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Extra slides for exam revision. Ayesha Ali. a.ali11@lancaster.ac.uk. Office Hours: Tuesday 2:00-3:00, LUMS C85. Revision: True/False. Questions 1 – 25 from . Last Year’s . Week 24 Tutorial Worksheet. ID: 472747

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Slide1

ECON 100 Tutorial: Week 24Extra slides for exam revision

Ayesha Ali

a.ali11@lancaster.ac.uk

Office Hours: Tuesday 2:00-3:00, LUMS C85

Slide2

Revision: True/False

Questions 1 – 25 from

Last Year’s

Week 24 Tutorial Worksheet

Slide3

1.

Interest

paid to domestic holders of

National Debt

is included in the National Income Accounts.

False

(taxpayers are effectively paying themselves interest)

2.

The amount of

money

, which economic agents in the aggregate actually hold at any given moment, is necessarily equal to the amount supplied.

True

3.

The amount of

money

, which economic agents in the aggregate actually hold at any given moment, is equal to the amount they demand to hold.

False

Slide4

4.

If the amount of money held by individuals exceeds the amount they demand to hold, Keynesian liquidity preference theory suggests that they spend it on bonds.

True

(and bond prices rise, implying that interest rates fall

)

5.

If the amount of money held by individuals exceeds the amount they demand to hold, Friedman’s monetarist theory (neo-quantity theory) suggests that they spend it on bonds.

False

(answer is ‘goods and services, including imports, so that prices rise generally - inflation)

6.

In a world of fixed exchange rates and the absence of foreign exchange controls, it would be impossible for a nation to pursue an independent monetary policy.

True

(If you fix the price, the amount supplied must be commensurate with that price.)

Slide5

7.

Under the

gold standard

mechanism, gold imports make it more difficult to export goods and services.

True

(with an inflow of money, domestic prices rise

)

8.

Those who feel better off if earnings and prices increase by (say) 10% suffer ‘

money illusion

’.

True

9.

The

original Phillips curve

: an inverse relationship between real wages and unemployment

.

False

10.

The

expectations augmented Phillips curve

hypothesis is that an inverse relationship between percentage wage increases and unemployment exists only where inflation is unanticipated.

True

Slide6

11.

Fiscal policy determines the magnitude of the

PSBR

.

True

12.

An increase in the

gold and

forex

reserves

shows as a positive entry on the capital account.

False

(

import

of gold)

13.

Individuals hold

money for speculative purposes

if they think bond prices will fall.

True

Slide7

14.

The

quantity theory of money

states that an increase in the money supply will ultimately cause a proportional increase in the general level of prices.

True

15.

When the

PSBR

is increased, the money supply must also

increase.

False

(bond sales could accommodate the deficit

)

16.

When the

PSBR

is increased, the national debt must also increase.

True

17.

The

quantity theory of money

implies that the velocity of circulation changes to accommodate changes in the money supply.

False

18. Quantity theorists

believe that money is an important determinant of the level of real income.

False

Slide8

19. Inflation

is an upward prices adjustment to accommodate a higher real resource costs.

False

20. Inflation

is currency debasement.

True

21.

Keynes said that

‘inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon’

.

False

(

Friedman said this)

Slide9

22.

Keynes’s

speculative demand

for money reflects the view that, in a severe depression, monetary expansion is more likely to raise bond prices than other prices.

True

23

.

The

speculative demand

for money is the need to have money to make speculative purchases.

False

Slide10

23.

If residents of Eire bought petrol in Northern Ireland this would show in respectively as a negative entry on Eire’s

capital account

and a positive entry on the UK’s capital account.

False

(Eire: current account import/capital account export; UK,

vice versa

)

24.

The

demand to hold money

is inversely related to the rate of interest because when the interest rate is low people borrow money to buy goods.

False

25.

The

natural rate of unemployment

is that rate which is consistent with ‘neutral’ money.

True

Slide11

Exam 4

Things to review:

Past

Exams (questions

30 – 40 approximately

)

http://www.lancs.ac.uk/sbs/registry/Exams/PastPapers/PastPapers.htm

Lecture

slides and/or recordings

Tutorial

Worksheet Problems that relate to class Lectures.

Slide12

Past Exam Questions2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010

Note: Solutions are

not

available to tutors.

