetrads ,Cocci- Lactococcus Cocci Leuconostoc Spheres in chains ,Cocci-

Bifido3acterium Branched rods Carno3acterium Cocci Enterococcus Cocci Sporolacto3acillus Rod Lactosphaera Cocci Oenococcus Cocci Vagococcus Cocci 2erococcus Cocci Weissella Cocci 54$ 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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/able 4 Most common indigenous cereal and cereal–legume-based fermented foods and beverages , Adams, 199?% Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Garlander, 1992% San@aran, 199?% Soni H Sandhu, 199$ Product Substrates Microorganisms Nature of use Regions Adai Cereal2legume Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc Brea@fast or snac@ food ;ndia

Anarshe Rice 5AB Brea@fast, sweetened snac@ food ;ndia Ang-@a@ ,an@a, red rice- Rice Monascus purpureus Dry red powder as colorant China, Southeast Asia, Syria Atole Maise 5AB Porridge based on maise dough Southern Mexico Bagni Millet Mn@nown 5iquid drin@ Caucasus Ban@u Maise, or maise and cassava 5AB, moulds Dough as staple Jhana Bhattejaanr Rice Aansenula anomala, Mucor rouxianus Sweet sour alcoholic paste ;ndia, Si@@im Bogobe Sorghum Mn@nown Soft porridge staple Botswana Bouza Wheat Mn@nown /hic@, acidic, yellow, alcoholic beverage Egypt Boza Wheat, millet, maise and other cereals

Lacto3acillus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leuconostoc /hic@, sweet, slightly sour beverage Albania, /ur@ey, Bulgaria, Romania Braga Millet Mn@nown 5iquid drin@ Romania Brem Rice Mn@nown Ca@e ;ndonesia Brembali Rice Mucor indicus, Candida Dar@ brown alcoholic drin@ ;ndonesia Buru@utu Sorghum Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S4 chavelieri, Leuconostoc mesenteroides Candida 2ceto3acter Alcoholic beverage of vinegar-li@e flavour Nigeria, Benin, Jhana Busa Rice or millet Lacto3acillu s, Saccharomyces 5iquid drin@ Syria, Egypt, /ur@estan Busaa Maise Lacto3acillus helveticus, L4 salivarus, L4 casei, L4

3revis, L4 plantarum, L4 3uchneri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium damnosus Alcoholic beverage Nigeria, Jhana Chee-fan Soybean wheat curd Mucor, 2spergillus glaucus Cheese-li@e product, eaten fresh China Chicha Maise 2spergillus Penicilliu m, yeasts, bacteria Spongy solid eaten with vegetables Peru Chi@o@ivana Maise and millet Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic beverage Niombabwe Chinese yeast Soybeans Mucoraceous molds, yeasts Solid eaten fresh with rice China Chongju Rice Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic clear drin@ Aorea Dala@i Millet Mn@nown /hic@ porridge Nigeria Darassum Millet

Mn@nown 5iquid drin@ Mongolia Dho@la Rice or wheat and bengal gram Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus faecalis Torulopsis candida, T4 pullulans Steamed ca@e for brea@fast or snac@ food Northern ;ndia Continued on next page 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 541
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/able 4 , continued Product Substrates Microorganisms Nature of use Regions Doro 3inger millet malt 6easts and bacteria Colloidal thic@ alcoholic drin@ Nimbabwe Dosa Rice and bengal gram Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus faecalis, Torulopsis candida, T4 pullulans Jriddled ca@e

for brea@fast or snac@ food ;ndia Gamanatto Wheat, soybeans 2spergillus oryzae, Streptococcus, Pediococcus Raisin-li@e, soft, flavouring agent for meat and fish, eaten as snac@ Oapan ;dli Rice grits and blac@ gram Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus faecalis, Torulopsis, Candida, Tricholsporon pullulans Steamed ca@e for brea@fast food South ;ndia, Sri 5an@a ;lambazi lo@ubilisa Maise 5AB, yeasts and moulds Porrridge as weaning food Nimbabwe ;njera Sorghum, tef, maise or wheat Candida guilliermondii Bread-li@e staple Ethiopia Oaanr Millet Aansenula anomala, Mucor rouxianus

Alcoholic paste mixed with water ;ndia, Gimalaya Oalebies Wheat flour Saccharomyces 3ayanus Pretzel-li@e syrup-filled confection ;ndia, Nepal, Pa@istan Oamin-bang Maise 6easts, bacteria Bread, ca@e-li@e Brazil Aaanga-Aopuwai Maise Bacteria, yeasts Soft, slimy eaten as vegetable New Nealand Aachasu Maise 6easts Alcoholic beverage Nimbabwe Aaffir beer Aaffir corn 6easts, 5AB Alcoholic drin@ South Africa Aanji Rice and carrots Aansenula anomala 5iquid added to vegetables ;ndia Aecap Wheat, soybeans 2spergillus oryzae, Lacto3acillus Aansenula Saccharomyces 5iquid

