Jonathan Bradshaw. Child . Poverty, Deprivation and Social Policy in India: Recent Developments in Comparative and National Perspectives on Theory and Research. Centre for Economic and Social Studies. ID: 731436
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CHILD POVERTY and CASH TRANSFERSJonathan Bradshaw
Poverty, Deprivation and Social Policy in India: Recent Developments in Comparative and National Perspectives on Theory and Research
Centre for Economic and Social Studies
Social Policy Association
19 September 2014Slide2
Why is poverty important?What is poverty?
How is poverty measured?
What can be done about it?Cash transfers
Children have moral right not to be poor.It is not fair - especially for children
It harms us all (human capital)
Partly because it costs a lot (child poverty costs £29 billion per year in the UK)It generates social problemsI
t is an indicator of the failure of the (welfare) state
States have an obligation UNCRC
Why is poverty important?Slide4
Lack of physical necessities - Rowntree
Minimum subsistence -
elative deprivation - Townsend
What is poverty? Or how has it been understood?Slide5
“Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and have the living conditions which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved, in societies to which they belong. Their resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average family or individual that they are in effect excluded from ordinary living patterns, customs and activities”. (Townsend 1979).Slide6
lack of physical necessities
Lack of material well-being
What is poverty?Slide7
Measures of povertyGroups at risk of povertyCorrelates/associations/(causes) of povertyConsequences of poverty
All often muddled (see UK Government consultation on the measurement of child poverty 2013)
Poverty is fundamentally a lack of resources
Need to distinguish betweenSlide8
Budget standards (basket of goods) – Rowntree
http://www.minimumincomestandard.org/Expenditure shares (% of budget on food) – US
Income/consumption thresholds (eg $x a day per capita)
egree of income inequality (below % median income/expenditure)
eprivation indicators - Townsend
Lack of socially perceived necessities – Breadline Britain/PSE studies
s social exclusion
How is poverty measured?Slide9
Severe Food Deprivation– children whose heights and weights for their age were more than -3 standard deviations below the median of the international reference population, i.e. severe anthropometric failure (
et al, 2005).Severe Water Deprivation
- children who only had access to surface water (e.g. ponds, rivers or springs) for drinking or who lived in households where the nearest source of water was more than 15 minutes away.
Severe Deprivation of Sanitation Facilities
– children who had no access to a toilet of any kind in the vicinity of their dwelling, including communal toilets or latrines.
Severe Health Deprivation
– children who had not been immunised against any diseases or young children who had a recent illness causing diarrhoea or acute respiratory infection (ARI) and had not received any medical advice or treatment.
Severe Shelter Deprivation
– children living in dwellings with five or more people per room (severe overcrowding) or with no flooring material (e.g. a mud floor).
Severe Education Deprivation
– children aged between 7 and 18 who had never been to school and were not currently attending school (no
education of any kind).
Severe Information Deprivation
– children aged between 3 and 18 in households which do not possess a radio, television, telephone or computer.
domains of child povertySlide10
Ascertaining “enforced lack” of socially perceived
essentials of life/necessities
Source: Saunders and Wong (2011)
Perception of Essential Items in Benin, 2006
Do you regard as essential, necessary or not that the following items are part of the minimal/basic needs in order to have adequate life condition
Yes, rather necessary
Need to have access to drinking water
Need to take care of oneself when sick
Need to have steady work
181100Need to be able to send children to school79201100Need to have access to electricity77222100Need to have three meals per day74242100Need to have a house71245100Need to have a radio71281100Need to have mode of transportation68302100Need to take of own body (soap, barber etc.)67321100Need to have a good meal on Sundays and holidays64334100Need to have personal care products62362100Need to have tables and beds62362100Need to have several sets of clothing61362100Need to have a spacious house59374100Need to be able to buy a television59384100Need to have several sets of shoes58384100Need to have meat or fish every day57367100Need to be able to take a taxi56422100Need to have birth control55378100Need to have cereals or food made from roots or tubers every513712100Need to take vacation51436100Need to be able to take the bus45469100Need to be able to buy presents when needed44515100Need to have vegetables every day434017100Need to work day and night172460100
Source: weighted data, Benin 2006 DHS; n=17,511.