Answers presented here are subject to error.

Slide13

The hypothesis of the expectations-augmented Phillips curve holds that:

employment contracts fully accommodate the rate of price inflationjob-seekers never make systematic errorswage settlements are partially determined by the expected rate of price inflationreservation wages are determined by minimum wage legislation

2010 Exam Q32

Slide14

a) monetary policy is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in unemployment b) trade union activity is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in unemployment c) unemployment is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in inflation d) monetary policy is the exogenous variable, used to counter variations in unemployment

2013 Exam Q33

Which of the following statement is true? With the expectations-augmented interpretation of the Phillips curve, Milton Friedman assumes that

Slide15

Expectations Augmented Phillips Curve

Initially, unemployment and inflation are at point A. Expansionist monetary policy would increase consumption, shifting to point B along the Phillips curveUnemployment is reduced but there is a trade off; inflation. After a short period, agents will associate expansionist policies with inflation and will push for higher wages. (Gerry: Price-wage spiral)This will stop the consumption stimulus and also de-incentivise hiring. Agents will shift their expectations curves to point C.

Slide16

The natural rate of unemployment is the level of unemployment that is consistent with:

a high rate of inflationlow rate of inflationan absence of monetary disturbancean absence of involuntary unemployment

2010 Exam Q33

Slide17

See Lecture 52Natural rate of unemployment (NRU)NAIRUTheoretical starting point-Perfect competition-Imperfect competitionOrigins of deviation-solely in labour market rigidities-in labour market rigidities;-supply-side inflationInflationist mechanism-monetary policies-monetary policies;-supply-side inflationType of unemployment-voluntary (therefore NRU can be assimilated to level of full employment)-voluntary;-involuntaryUniqueness of equilibrium-unique-multiple equilibriums when considering open economies

Slide18

The hypothesis of rational expectations contends that individuals:

do not make systematic errors anticipate future prices accuratelyadapt slowly to the rate of inflationonly make rational errors

2010 Exam Q34

Slide19

Rational Expectations:

Rational expectations is a hypothesis in economics which states that agents' predictions of the future value of economically relevant variables are not systematically wrong in that all errors are random.

Slide20

Identify the missing word(s): Goodhart’s Law states ‘that any ____I____ will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.’

monetary targetobserved statistical regularityfiscal budgetary stancestructured investment

2010 Exam Q35

Slide21

Goodhart’s Law

Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.

(

Goodhart's

original 1975 formulation, reprinted on p. 116 in

Goodhart

1981

[2]

)

Slide22

Suppose that national income (measured in 1990 prices) is £1000 billion. Suppose further that prices have doubled since 1990 and that the typical unit of money circulates around the economy 20 times per year. What is the money supply?

£50 billion£100 billion£150 billion£200 billion

2010 Exam Q36

Slide23

MV = QP

We know that:

V = 20

Q = 1000

P = 2

So, solving for M:

MV=PQ

M = QP/V

M = 1000*2/20

M = 100

Slide24

Suppose that an economy, initially in equilibrium, experiences a shock owing to a decrease in autonomous consumption. Assume a fixed exchange rate and price inflexibility. What will be the short-run effect on the current and financial accounts of the balance of payments?

both accounts will move into surplusboth accounts will move into deficitthere will be a deficit on the current account and a surplus on the financial accountthere will be a surplus on the current account and a deficit on the financial account

2010 Exam Q37

Slide25

The general structure: BoP ≡ X - M + IOU (loan/credit) ≡ 0 BoP ≡ current account + capital account ≡ 0 income-expenditure ∆wealth ≡ 0 (deficit) (wealth falls) - + (exporting assets or writing an IOU) (surplus) (wealth rises) + - (importing assets or receiving an IOU)

Balance of International Payments Accounts

NB: the current account surplus is matched by a

a ‘capital outflow’

Slide26

If the LM curve is vertical, then:

full crowding out occursfiscal policy will be infinitely effectivemonetary policy will not worksupply side policies will be unavailable

2010 Exam Q38

Slide27

‘Crowding out’ occurs if new public expenditure

a) is insufficient to maintain social services b) creates excess demand and over-full employment c) attracts an influx of economic migrants d) diverts expenditure from existing productive activities

2013 Exam Q31

Slide28

Vertical LM curve

If

the demand for money is not related to the interest rate, as the vertical LM curve implies, then there is unique level of income at which the money market is in equilibrium.