flavouring agent ;ndonesia Aen@ey Maise Lacto3acillus fermentum, L4 reuteri, Candida, Saccharomyces, Penicillium, 2spergillus and Fusarium Mush, steamed eaten with vegetables Jhana Ahanomjeen Rice Lacto3acillus, Streptococcus Noodle /hailand Ahaoma@ Rice ,hizopus, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Aansenula Alcoholic sweet beverage /hailand Aichudo@ Rice, ta@ju Saccharomyces Steamed ca@e Aorea Aish@ Wheat and mil@ Lacto3acillus plantarum, L4 3revis, L4 casei Bacillus su3tilis and yeasts Solid, dried balls, dispersed rapidly in water Egypt, Syria, Arabian countries Aisra Sorghum Mn@nown Staple as

bread Sudan Ao@o Maise Entero3acter clocae, 2cineto3acter4, Lacto3acillus platarum, L4 3revis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida mycoderma Porridge as staple Jhana Awunu-Na@i Millet 5AB, yeasts Paste used as brea@fast dish Nigeria Aurdi Wheat Mn@nown Solid, fried crisp, salty noodles ;ndia Continued on next page 542 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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/able 4 , continued Product Substrates Microorganisms Nature of use Regions 5ao-chao Rice ,hizopus oryzae, ,4 chinensis, Chlamydomucor oryzae, Saccharomycopsis Paste, soft, juicy, glutinous consumed as

such, as dessert or combined with eggs, seafood China, ;ndonesia Mahewu Maise Streptococcus lactis Solid staple South Africa Mawe Maise 5AB, yeast Basis for preparation of many dishes South Africa Mangisi Millet Mn@nown Sweet-sour non-alcoholic drin@ Nimbabwe Mantou Wheat flour Saccharomyces Steamed ca@e China Me Rice 5AB Sour food ingredient Iietnam Merissa Sorghum and millet Saccharomyces Alcoholic drin@ Sudan Minchin Wheat gluten Paecilomyces, 2spergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Syncephalastum, Penicillium and Trichothecium Solid as condiment China Mirin Rice, alcohol 2spergillus

oryzae, 24 usamii Alcoholic liquid seasoning Oapan Miso Rice and soy beans or rice other cereals such as barley 2spergillus oryzae, Torulopsis etchellsii, Lacto3acillus Paste used as seasoning Oapan, China Mun@oyo Aaffir corn, millet or maise plus roots of mun@oyo Mn@nown 5iquid drin@ Africa Mutwiwa Maise 5AB, bacteria and moulds Porridge Nimbabwe Nan Mnbleached wheat flour Saccharomyces cerevisiae , 5AB Solid as snac@ ;ndia, Pa@istan, Afghanistan, ;ran Nasha Sorghum Streptococcus, Lacto3acillus, Candida, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Porridge as a snac@ Sudan Bgi Maise, sorghum or

millet Lacto3acillus plantarum Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida mycoderma, Coryne3acterium 2ero3acter ,hodotorula Cephalosporium, Fusarium, 2spergillus and Penicillium Paste as staple. 3or brea@fast or weaning food for babies Nigeria, West Africa Bti@a Sorghum Mn@nown Alcoholic beverage Nigeria Papadam Blac@ gram Saccharomyces Brea@fast or snac@ food ;ndia Pito Maise, sorghum, maise and sorghum Geotrichum candidum, Lacto3acillus Candida Alcoholic dar@ brown drin@ Nigeria, Jhana Pozol Maise Molds, yeasts, bacteria Spongy dough formed into balls% basic food Southeasters Mexico Puto Rice, sugar

Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Strepromyces faecalis , yeasts Solid paste as seasoning agent, snac@ Philippines Rabdi Maise and buttermil@ Penicillium acidilactici, Bacillus, Micrococcus Semisolid mash eaten with vegetables ;ndia Continued on next page 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 544
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/able 4 , continued Product Substrates Microorganisms Nature of use Regions Sa@e Rice Saccharomyces sake Alcoholic clear drin@ Oapan Se@eteh Maise Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S4 chevalieri, S4 elegans, Lacto3acillus plantarum, L4 lactis, Bacillus su3tilis, 2spergillus

niger, 24 flavus, Mucor rouxii Alcoholic beverage Nigeria Shaosinghjiu Rice Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic clear beverage China Shoyu ,soy sauce- Wheat and soybeans 2spergillus oryzae or 24 soyae, Lacto3acillus, Cygosaccharomyces rouxi 5iquid seasoning Oapan, China, /aiwan Sierra rice Rough rice 2spergillus flavus, 24 candidus, Bacillus su3tilis Brownish-yellow dry rice Ecuador Sorghum beer Sorghum, maise 5AB, yeasts 5iquid drin@, acidic, wea@ly alcoholic South Africa Soybean mil@ Soybeans 5AB Drin@ China, Oapan /a@ju Rice, wheat 5AB, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic turbid

drin@ Aorea /alla Sorghum Mn@nown Alcoholic drin@ Ethiopia /ao-si Wheat and soybeans 2spergillus oryzae Seasoning Philippines /aotjo Roasted wheat meal or glutinous rice and soybeans 2spergillus oryzae Condiment East ;ndia /apai pulut Rice Chlamydomucor, Endomycopsis, Aansenula Alcoholic dense drin@ Malaysia /ape @etan Rice or cassava Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aansenula anomala, ,hizopus oryzae, Chlamydomucor oryzae, Mucor Endomycopsis fi3uliger Soft, alcoholic solid staple ;ndonesia /apuy Rice Saccharomyces Mucor ,hizopus 2spergillus Leuconostoc Lacto3acillus plantarum Sour sweet

