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www.concrete-pipe.org

ABCs of Concrete

Presented by

Chuck CurrySlide2

ABCs of Concrete

What is concrete?Where does it come from?How is it used?Is it all the same?.

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Early History Ancient Egyptians

Mix mud & straw to make bricks

Discover lime & gypsum make better binders…

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Early History

Great Pyramids

3,000 BC

Held title of tallest man-made structure for 3,800 years!

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Early History

Ancient Chinese

Mix water, rice and lime

Use mortar to bind bricks…

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Early History

Great Wall of China

3,000 BC

13,000 miles

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Improving Practices Roman Empire

Pozzolans discovered

Extensive use of hydraulic lime

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Improving Methods

The Pantheon

Largest Unreinforced

Concrete Dome.

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Setbacks Knowledge lost with fall of Rome

400 AD

Not “discovered” again for 1200 years!

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The Renaissance

Renaissance Period

Scientific method

Manufacturing

Engineering

Importance of recipesSlide11

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Importance of Recipes

Mix Designs

Consistency

Repeatability

Increased Confidence in PerformanceSlide12

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Industrial Methods

“But if the Sand be not very sharp, then you may put a greater quantity of Sand, for Morter which hath its due proportion of Sand, is stronger than that which hath less Sand in it, altho' some think otherwise.”

- Joseph Moxon, 1678Slide13

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Industrial EraRefinement of cement

Consciousness of aggregates

Scientific method

Engineering

EfficiencySlide14

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Industrial Methods

Specialization

Knowledge of intended use

Mixes specific to use

Cost of mixesSlide15

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Modern EraPrinciple components

Primary applications

Range of use

What and when?Slide16

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Key Benefits

Widely Available

Rock and sand is everywhere!

Economical

Rock and sand generally cheap!

Continued strength gain

Self-healing properties

Relatively easy to makeSlide17

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How to Make Concrete?

Rock (Coarse Aggregates)

Sand (Fine Aggregates)

Water

Cement

Add Admixtures, when needed

Mix

sounds simple enough…Slide18

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How To Make a Car:Make a Body

Add 4 Wheels

Install Engine

Paint

sounds simple enough…Slide19

All The Same Right?

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Concrete is not Concrete!

Proportions of materials

Ratio of water to cement

Types of aggregates

Types of admixtures

All have an effect!Slide21

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Effects of…More rock versus more sand

Cement quantity and w/c ratio

Smooth versus angular

Types of fly ash

Types of admixturesSlide22

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Types of Concrete

Wet cast

Dry Cast

Flowable

Self-CompactingSlide23

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Wet CastSlump Concrete

Old Days:

Achieved with high w/c ratios

Today:

Often achieved with lower w/c ratios and Water reducing admixturesSlide24

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Wet CastSlide25

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Wet Cast Properties

Pros Portable

More Dense

Lower Permeability

Lower Absorption

Nicer Finish

Cons

Longer Curing Time

Slower Form Cycle

Delayed QC

Formwork

Manpower

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Wet Cast – Common Uses

Slumps ‘generally’ 1-9” slump

Major Infrastructure – Dams, Highways

Buildings – Columns, footings, beams

Architectural – Panels, facades

Cast-in-place - Curbs, inlets, manholes

Transport – Roads, sidewalks, sleepers

Drainage – Pipe, box culverts, etc.

Residential – Drives, patios, etc.Slide29

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Dry Cast

Zero Slump Concrete

Cast and Strip – Mass Production!

Lower w/cm ratioSlide30

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Dry Cast

Old Days:

Tamping – Too slow. Obsolete.

Today:

Vibrational Compaction

Vibromac

Packerhead

CentrifugalSlide31

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Dry Cast

Vibrational Compaction

Denser, faster, surface issues

Packerhead

Less dense, fastest, aesthetic, weaker

Vibromac

Part vibration and packing pressure

Centrifugal

Most dense*, slower, high maintenance

* (of modern methods)Slide32

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Picture of dry cast slump cone?Slide38

Dry Cast Properties

Pros

Shorter Curing Time

Rapid Form Cycle

Earlier Shipping

Automated

Mass Production!

Cons

Less Dense

Less Aesthetic

More Energy Req’d

Duplication of Errors

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Dry Cast – Common Uses

Concrete Block

Pavers

Storm and Sanitary Drainage

Concrete Pipe

Concrete Box Culverts

ManholesSlide40

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Flowable High Fly Ash Content

Not Structural

Typically used as backfill

Voids in trenches

Abandoned pipelines

Little to no vibrationSlide41

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Self-Compacting Concrete(SCC)

Spread not Slump

Cement/Admix suspends aggregate

Fills the containerSlide43

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SCC Properties

Pros No vibration

Less energy

Less time

Less manpower

Complex structures

Fewer voids

Cons

High admix (cost)

Critical proportions

Interaction of admixes

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SCC – Common Uses

Manholes & Inlets

Utility Vaults

BMPs

RehabilitationSlide46

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Chemical AdmixturesWater Reducers

Reduce Water Content by 5-10%

Increase Strength

Decrease Porosity

Increases Workability

Improves FinishSlide48

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Chemical AdmixturesHigh Range Water Reducers

Reduce Water Content > 10%

Significant early and final strengths

Increased flow without segregation (rheoplasticity)

Helpful where vibration inhibitedSlide49

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Chemical AdmixturesAir Entrainment

Increases air content

Evenly distributed

Increases Durability, esp. to freeze/thaw cycles

Reduces StrengthSlide50

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Chemical AdmixturesRetarders

Increase set time

Good for long pours in hot weather

Extended transportSlide51

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Chemical AdmixturesAccelerators

Decrease set time

Increase early strength

Used in cold weatherSlide52

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Chemical Admixtures

Corrosion Inhibitors

Inhibit attacks on reinforcing steel

Marine environments

Heavy salt use (northern roads)Slide53

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Chemical Admixtures

Ensure Proper Dosage

Possible Mix Time Changes

Negative Synergies

How do different admixes interact?

Do you want to find out the hard way?Slide54

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Methods of Mixing Many available. Important to remember goal of mixing:

Homogenous mixtures

Uniform batches

Tolerances – RecipesSlide55
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What Concrete Would Be Best? Manhole Riser

Low Leakage Limit

Exposed to Freeze/Thaw

Wet Cast with Entrained AirSlide60

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What Concrete Would Be Best? Bridge Beams

High Cementitious Contents

Multiple Steel Layers

SCCSlide61

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What Concrete Would Be Best? Storm Drain Pipe

Mass Production

Dry CastSlide62

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Recap

Value of Concrete

Types of Concrete

Similarities / Differences

Range of Use / Applications

Importance of Recipes

Effects of Admixtures

Application drives Selection!Slide63

QUESTIONS?

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www.concrete-pipe.org ABCs - Description


of Concrete Presented by Chuck Curry ABCs of Concrete What is concrete Where does it come from How is it used Is it all the same wwwconcretepipeorg wwwconcretepipeorg Early History ID: 741665 Download Presentation

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