Thus, with vertical LM curve, an increase in government spending

(which shifts the IS curve) cannot

change the equilibrium income and only raises the equilibrium interest

rates.

If

government spending is higher and the output is unchanged, there must be an offsetting reduction in private

spending.

In

this case, the increase in interest rates crowds out an amount of private spending equal to increase in government spending.

Thus

, there is full crowding out if LM is vertical.

Slide29

With Keynes’s speculative/asset demand to hold money, speculation is in respect of a likely change in:

(a) the inflation rate (b) the exchange rates (c) bond prices (d) equity prices

2012 Exam Q31

Slide30

UK National Debt comprises:

(a) the sum of trade deficits over past years (b) sterling currency notes and coins in circulation, plus commercial bank deposits (c) outstanding loans to the state, excluding sterling currency notes and coins in circulation (d) outstanding loans to the state, including sterling currency notes and coins in circulation

2012 Exam Q32

Slide31

As defined in Keynes’s General Theory, ‘involuntary unemployment’ relates to individuals whose employment prospects would be raised by:

(a) a rise in the price of wage goods (i.e., a rise in the cost of living) (b) a fall in the price of wage goods (i.e., a fall in the cost of living) (c) greater trade union participation (d) a shift to capital-intensive production methods

2012 Exam Q33

Slide32

As defined in Keynes’s General Theory, ‘involuntary unemployment’ relates to individuals whose employment prospects would be raised by

a) a rise in the price of wage goods (i.e., a rise in the cost of living) b) a fall in the price of wage goods (i.e., a fall in the cost of living) c) greater trade union participation d) a shift to capital-intensive production methods

2013 Exam Q30

Slide33

Keynes on involuntary unemployment

“Clearly

we do not mean by ‘involuntary’ unemployment the mere existence of an unexhausted capacity to work. An eight-hour day does not constitute unemployment because it is not beyond human capacity to work ten hours. Nor should we regard as ‘involuntary’ unemployment the withdrawal of their

labour

by a body of workers because they do not choose to work for less than a certain real reward. Furthermore, it will be convenient to exclude ‘frictional’ unemployment from our definition of ‘involuntary’ unemployment.

My

definition is, therefore, as follows:

Men are involuntarily unemployed if, in the event of a small rise in the price of wage-goods [i.e., consumer goods] relatively to the money-wage [i.e., nominal wage], both the aggregate supply of

labour

willing to work for the current money-wage and the aggregate demand for it at that wage would be greater than the existing volume of employment

.”

Slide34

If a UK resident citizen buys a BMW car from Germany and the car exporter uses the payment to buy UK government bonds, which of the following statements would be true?

(a) UK net exports fall and net capital exports fall (b) UK net exports rise and net capital exports rise (c) UK net exports fall and net capital exports rise (d) UK net exports rise and net capital exports fall

2012 Exam Q34

Slide35

Net Exports

If a UK resident citizen buys a BMW car from

Germany

This is a German export and UK import of a tangible good

The

car exporter uses the payment to buy UK government

bonds

This is a German import and UK export of a capital good

Slide36

The original Phillips curve identified a robust correlation between:

(a) unemployment and the rate of change of real wage rates (b) unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates (c) wage levels and unemployment (d) wage levels and inflation

2012 Exam Q35

Slide37

Indicate which one of the following statements is true. With the original interpretation of the Phillips curve, A.W. Phillips assumes that

a) wage bargaining is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in money wages b) the business cycle (as reflected in the unemployment rate) is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in increases in money wages c) the real wage is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in inflation d) inflation is the exogenous variable, that causes variations in unemployment

2013 Exam Q32

Slide38

Phillips Curve

Inflation is a change in money wages

Slide39

According to Friedman’s re-interpretation of the Phillips Curve, if inflationary expectations rise, the Phillips curve:

a) shifts down b) shifts up c) becomes flatter d) becomes steeper

2011 Exam Q32

Slide40

Expectations Augmented Phillips Curve

Initially, unemployment and inflation are at point A. Expansionist monetary policy would increase consumption, shifting to point B along the Phillips curveUnemployment is reduced but there is a trade off; inflation. After a short period, agents will associate expansionist policies with inflation and will push for higher wages.This will stop the consumption stimulus and also de-incentivise hiring. Agents will shift their expectations curves to point C.