alcoholic drin@ Philippines /arhana Parboiled wheat meal and yoghurt ,291- 5AB Solid powder, dried seasoning for soups /ur@ey /auco Cereals and soybeans ,hizopus oligosporus, 2spergillus oryzae Seasoning West Oava ,;ndonesia- /esgu ino Maise Bacteria, yeasts and molds Alcoholic beverage Northern and North Western Mexico /humba Millet Endomycopsin fi3uliger 5iquid drin@ Eastern ;ndia /obwa Maise 5AB Non-alcoholic drin@ Nimbabwe /orani Rice Aansenula anomala, Candida Duilliermondii, C4 tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum 5iquid as seasoning for vegetables ;ndia Mji Maise. Sorghum, millet

Leuconostoc mesenteriodes, Lacto3acillus platarum Porridge as a staple Aenia, Mganda, /anganyi@a Iada Cereal2legume Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc Brea@fast or snac@ food ;ndia 544 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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3. Indigenous rice-based fermented foods 64-4 Idli A fermented, thic@ suspension made of a blend of rice Oryza sativum - and dehulled blac@ gram , Phaseolus mungo - is used in several traditional foods in Southeast Asian countries. Among them, idli and dosa are very popular in ;ndia and Sri 5an@a , Sands H Gan@in, 19:4 -.

/raditionally, for idli preparation the rice and blac@ gram are soa@ed separately. After draining the water, rice and blac@ gram are grinded independently, with occasional addition of water during the process. /he rice is coarsely ground and the blac@ gram is finely ground. /hen the rice and the blac@ gram batters are mixed together ,291ratio- with addition of a little salt and allowing to ferment overnight at room temperature ,about 4$ C-. 3inally, the fermented batter is placed in special idli pans and steamed for 5–? min , Nagaraju H Manohar, 2$$$ -. /he lactic acid bacteria

Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus faecalis, Lacto3acillus del3rueckii, Lacto1 3acillus fermenti, Lacto3acillus lactis and Pediococcus cerevisiae have been found to be responsible for the fer- mentation process, although L4 mesenteroides and S4 faecalis are considered to be the microorganism essen- tial for leavening of the batter and for acid production in idli Purushothaman, Dhanapal, H Rangaswami, 1994% Rama@rishnan, 1994 -. /he yeasts Geotrichum candidum Torulopsis holmii Torulopsis candida and Trichosporon pullulans have also been identified in idli fermentation , Chavan H

Aadam, 19?9% Shortt, 199? -. 3ermentation of idli batter appears to have a significant effect on the increase of all essential amino acids and in the reduction of antinutrients ,such as phytic acid-, enzyme inhibitors and flatus sugars , Stein@raus et al., 1994 -. Idli is a low calorie, starchy and nutritious food, which is consumed as brea@fast or snac@. Steamed idli contains about 4.4Q protein, 2$.4Q carbohydrate and :$Q moisture , /eniola H Bdunfa, 2$$1 -. 5arge-scale production of idli is carried out in batch compartmental steaming units. /his is labour intensive and has

limited capacity. With the growing demands for brea@fast foods, idlis are being consumed on a large scale in some ;ndian institutions such as army, railways, industrial canteens, etc. ;n order to meet the demand, numerous studies are carried out for the development of con- tinuous units for the production of idli Murthy, Nagaraju, Rao H Subba Rao, 1994% Murthy H Rao, 199:% Nagaraju H Manohar, 2$$$ -. 6484 Dosa ;t is very similar to idli batter except that the rice and blac@ gram are finely ground and that the fermented suspension instead of being steamed is heated with a little oil, on a

flat plate. A dosa suspension is prepared by grinding wet rice and blac@ gram separately with water. /he two suspensions are then mixed and allowed to undergo natural fermentation, usually for ?–2$ h. /o ma@e a dosa , the fermented suspension is spread in a thin layer ,of 1–5 mm thic@ness- on a flat heated plate, which is smeared with a little oil or fat. A sol to gel transformation occurs during the heating and within a few minutes, a circular, semi-soft to crisp product resembling a panca@e, ready for consumption is obtained , Battacharya H Bhat, 199: -. /he micro- biological,

physical and biochemical changes of dosa during fermentation and its nutritive value are quite similar to idli Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Purushothaman et al., 1994% Rama@rishnan, 1994% Sands H Gan@in, 19:4% Shortt, 199? -. 6464 Dhokla Dhokla is also similar to idli except that Bengal gram dhal is used instead of blac@ gram dhal in its prepara- tion. A mixture of rice and chic@pea flour is also used as the substrate for the fermentation. As in idli prepara- tion, the fermented batter is poured into a greased pie tin and steamed in an open steamer , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Purushothaman et al.,