(%) Respondents believing item “essential”
Place of residence
Ever attended school
Fon and relatedYoruba and relatedNoYesNever marriedMarriedLive togetherWidowedDivorcedAccess to drinking water83858483848583798579888684858484898683Take care of oneself when sick83848383838482808577878684848184858581Have steady work82818278818380758475878581838182828280Be able to send children to school79798077788178718176848278817780838075Have access to electricity77777874767977707875827976797777717775Have three meals per day72767473737777647572807276737075647874Have a house72707170707369657466777070737171697472Have a radio69727168707172627268767070736971676969Have mode of transportation67686964696767636963716866706669656361Take of own body (soap, barber etc.)68666866657065
716666696667637066Have a good meal on Sundays and holidays61666165636565606359666266615964626762Have personal care products64616358606561546562676060656162586463Have tables and beds (furniture)63616459616462536464666260656162586157Have several sets of clothing61616359596463516363665960636161506561Have a spacious house59606059596161536161625360595760556057Be able to buy a television59596154586060506161645856626059595654Have meat or fish every day54595758566060505760615259565457486156Have several sets of shoes59586056566161486060645657605858436158Be able to take a taxi55565457555755475852595755575456515857Have birth control59535850535952476057605252605855585453Have cereals or food made from roots or tubers every48535251505253475052534453484651485553Take a vacation51515348505352435352565149535151435044Be able to take the bus45454645444747374647484545464445434646Have vegetables every day38464244424445424146433646394043404843Be able to buy presents when needed40474344444550384449464145434045384441Work day and night13191616171621181424131618141417231614
Essential to enjoy acceptable standard of living
Mains electricity in the house
A house that is strong enough to withstand bad weather
89%92%99%99%88%97%91%90%88%93% Clothing sufficient to keep warm and dry89%89%96%99%87%96%90%89%89%89% A fridge87%85%93%96%85%84%82%86%90%86% Bedrooms for adults and children81%82%91%96%79%85%81%76%81%89% A flush toilet in the house79%77%99%99%72%94%75%79%79%80% Ability to pay funeral society82%83%75%80%84%75%80%83%84%81% People are able to afford medicines prescribed by dr.77%78%84%86%76%77%76%76%80%77% Parents/carers: be able to buy school uniform77%82%72%84%82%68%83%78%80%76% A fence or wall around the property73%74%82%77%73%71%76%73%71%76% A bath or shower in the house62%62%99%97%53%86%59%62%61%68% Regular savings for emergencies73%70%69%71%73%60%76%69%74%66% A radio75%74%73%44%77%60%75%71%74%78% Meat or fish every day61%64%85%75%58%70%62%66%59%62% Burglar bars in the house60%63%78%92%60%52%64%58%64%61% Television/ TV69%69%52%47%74%53%72%68%71%62% Special meal at Christmas55%57%70%56%53%60%61%55%53%53% A cell phone62%64%51%37%69%37%63%68%65%53% A sofa/lounge suite55%54%
60%48%54%60%58% Some new clothes56%55%55%42%58%44%56%60%54%51% A car51%48%74%57%47%36%54%46%52%45% A garden49%53%61%38%51%42%52%49%46%57% A landline phone46%51%42%60%49%47%51%45%47%49% Washing machine44%44%80%38%38%51%43%44%41%48% A lock-up garage for vehicles42%45%69%42%41%32%48%45%37%43% A small amount of money to spend on self43%41%52%31%41%43%49%42%37%37% A burglar alarm system for the house38%38%43%50%38%29%43%38%32%37% To be able to afford toys39%40%36%35%41%33%38%44%39%36% Having enough money to give presents on special occasions39%44%33%20%46%26%42%47%40%37% An armed response for the house28%29%28%38%29%19%28%33%22%30% A DVD player27%28%21%14%31%15%31%33%20%24% A computer in the home27%26%30%10%28%14%31%28%24%21% Satellite Television/DSTV22%17%9%3%23%5%25%18%19%13%Consensual approach in RSA: Source SASAS/HSRC Michael Noble and Gemma WrightSlide14
Mean number of deprivations of socially perceived necessities (thought by 50%+ of the population as ‘essential’) which people lacked because they could not afford them (i.e. not because they didn’t want them).Slide15
$ per day World Bank (2009). 'World Development Indicators'. Washington DC: World Bank.HDI UNDP (2009). Human Development Report 2009: Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development. New York: United Nations. HDI=life expectancy, literacy and enrolment/GDP
Prob of not surviving to 40, adult literacy, improved water and underweightMulti-dimensional index Alkire
& Santos (2010)
Education: Schooling and enrolmentHealth: mortality and nutritionLiving standards: electricity, sanitation, water, floors, cooking fuel, assets
Other sources of poverty data. Not child povertySlide16
Child deprivation measure (Main and Bradshaw 2012)
List of 20 items identified in focus groups. Reduced through pilot data to list of 10, based on scalability and strength of relationship to traditional poverty variables
10 items included in main-stage and quarterly surveys:
Some pocket money each week
Some money to save each month
A pair of brand-named trainers
An iPod or similar MP3 player
Cable or satellite TV at home
A garden or somewhere similar nearby to spend time safely
Access to a family car
Clothes to fit in with other people their age
A holiday away from home for one week each year
Monthly day-trips with familySlide17
What resources?Unit of analysis (child/individual, family, household)Spatial differences in need/costs
ines v gaps
Some issues in poverty measurementSlide18
Household resources (income) don’t meet household needsIncome:
Low wages: part-time, short-time, self employment, low skills
No wages: unemployment, sickness/disability, caring, loss of breadwinnerNeeds:Large families
Cost of essential services – housing, health, transport, educationPrice variation
Which children are poor – an empirical questionSlide19
Caste, class.EthnicLone parentsLarge familiesDisabled children/adults
factors – rural/urbanAge of youngest childEducation level
Lack of social protection
Risk of child poverty higherSlide20
Overall excluding material
Correlation coefficients of material well-being and all the other
domains: Rich countries UNICEF
Child poverty and well-being RC11Slide22
Social Policy Matters: Child poverty before and after cash benefits EU 2010Slide23
The problem in development - as a chartSlide24
Despite economic growth for ten years up to the crisis child poverty in many middle income countries has been flat lining.One main reason is the absence of transfer mechanisms – World Bank inspired Targeted Social Assistance useless – too low and too targeted
ee Bradshaw, J., Mayhew, E. and Alexander, G. (2013) Minimum social protection in the CEE/CIS countries: the failure of a model in Marx I. & K. Nelson (eds.) Minimum Income Protection in Flux.
, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan 249-270)Cash benefits for children the norm in the EU/OECD – mainly universalNo child benefit for working poor in
ussia, Belarus and Ukraine for under 3s
South America (except Argentina)
for cash grantsSlide25
UNICEF launched its Social Protection Framework calling for child sensitive social protection with a progressive realisation of universal coverage, including social transfers.
Labour Organisation adopted the Recommendation Concerning National Floors of Social Protection, which states that member countries should “Establish as quickly as possible and maintain their social protection floors comprising basic social security guarantees”.
World Bank has been advocating for universal minimum pensions, but unfortunately not yet for universal child benefits. The European Union is now “supporting the development of inclusive, nationally-owned social protection policies and programmes, including social protection floors
The case for social protection was also recognised in the old African Union
Social Policy Framework for Africa
and in the SADC
Social Policy Process/Charter of Fundamental Social Rights.
Growing consensus of the case for child benefitsSlide26
CHILD POVERTYBetter evidenceIncome/expenditure surveys annuallyAnalysis with the child as the unit
Better questionnaires covering child deprivation
Budget analysis to know what is being spent on (poor) childrenMicro simulation models to trace distributional outcomes of policy EUROMOD, SAMOD
Remove charges for education/child health
Progressively introduce child benefitsSpend bigger share of GDP on child benefitsEventually make them universal
Remorseless focus onSlide27
The most recent evaluation found that child support grant had improved height for age scores.
Educational attainment and participation
improve health and reduce the likelihood of illness. For adolescents it has been shown to reduce school absences and the likelihood of working outside the household.
also reduces risk behaviour including sexual activity, pregnancy, alcohol use, drug use, criminal activity and gang membership. “In these ways the Child Support Grant promotes human capital development, improves gender outcomes and helps to reduce the historical legacy of inequality”.
Inspired by miraculous outcomes of South Africa’s Child
Since independence in 1990 Namibia has enjoyed political stability and steady economic growth, achieving the status of an upper middle-income country in 2009. Has Used growth to provide
Universal Basic State Grants to older people and
people with disabilities, Child Welfare Grants to orphans, children in foster care and
children with disabilities as well as
War Veteran Grants. Progress has also been made in health and education. However poverty
and inequality remain at very high levels. Namibia is still one of the most unequal countries in the world – the
coefficient which was 0.67 at independence had fallen to
0.597 in the 2009/10 NHIES.
For an upper middle income country Namibia also ranks poorly on the 2011 Human Development Index (120 out of 187).
is highest in households with
No child grants except OVCs
UNICEF advocacy in NamibiaSlide29
Remove fees for basic health and education. Undermine child living standards Make birth registration universal
Assess affordability: average OECD spend=2.7% GDP, RSA=1.3%.
Whether/how to target. Means-test out not in.
Assess eligibility – easy if good birth registration and universal per child
Health outcomes: it will reduce infant, child and maternal mortality; it will increase heights and weights for age; reduce infectious diseases and other child morbidity; it will reduce early sexual activity, STDs and early pregnancy; it will improve the health of adults. It will reduced alcohol and drug use. It may well have benefits in terms of enhanced child protection outcomes
: the health outcomes will improve cognitive development with educational and long term benefits; it will increase attainment; reduce delays in entering school, absences from school and early school leaving.
: there will be a reduction of children working outside the household; it will reduce inequality and increase solidarity and well-being; it will increase economic activity at local level, enhance agricultural production and enhance economic development, especially in the poorest regions; this and the improvement in security will increase employment and reduce unemployment; it will reduce criminal activity and gang membership.
This is what India needs to see!Slide32
profjbradshawThanks for listening:Slide33