Slide41

If job seekers under-estimate the rate of inflation, the duration of the job-search:

(a) shortens, so that unemployment tends to rise (b) lengthens, so that unemployment tends to fall (c) shortens, so that unemployment tends to fall (d) lengthens, so that unemployment tends to rise

2012 Exam Q36

Slide42

If job seekers under-estimate the rate of inflation

Then they will over-estimate the value of an offered wage contract

And will accept a lower real wage

And thus will have a shorter period of unemployment

Slide43

Fiscal monetarists argue that inflation is a consequence of excessive growth in:

(a) revenue from taxation (b) national debt(c) the money supply (d) national output

2012 Exam Q37

Slide44

Fiscal monetarists argue that inflation is a consequence of excessive growth in

a) revenue from taxation b) sovereign debt c) the money supply d) national output

2013 Exam Q36

Slide45

The Taylor Rule is a representation of monetary policy whereby the short-term nominal interest rate is varied systematically with respect to:

(a) the trade deficit and the value of sterling (b) employment and the cost of living (c) inflation and the ‘output gap’ (d) tax revenues and the level of government borrowing

2012 Exam Q38

Slide46

Taylor rule

The Taylor rule equation is written as:

r

t

=

r*

+ π* + w(π

t

– π*) + (1 – w)(

y

t

– y*)/y*

where:

r

t

is the central bank discount rate

y

is the GDP

π

t

is the inflation rate

y*

is the potential GDP

π*

is the inflation rate target

w

is the policy parameter

Slide47

Define r as the real rate of interest and let r* be the rate consistent with long run equilibrium in the economy. Further, define π as the rate of inflation and π* as the target rate of inflation. Then r = r* + α(π – π*) is:

an LM curvea Taylor rulea DSGE modelincomprehensible

2010 Exam Q39

Slide48

By the Taylor Rule, nominal interest rates are raised whenever:

a) inflation falls b) the output gap widens c) the output gap closes d) the inflation target is raised

2011 Exam Q36

Slide49

By the ‘Lucas critique’, economic forecasts are:

(a) always unreliable (b) most reliable when economic policy is stable (c) most unreliable when a change in economic policy is implemented (d) most unreliable when inflation is accelerating

2012 Exam Q39

Slide50

According to the ‘Lucas critique’, economic forecasts are

a) always unreliable b) most reliable when economic policy is stable c) most unreliable when a change in economic policy is implemented d) most unreliable when inflation is accelerating

2013 Exam Q38

Slide51

Policy instruments and objectives

Theory of Economic

Policy (Lecture 57 Slide 42)New Classical Economics – the Lucas critique

Economic forecasts are most unreliable when they are most needed; i.e., when a change in economic policy is to be implementedEven if individuals’ expectations could be forecast in the context of current policy structures, that ‘success’ is undermined when that policy structure changesNew policy implies a new context in which decisions are taken: so individuals’ reactions are affectedBehavioural adjustments to changes in policy structures emasculate macroeconomic forecasting and (with it) aggregate demand management

Robert Lucas (1937 - )

Nobel Prize 1995 …

‘for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy’

Slide52

When the Bank of England undertakes quantitative easing:

(a) long-term government bonds (gilts) are bought using newly created money (b) the composition of the national debt is altered (c) the volume of the national debt remains constant (d) all of the above

2012 Exam Q40

Slide53

Quantitative easing is a process whereby a central bank:

a) sells long-term government bonds b) purchases long-term government bonds c) sells short-term government bonds d) purchases short-term government bonds

2011 Exam Q35

Slide54

What is quantitative easing?

Expansionary

monetary policy

usually

involves the central bank buying short-term government bonds in order to lower short-term market interest rates

. If they keep doing this, it will eventually stop working – that is when the economy is falls into a liquidity trap.

A

liquidity trap can occur when

short-term interest rates are either at, or close to, zero

, so that normal

monetary policy can no longer lower interest rates

.

(Zero is the lower bound on interest rates – meaning they can’t be

lower than zero – meaning bonds have to give at least a zero return.)

This is when central banks use quantitative easing.