1994% Rama@rishnan, 1994 -. As in other indigenous fermented foods, a sig- nificant improvement in the biological value and net protein utilisation of dhokla due to fermentation has been reported , Aliya H Jeervani, 19?1% Sands H Gan- @in, 19:4 -. 4. Traditional wheat-based fermented foods 44-4 Soy sauce Soy sauce is a dar@ brown liquid, made from a blend of soybeans and wheat, that is mainly used as an all- purpose seasoning in Oapan, China and the 3ar East countries , 6o@otsu@a, 1994 -. Soy sauces have a salty taste, but are lower in sodium than traditional table salt. /he traditional

manufacturing techniques for soy sauce have been well described , Beuchat, 19?4% Ru, 199$% 6o@otsu@a H Sasa@i, 199? -. Coo@ed soybeans are mixed with coarse wheat flour, with adjustment of the initial moisture of the mixture to about 55Q ,w2w-. /he soybean–wheat mixture is inoculated by molds, and after 4 days of fermentation at 25–45 C, the soybeans and flour mixture ,@nown as koEi at this stage- is immersed in a brine solution ,22–25Q, the ratio of koEi to brine is about 194 w2v-. After mixing, the salt con- centration of the mixture usually falls around 1?–21Q. /his brine

solution containing koEi is @nown as moromi /he moromi is left to ferment for a period of 1–12 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 545
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months% the longer the fermentation time the better the soy sauce quality. After the moromi fermentation is completed, the liquid part ,soy sauce- is separated, fil- tered, pasteurised and bottled , Ayres, Stein@raus, Ble@, H 3arr, 1994% 3ranta, Stein@raus, Mattic@, Ble@, H 3arr, 1994% Mensah, 199:% Rowan, Anderson, H Smith, 199?% Stein@raus, 199? -. /here have been many studies describing the involve- ment of

various microorganisms in soy sauce fermenta- tion and three major groups have been reported in the literature , Goritsu, Wang, H Aawai, 1991% Scheinbach, 199?% 6eoh, 1995% 6ong H Wood, 19:4, 19:7, 19:: -. /hese include fungi such as 2spergillus oryzae and 24 soyae involved in the koEi production, halotolerant 5AB and yeast strains such as Cygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida species responsible for the moromi fermenta- tion , Allen, 5inggood, H Porter, 1997% Gamada, Sugishita, 3u@ushima, 3u@ase, H Motai, 1991% Golzap- fel, Gaberer, Snel, Schillinger, H Ield, 199?% Ro ling, Apriyantono, H Ian

Ierseveld, 1997 -. /he characteristic aroma and flavour of soy sauce is due to the enzymatic activities of yeasts and some 5AB. As soybeans contain high levels of proteins and oligo- saccharides, but no significant level of simple sugars, fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts requires the exogenous saccharifying enzymes supplied by the @oji. ;n general the pG of the sauce is between 4.7 and 4.?, and the typical salt concentration is 1:–19Q. Con- centration of salt less than 17Q can result in the devel- opment of putrefactive species during fermentation and ageing. Bn the

contrary, levels greater than 19Q inter- fere with the growth of halophilic bacteria such as Ped1 iococcus halophilus and osmotic yeasts such as C4 rouxii Beuchat, 19?4 -. During the last 2–4 decades the traditional process for soy sauce production has been significantly improved. Some examples of these developments include the introduction of improved microbial inocula for soy sauce fermentation, the use of new techniques for pre- paring koEi , and the use of new materials and modern technology for processing and fermentation , Mensah, 199: -. 4484 Kishk 3ermented mil@–wheat mixtures,

@nown as kishk in the Middle East and tarhana in Jreece and /ur@ey, are important foods in the diet of many populations. ;n addition to their well-established position in the dietary patterns of the people in the aforementioned countries, these products have been promoted in Mexico , Cadena H Robinson, 19:9 - and Europe , Berghofer, 19?: -. Kishk Fugush - is typically prepared by adding strained yoghurt to 3ulgur ,crac@ed and bran-free par- boiled wheat- and allow the mix to ferment at ambient temperature for different periods of time. /he wheat grains are boiled until soft, dried,

milled and sieved in order to remove the bran. Mil@ is separately soured in a container, concentrated and mixed with the moistened wheat flour. /he mil@ undergoes a lactic fermentation and the resulting paste is dried to a moisture content of 1$–14Q and then ground into a powder. /he product is stored in the form of dried balls, brownish in colour with a rough surface and hard texture. /he processing, compositionandsensorypropertiesof kishk havebeenthe subject of a recent review , /amang, /hapa, /amang, H Rai, 1997 -. /he microorganisms responsible for the fer- mentation include

Lacto3acillus plantarum, Lacto3acillus casei and Lacto3acillus 3revis, Bacillus su3tilis and yeasts Beuchat,19?4%ChavanHAadam,19?9 -. Kishk is a balanced food with excellent preservation quality, richer in B vitamins than either wheat or mil@, and well adapted to hot climates by its content of lactic acid , Abd-el-Male@ H Demerdash, 1994% Mahmoud, 1994% Morcos, 1994 -. Some modifications, such as the substitution of whole wheat-meal for 3ulgur , have been proposed in the formulation of kishk . ;t has been found that substitution of whole wheat-meal for 3ulgur enhances the availability of

