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Who’s Who in Early Astronomy Who’s Who in Early Astronomy

Who’s Who in Early Astronomy - PowerPoint Presentation

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Who’s Who in Early Astronomy - PPT Presentation

Part 1 ELIZABETH MEGONIGAL Ptolemy pronouced TAHL uh mee 140 AD Greek astronomer mathematician amp geographer He thought that Earth was the center of the universe and the sun and the other planets revolving around Earth ID: 679799

sun tycho planets motion tycho sun motion planets center equal universe planet orbit planetary earth brahe ellipse brahe

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Slide1

Who’s Who in Early Astronomy

Part 1

ELIZABETH MEGONIGALSlide2

Ptolemy (pronouced

TAHL uh mee)- 140 AD

(Greek – astronomer, mathematician, & geographer)

He thought that

Earth was the center of the universe and the sun and the other planets revolving around Earth.

Claudius also discovered the irregularity of the moon's orbit He claimed that everything in the universe moves either toward or around the EarthHis theory was thought to be accurate for about 1500 years.Slide3

1543 -Nicolaus Copernicus (Polish descent )(pronounced NIK uh lay koh PURH ni kuhs)

His theory, Heliocentric model, stated that the sun was the center of the universe and the planets- including the Earth– orbit the sun.

This model explained why the planets in our system naturally vary in brightness because they are not always the same distance from the Earth ANDThe retrograde motion (apparent backwards movement) could be explained in terms of geometry and a faster motion for planets with smaller orbits, as illustrated in the following animation.

https://

www.pas.rochester.edu

/~blackman/ast104/

copernican-move.gifSlide4

Tycho Brahe- (pronounced TIE koh BRAW uh)

(work– 1550’s to 1600)

The Earth is fixed in the center of the universe. The stars revolve around us everyday, the Moon every month and

the Sun every year,

while the other planets all orbit the Sun.

In 1572 Tycho sees a supernova in the sky and records the finding of the 'new star' (before the telescope was invented).Slide5

Brahe’s Childhood (fun facts)--Tycho Brahe was born December 14 1546Tycho Brahe was one of two twin boys. His twin died shortly after Tycho was born.Before Tycho was born his dad told his uncle that if

Tycho was a boy then the uncle could have Tycho. But later, Tycho's father changed his mind.After Tycho's parents had a second son

Tycho's uncle kidnapped him.Some people say that the parents didn't try to get Tycho back, but some people think otherwise.Slide6

Johannes Kepler (around 1609)- He was the assistant of Brahe.Kepler didn’t agree with Brahe’s theory, but he recognized how precise and valuable Brahe’s data were. After reanalyzing the data, Kepler announced 3 new laws of planetary motion.And stated that

the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits and that the sun is not in the exact center of the orbits.Slide7

Kepler’s 1st law of Planetary Motion- “The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one foci”.

Each ellipse has two foci (plural of focus) as shown. We can find the value of c by using the formula 

c2 = a2 - b2.Slide8

Kepler’s 2nd law of Planetary Motion- “A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.”

A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal timesSlide9

Kepler’s 3rd law of Planetary Motion- “The square of the orbital period (the time it takes to make one complete revolution around the sun) of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis (radius of the longest side of the ellipse) of its orbit.”

The semi-major (

a

) and semi-minor axis (

b

) of an ellipse