Quantitative easing is when central banks purchase long-term assets (including bonds, gilts, real estate) in an attempt to lower the long-term interest rate and increase money supply.

Slide55

Which of the following is not a function of the Bank of England?

lender of last resortsupplier of moneyacting as a store of valuedetermining the official interest rate

2010 Exam Q40

Slide56

For UK international payments, the ‘balance for official financing’ is the value of:

a) net exports including ‘invisibles’ b) foreign exchange reserves c) net UK borrowing from foreign central banks d) foreign exchange bought/sold to maintain the exchange value of sterling

2011 Exam Q38

Slide57

The balance of international payments is

a) a corollary of the government’s overseas borrowing b) a measure of an economy’s indebtedness c) the overseas aid budget of a nation state d) an accountancy identity

2013 Exam Q34

Slide58

In the context of the balance of international payments, a residual for ‘official financing’ indicates the extent to which the monetary authority

a) sells domestic currency to increase holdings of foreign exchange reserves b) sells foreign exchange reserves to support the value of the domestic currency c) allows the international value of its currency to be determined by market forces d) is taking advantage of a trade surplus to build its foreign exchange reserves

2013 Exam Q39

Slide59

The general structure: BoP ≡ X - M + IOU (loan/credit) ≡ 0 BoP ≡ current account + capital account ≡ 0 BoP ≡ X - M + ‘invisibles’ + DLT + DST + Dforex ≡ 0 BoP ≡ { balance for official financing } + Dforex ≡ 0

Balance of International Payments

Accounts (Lecture 61 Slide 35)

balance for official financing: the amount taken from (or absorbed by) official forex reserves in order to stabilise the international value of domestic currency

(exports of gold and/or forex to support £)

Slide60

With the Keynesian (liquidity preference) theory the interest rate is determined by:

a) the asset demand to hold money b) the speculative demand to hold money c) expectations relating to future bond prices d) all of the above

2011 Exam Q37

Slide61

A nation with a fixed exchange rate cannot insulate itself from world inflation because, if initially its domestic inflation rate is lower than elsewhere:

a) economic recession forces domestic prices up b) domestic goods become less competitive and cost-push inflation raises domestic prices c) domestic goods become more competitive which tends to increase money in domestic circulation d) none of the above

2011 Exam Q39

Slide62

Under a fixed exchange rate

Low domestic inflation will cause the price of goods to rise more slowly than in other countries

So other countries will seek to buy goods from the low inflation country

This will increase the amount of capital in the low inflation country

This will put upward pressure on the low inflation country’s currency

Slide63

By the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem a country specializes in the production and export of goods that uses:

a) its most abundant factor most intensively b) its least abundant factor most intensively c) factors that are most demand elastic d) factors that are most supply elastic

2011 Exam Q40

Slide64

‘Ricardo equivalence’: borrowing by the state is equivalent to ... I ... (whether currently or else deferred by borrowing). Robert Barro set Ricardo equivalence within the context of Keynesian macroeconomics, where the implication is that ... II ... government expenditure gives no boost to aggregate demand, since it is offset by ... III ... to meet ... IV .... In order: missing words are:

I II III IV a) raising taxation tax-financed spending living costs b) reducing taxation IMF-financed depreciation borrowing costs c) raising taxation High default an exchange rate target d) raising taxation bond-financed saving future tax demands

2013 Exam Q35

Slide65

The ‘Bank Rate’ (the key short-term rate set by the Bank of England) is the repo rate. A repo is a repurchase agreement whereby

a) a commercial bank sells the central bank a security, with an agreement to repurchase that security, on a given date, at a higher price. b) a commercial bank sells the central bank a security, with an agreement to repurchase that security, on a given date, at a lower price. c) the central bank sells a commercial bank a security, with an agreement to repurchase that security, on a given date, at a higher price. d) the central bank sells a commercial bank a security, with an agreement to repurchase that security, on a given date, at a lower price.

2013 Exam Q37

Slide66

A structural fiscal deficit exists when sovereign net borrowing is

a) negative even as an economy is producing at full capacity b) positive even as an economy is producing at full capacity c) rising even when austerity measures are in place d) negative even as an economy is producing at full employment

2013 Exam Q40

Slide67

Slide68

Slide69

Slide70