Ca, 3e, Mg and Nn and provides a better means for the utilization of wheat nutrients, without undue effects on the acceptability of the final product. Sensorily, the whole wheat-meal kishk is sourer, less cohesive, less gritty, contains more bran particles and is more yellowish in colour than the tradi- tional bulgur kishk . /he production costs are lower and whole wheat meal is nowadays an ingredient in the for- mulation of kishk /inay, Addel Jadir, H Gidai, 19:9 -. 4464 Tarhana Tarhana Trahanas - is prepared by mixing wheat flour, sheep mil@ yoghurt, yeast and a variety of

coo@ed vegetables and spices ,tomatoes, onions, salt, mint, papri@a- followed by fermentation for 1–: days. /he fermented matter is dried and stored in the form of bis- cuits , Campbell-Platt, 1994 -. /he fermentation process and the type of product obtained is very similar to kishk /he sheep mil@ yoghurt contains Steptococcus thermo1 philus and Lacto3acillus 3ulgaricus as the major ferment- ingorganisms, EconomidouHStein@raus,1994 -. Tarhana has an acidic and sour taste with a strong yeasty flavour, and is a good source of protein and vitamins. While tarhana soup can be used as a part

of any meal, it is often eaten for brea@fast. /he practical nutritional importance of tarhana is the improvement of the basic cereal protein diet by adding dairy protein in a highly acceptable form. /he low pG ,4.?–4.2- and low moisture content ,7–9Q- ma@e tarhana a poor medium for pathogens and spoilage organisms. ;n addition, tar1 hana powder is not hygroscopic and it can be stored for 1–2 years without any sign of deterioration , Gaard et al., 1999 -. 547 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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5. Traditional corn-based fermented foods .4-4 Ogi Ogi

is a fermented cereal gruel processed from maise, although sorghum or millet are also employed as the substrate for fermentation. ;t is considered the most important weaning food for infants in West Africa although it is also consumed by adults , Banigo, 1994% Moss, Mpuchane, H Murphy, 1994% Bnye@were, A@in- rele, H Aoleoso, 1994 -. Along the West African coastal region the product is given other names such as eko, agidi, kamu, akamu, koko and furah depending on the substrate used and the form in which it is eaten. 3orthepreparationofogi,thecerealgrainsaresteeped in earth ware, plastic or

enamel pots for 1–4 days. 5actic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds are responsible for the fermentation,although Lacto3acillus plantrium is the pre- dominant microorganism. Bther bacteria such as Cor1 yne3acterium hydrolyse the corn starch, and then yeasts of the Saccharomyces and Candida species also con- tribute to flavour development , Caplice H 3itzgerald, 1999 -. /he fermented grains are wet-milled and wet- sieved to yield the ogi slurry , ;wasa@i, Na@ajima, Sasa- hara, H Watanabe, 1991% Stein@raus, 199? -. /he nutritional qualities of ogi has been studied and it has been found that

during the fermentation phosphor- ous is released from phytate , 5opez, Jordon, H 3ield, 19?4 - and niacin and riboflavin contents increase Auboye, 19?5 -. Gowever, approximately 2$–5$Q of the nutrients available in the original cereal grains are lost through processing for ogi production, being the loss of aleurone layer and germ of grains during wet milling and wet sieving the reason for this , Adeyemi, 19?4% A@inrele H Bassir, 197: -. Specifically, amino acid analysis of ogi and its raw materials indicate substantial losses in lysine and tryptophan , Adeniji H Potter, 19:?%

Banigo H Muller, 19:2% Ma@inde H 5aChance, 19:7 -. /o avoid these losses, lysine and methionine excreting mutants of Lacto3acillus and yeasts have been used to fortify ogi Bdunfa H Byewole, 199?% /anasupawat H Aomagata, 1995 -. /he colour of ogi depends on the cereal grain used9 cream-white for maise, reddish brown for sorghum, and dirty grey for millet , Banigo, 1994% Bnye@were et al., 1994 -. Ogi has a sour flavour similar to that of yoghurt and a distinctive aroma, which ma@es it different from other @nown cereal-based fermented products , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9 -. .484 Kenkey

Kenkey is a fermented maise dough eaten in Jhana. Kenkey can be prepared using two methods. ;n the first one, the maise grains are soa@ed in water at ambient temperature for 1–2 days, after which the water is drained before wet-milling the hydrolysed grain. /he resulting maise meal is allowed to ferment sponta- neously after the addition of water to produce a sti dough ,solid state fermentation-. ;n the second method, the maise meal is strained to remove all chaff after the addition of a large volume of water, thus giving a smooth texture product. /he mixture is allowed to fer-

ment overnight. /he water is discarded leaving a wet mash, which is used to coo@ porridge , McAay H Bald- win, 199$ -. /he fermentation is dominated by a variety of lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lacto3acillus fermentum and L4 reuteri Galm, 5illie, Spreusen, H Oa@obsen, 1994 -, though yeasts and moulds also contribute to flavour development. A mixed flora consisting of Candida, Sac1 charomyces, Penicillium, 2spergillus and Fusarium spe- cies were found to be the dominant organisms during the preparation of this product , Oespersen, Galm, Apodo, H Oacobson, 1994 -. .464 Pozol

Pozol is a fermented maise dough with the form of balls of various shapes and sises. ;t is consumed in South-eastern Mexico by ;ndians and Mestizo groups, for whom it can be a main component of the daily diet. /o prepare it, maise grains are boiled in limewater and coarsely ground. /he resulting dough is @neaded to form a compact ball that is wrapped in banana leaves. ;t is left at ambient temperature from a few hours to sev- eral days or even more than a month. A complex microbial community that is incorporated mainly dur- ing the grinding procedure ferments the dough , Nanson H 3ield, 19?4%

Wacher, 1994 -. Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus suis, Lacto3acillus plantarum, Lacto3a1 cillus casei, Lacto3acillus alimentarium Lacto3acillus del3ruekii and Clostridium sp. have been identified in pozol , Escalante, Wacher, H 3arres, 2$$1 -. 6. Traditional sorghum-based fermented foods 64-4 InEera InEera EnEera - is the undisputed national food of Ethiopians , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Bda, Gasegawa, Aomatsu, Oambe, H /suchiya, 19?4 -. ;t can be made from different cereals, including sorghum, tef, corn, fin- ger millet and barley, although tef , Eragrostis tef - is the major

cereal ingredient in Ethiopian inEera Aebede and Men@ir ,19?4- reported that sorghum ran@s second to tef in preference for ma@ing inEera . /his could be due to the relative brittleness and dryness of sorghum inEera after storage , Negeye, 199: -. /o ma@e inEera the grains are dehulled manually or mechanically and milled into flour. /his flour is mixed 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 54:
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with water to form a dough, the starter , ersho - is added, and the dough is fermented for 2 or 4 days. /he starter is a fluid saved from

previously fermented dough. After fermentation the dough is thinned down to a thic@ bat- ter and poured onto a lightly oiled pan, which is then covered with a tightly fitting lid to retain the steam Par@er, Mela@u, H 3aul@s, 19?9 -. Within about 2–4 min it is ready to be removed from the pan and then is placed on a bas@et. /he storage period does not usually exceed 4 days at room temperature. /he microorganisms involved in fermentation of inEera are mainly yeasts, some fungi including Pullaria sp 4, 2spergillus sp 4, Penicillium sp 4, ,hodotorula sp 4, Aormodendrum sp 4, Candida sp. and

number of uni- dentified bacteria , Ashenafi, 1994% Dirar, 1994a% Jashe, Jirma, H Bisrat, 1994% Stein@raus, 19?4% Iogel, Jobe- zie, H Jifawesen, 1994 -. A normal and typical inEera is round, soft, spongy and resilient, about 7 mm thic@, 7$ cm in diameter with uniformly spaced honeycomb-li@e SSeyesKK on the top , Jebre@idan H Jebrettiwat, 19?2 -. /he major quality attribute of a good injera is its slightly sour flavour. ;njera has a very high nutritional value, as it is rich in calcium and iron , Negeye, 199: -. 6484 Kisra Kisra 2seeda or 2ceda - is similar to inEera and it is

consumed throughout the Arabian Julf, Sudan and ;raq , Bda et al., 19?4 -. Kisra is ma@e from a fermented dough of sorghum , Sorghum 3icolor - or pearl millet flour , Pennisetum typhodium /ha@ur, Prasad, H Ras- togi, 1995 -. /he fermented dough is ba@ed into thin sheets and it is eaten with certain types of stew prepared from vegetables and meat. /he main microorganisms isolated in kisra are Lacto1 3acillus sp., 2ceto3acter sp. and S4 cerevisiae . Bther microorganisms may be present but they have not been identified , Abdel Jadir H Mohamed, 1994% Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Dirar, 1994b

-. /he effects of the tradi- tional methods of fermentation, germination and ba@- ing of kisra on their contents of thiamine, riboflavin and some mineral elements have been investigated. 3ermen- tation of kisra increased riboflavin, significantly decreased thiamine, but caused no significant effect on the mineral contents , Mahgoub, Ahmed, Ahmed, H El Agib El Nazeer, 1999 -. 7. Traditional cereal-based fermented beverages /here are several types of cereal-based fermented drin@s produced around the world, which can be classi- fied based on the raw

materials used or the type of fer- mentation involved in the manufacturing process. Alcoholic fermented beverages can be classified into wines and beers, while the great majority of non-alco- holic fermentations are souring, mainly lactic acid fer- mentations , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% 3leet, 199? -. :4-4 Beers /he technology for production of European barley beer and the biochemical and microbiological changes that ta@e place during malting, fermentation and sub- sequent processing and storage are well documented in the literature, and it is not the objective of this paper to give an

in-depth description of the process. ;n Africa traditional beers differ from the western-type% they are often sour, less carbonated and have no hops. /hey are consumed unrefined, including unfermented substrates and microorganisms , Gaggblade H Golzapfel, 19?9, 1994 -. Pito and 3urukutu are brewed concurrently by fermenting malted or germinated single cereal grains or a mixture of them. Pito is a cream-coloured liquor while 3urukutu is a brown-coloured suspension , ;wuoha H E@e, 1997% Mzogara, Agu, H Mzogara, 199$ -. Bther examples of African brews are aEon from finger

millet, omuram3a from sorghum and kweete from maise and millet , Mwesigye H B@urut, 1995 -. Rice beers are typically prepared in the Asia-Pacific countries. /hose brews include Aorean takEu , Philippine tapuy , ;ndonesian 3rem 3ali and ;ndian Eaanr Banigo H Muller, 19:2% San@aran, 199?% Stein@raus, 199?% Svan- berg H Sandberg, 19?? -. :484 Sake Sake rice wine - is a traditional alcoholic beverage, prepared from rice, consumed particularly in Oapan and China , 5otong, 199? -. /he rice is polished and steamed, and part of it is steamed and used to grow 2spergillus oryzae , which produces

different types of enzymes required for sa@e brewing. /he seed mash is tradition- ally obtained by natural lactic acid fermentation invol- ving various aerobic bacteria, wild yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and sa@e yeasts , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% 5otong, 199?% 6o@otsu@a H Sasa@i, 199?% 6oshizawa H ;shi@awa, 19?9 -. /he Sa@e production process is also well described in the literature and will not be reviewed in this article in detail. :464 Bouza Bouza is a fermented alcoholic wheat beverage @nown since the times of the pharaohs. ;t is a light yellow, thic@, sour drin@ consumed mainly in

Egypt, /ur@ey and in some Eastern Europe countries , Morcos, Gegazi, H Ell-Damhoughy, 19:4 -. ;t is prepared by coarsely grinding wheat grains, placing a portion of them in a wooden basin and @neading them with water into a dough. /he dough is cut into thic@ loaves, which are lightly ba@ed. /he remainder of the grains is moistened 54? 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46
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with water, germinated, dried, ground and mixed with the loaves of bread, which are soa@ed in water. /he biochemical changes of wheat occurring during bouza fermentation have been

studied by Morcos, Gegazi, and Ell-Damhoughy ,1994- who found that the low pG ,4.9–4.$- and the high acidity of bouza indicate a fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, while the alcohol is due to yeast fermentation. /he protein content of bouza ranges from 1.5 to 2.$Q and due to the alcoholic fermentation involved in its formation, a significant contribution of vitamin B can be expected. :444 Chicha Chicha is a fermented corn product widely consumed in South America , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9% Stein@raus et al., 1994 -. Chicha preparation is a unique fermenta- tion process in which,

traditionally, saliva serves as the source of amylase for the conversion of starch to fer- mentable sugars , Escobar, Jardner, H Stein@raus, 1994 -. 6easts, particularly S4 cerevisiae , and bacteria of the genus Lacto3acillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., 2cet1 o3acter sp. with various moulds such as 2spergillus sp. are the primary fermenting microorganisms in chicha Gaard et al., 1999 -. :4.4 Mahewu Mahewu amahewu - is an example of a non-alcoholic sour beverage made from corn meal, consumed in Africa and some Arabian Julf countries , Chavan H Aadam, 19?9 -. ;t is an adult-type of food, although is

commonly used to wean children , Shahani, 3riend, H Bailey, 19?4 -. ;t is prepared from maise porridge, which is mixed with water. Sorghum, millet malt or wheat flour is then added and left to ferment , Bdunfa, Ade- niran, /eniola, H Nordstrom, 2$$1 -. /he fermentation is a spontaneous process carried out by the natural flora of the malt at ambient temperature , Jadaga, Mutu@u- mira, Narvhus, H 3eresu, 1999 -. /he predominant microorganisms in the spontaneous fermentation of the African mahewu belongs to Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis Stein@raus et al., 1994 -. /he industrial

produc- tion of mahewu is successfully carried out in Nimbawe Bvochora, Reed, Read, H Nvauya, 1999% Mutasa H Ayebo, 1994 -. :464 Boza Boza is a colloid suspension, from light to dar@ beige, sweet, slightly sharp to slightly sour, non-alcoholic bev- erage consumed daily in Bulgaria, Albania, /ur@ey, and Romania. ;t is made from wheat, rye, millet, maise and other cereals mixed with sugar or saccharine , Gancioglu H Aarapinar, 199: -. Due to its pleasant taste, flavour, and high nutritional values, 3oza has become a very popular beverage consumed as everyday food by people of all ages.

Microflora identification of Bulgarian boza shows that it mainly consists of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, though the lactic acid bacteria are always pre- dominant in the microbial association with an average 5AB2yeasts ratio equal to 2.4 , Jotcheva, Pandiella, Angelov, Rosh@ova, H Webb, 2$$$ -. /he lactic acid bacteria isolated has been identified as Lacto3acillus plantarum L34 acidophilus L34 fermentum L34 copro1 philus Leuconostoc raFnolactis Ln4 mesenteroides and Ln4 3revis . /he yeasts isolated comprise Saccharomyces cerevisiae Candida tropicalis C4 gla3rata

Geotrichum penicillatum and G4 candidum Jotcheva et al., 2$$$ -. 3or the industrial production of boza, the grains are washed and coo@ed in an autoclave for about 2 h at 4–5 atmospheres. Between 4 and 1volumes of water are used per volume of grains, and during the coo@ing pro- cess the mixture turns into a mash. Afterwards, the mash is gradually mixed with cold water at a ratio of 191 volume parts. /he mash is percolated and then stored at 4C. A significant increase in glucose content is observed during the fermentation, while the pG, visc- osity, free amino nitrogen content and dry

matter decreases. Sugar or saccharine is added before bottling. Boza is acceptable for consumption at every stage of the fermentation until pG drops to about 4.5 , Jotch- eva et al., 2$$1 -. 8. New cereal-based probiotic foods Despite of the antimicrobial effects of the lactic acid bacteria from cereal-based fermented foods, the use of these microorganisms and their fermented products for the production of new probiotic foods is also a new tred. /he term SSprobioticKK refers to a product contain- ing mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms, which when ingested will improve the

health status and2 or affect beneficially the host by improving its microbial balance , Salovaara, 1997 -. Most of the probiotics strains are isolated from human gut and belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria, of which Lacto3acillus species are the most important , /able 4 -. /here are some new cereal-based fermented foods that are considered as probiotic products ,e.g. yosa% Wood, 199: -. Bther traditional cereal-based fermented foods has been modified to aid the control of some dis- eases. An improved ogi named Dogik has been devel- oped using a lactic acid starter

with antimicrobial activities against some diarrhoeagenic bacteria , B@ag- bue, 1995 -. 84-4 Gosa 6osa is a new snac@ food made from oat bran pud- ding coo@ed in water and fermented with 5AB and 24 Blandino et al45Food ,esearch International 66780069 .8:–.46 549
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Bifido3acteria . After fermentation, the matter is then flavoured with sucrose or fructose and fruit jam , Salmi- nen H Ion Wright, 199? -. ;t is mainly consumed in 3inland and other Scandinavian countries. ;t has a tex- ture and a flavour similar to yoghurt but it is totally free from mil@ or other

animal products , /oufeiliet al., 199: -. ;t is lactose-free, low in fat, contains -glucan and it is suitable for vegetarians , Bioferme By, 1999 -. 6osa is a healthy addition to the diet because it contains oat fibre and probiotic 5AB which can maintain and improve the environment in the intest- inal balance of the consumer , /oufeili et al., 199: -. Bat fibre is also a good source of -glucan, which can lower the cholesterol levels in the consumer blood, which in turn can reduce the ris@ of heart disease , Bioferme By, 1999 -. 9. Conclusions Despite of the conventional foods and

beverages lar- gely produced from cereals in the Western world ,breads, pastas and beers-, there is a wide variety of products produced worldwide that have not received the scientific attention they deserve. /hese products are often fermented, and have an improved self-life and nutritional properties in comparison with the raw materials used. /he flora responsible for the fermenta- tion is in many cases indigenous and includes strains of lactic acid bacteria, yeast and fungi. Singles of mixed cereals sometimes mixed with other pulses are used, and the final texture of the

product can vary according to the processing and fermentation conditions. Similar fermentation procedures have been used nowadays to develop new foods with enhanced health properties, which is a trend li@ely to continue in the future. References Abdel Jadir, A. M., H Mohamed, M. ,1994-. Sudanese @isra2aseeda2 aceda. ;n A. G. Stein@raus ,Ed.-, Aand3ook of indigenous fermented foods ,pp. 197–2$$-. New 6or@9 Marcel De@@er. Abd-el-Male@, 6., H Demerdash, M. ,1994-. Egyptian @ish@. ;n A. G. Stein@raus ,Ed.-, Aand3ook of indigenous fermented foods ,pp. 295–299-. New 6or@9 Marcel De@@er. Adams, M. R.

,199?-. 3ermented weaning foods. ;n O. B. Wood ,Ed.-, Micro3iology of fermented foods ,pp. :9$–?11-. 5ondon9 Blac@ie Academic. Adeniji, A. B., H Potter, N. N. ,19:?-. Propertiesof ogipowdersmade from normal, fortified and opaque-2 corn. Hournal of Food Science 46 , 15:1–15:4. Adeyemi, ;. A. ,19?4-. Dry milling of sorghum for ogi manufacture. Hournal of Cereal Science , 221–22:. Aguirre, M., H Collins, M. D. ,1994-. 5actic acid bacteria and human clinical infection. Hournal of 2pplied Bacteriology 68 , 4:4–4::. A@inrele,;.A., HBassir,B. ,197:-./henutritivevalueofogi, aNigerian infantfood.

Hournal of Tropical MedicineandAygiene :0 , 2:9–2?$. Aliya, S., H Jeervani, P. ,19?1-. An assessment of protein quality and vitamin B content of commonly used fermented products legumes and millet. Hournal of Science of Food and 2griculture 68 , ?4:–?42. Allen, W. D., 5inggood, M. A., Porter, P. ,1997-. Pro3iotic . MS Pat. No. 5 5?9 17? 1-12. Ashenafi, M. ,1994-. Ethiopian enjera. ;n A. G. Stein@raus ,Ed.-, Aand3ook of indigenous fermented foods ,pp. 1?2–194-. New 6or@9 Marcel De@@er. Ayres, R., Stein@raus, A. G., Ble@, A., H 3arr, D. ,1994-. Biochem- istryofsaccharomyces. ;n A. G.

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