Citizenship in the United States of America - PowerPoint Presentation

Citizenship in the United States of America
Citizenship in the United States of America

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Essential Questions What does it mean to be a citizen in this country and how does a person become a citizen Why are civic responsibilities like volunteering important American Citizens Citizens and Government ID: 531363 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Citizenship in the United States of America

Essential Questions: What does it mean to be a citizen in this country and how does a person become a citizen? Why are civic responsibilities like volunteering important?Slide2

American CitizensSlide3

Citizens and Government

Citizens: members of a community who owe their loyalty to the government of the community and are entitled to government services.

Government: the ruling authority for a community

. Allows distribution of resources and provides order in a society.

Governments should help citizens meet their needs.Slide4

Citizenship

Abraham Lincoln – “The US government is of the people, for the people, and by the people.”

-

Of the people: the government rules by consent of the governed; it gets its power from the citizens.

- For the people: the actions of the government should benefit the citizens. - By the people: regular citizens are the people who participate in government.Slide5

Who are America’s Citizens?

Become a US citizen by being born in the US or being naturalized.

Currently, there is discussion about this by Republican primary candidates

Alien: non-citizen living in a country for a specific period of time.

Immigrant: non-citizen who has permanently moved to a new country.Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS): oversees naturalization.

.Slide6

Naturalization Process:

1

. Be a Lawful Permanent Resident of the United States: apply and pay

fee

2. Live in US for five years (only three if married to a US citizen) 3. Apply for citizenship, pay fee of and provide Biometric

data.

4. Interview with an INS official.

5. Take the citizenship test.

6. Ceremony and take oath of allegianceSlide7

American Citizenship?

Carlos was born in Puerto Rico of Spanish citizens who were visiting relatives.Slide8

American Citizenship?

Camille was born while her French parents were vacationing in Chicago.Slide9

American Citizenship?

Maggie

was born in Washington, D.C., where her mother and father served as diplomats for Denmark.Slide10

American Citizenship?

Terry

s American parents were working in Greece when he was born.Slide11

Some more “real life examples.”

Ted Cruz – born in Canada

John McCain – born in the Panama Canal region

Barack Obama – born in Hawaii, but what if he was born in Kenya as some claim?

Some in the Presidential race (Donald Trump, Jeb Bush) are using the term “anchor babies” which some claim is racially offensive. But what does this mean?Slide12

Aliens???

Anyone who is living in the country who is not a citizen is called an “alien”.

Only about 675,000 allowed each year. People with family members already in US or with a special skill get preference.

.Slide13

Legal immigration

Undocumented Residents: at least 5-6 million, get deported if caught.

Legal Aliens: can work, own property, attend school, receive government services, pay taxes. Can’t run for office, vote, serve on a jury, and must carry a picture ID at all timesSlide14

A Nation of Immigrants

Every person in the US is an immigrant or the descendant of an immigrant.

“E Pluribus Unum”: Out of many, one.

Diversity in Population:

64% non-Latino whites, 13% black, 5% Asian, 1% American Indian, 3% multiracial, 6 % other (16.3 % Latino: not a race, Latino is an ethnicity).Diversity in Religion.Slide15

Citizenship

The 14

th

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution establishes

two ways to become a citizen:

by birth

Or by a legal process called

naturalization

for non-citizens, or

aliens

A child born abroad to American parents may hold dual citizenship.Slide16

Quotas

The United States restricts the number of immigrants who can enter the country.

Highest priority goes to relatives of U.S. citizens and people with needed skills.

The Immigration Act of 1990

made it easier for people with particular skills, talents, or the money to invest in our economy to enter the U.S. Slide17

Legal vs. Illegal Aliens

Legal aliens live like most Americans.

They hold jobs and pay taxes.

They do not have full political rights. They may not vote, or run for office.

5 to 6 million aliens live in the U.S. illegally.

Illegal aliens live in fear that the government will discover and

deport

them—send them back to their own country.Slide18

A Nation of Immigrants

All of today

s more than 300 million Americans are descended from immigrantsSlide19

Fastest growing population is

Latin Americans

Current Population:

Whites of European descent are the largest group

followed by African Americans and Hispanics

Asians and Pacific Islanders

Native Americans

Melting pot vs. Tossed Salad analogy for how people blend together in the countrySlide20

Population Shifts

In the mid-1800s people began moving from farms to factory jobs in cities.

In recent

decades manufacturing jobs declined and service jobs increased.

Rustbelt-Areas in the US where factories have closed

After slavery ended, a

migration,

or mass movement, occurred as African Americans left the South seeking jobs in the North.

Slide21

Americans show

patriotism

—love for one

s country

. We follow the nation

s laws.

The attacks of September 11, 2001 were acts

of

terrorism

—the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political goal. Americans responded with courage and unity, becoming more

patrioticSlide22

Responsibilities and Duties of American CitizensSlide23

Responsibilities

Actions that American citizens SHOULD take in order to contribute positively to our societySlide24

Duties

Actions that American citizens MUST take in order to contribute positively to our society and avoid going to jail Slide25

Responsibilities

Things we should do

Be informed

Vote

Respect others

Contribute to the communitySlide26

Duties

Things we have to do

Obey laws

Pay taxes

Defend the nation (military)

Serve in court (jury duty)

Attend schoolSlide27

Costs and Benefits of Civic InvolvementSlide28

Participation through Public Service

Civic Action

Costs

BenefitsSlide29

Participation in the Judicial Process

Jury Service

Costs

BenefitsSlide30

Participation in the Political Process

Voting

Costs

Benefits

Seeking Office

Costs

BenefitsSlide31

So what are your duties and responsibilities today?

For this assignment, please write me a short paragraph telling me what kind of duties and responsibilities you have as a high school student.  Remember as you do this what the difference between a duty and a responsibility is!  Give me at least

two examples of each!

 Do your best!  Slide32

Types of Government

Why do we have governments and what are the different forms they take throughout human history?Slide33

Need For Government

Government:

The ruling authority for a community or society.

Any organization with the power to make and enforce laws for its members.Functions of Government: 1.

Keep order: prevent conflicts; settle them when they occur

2. Provide security: military and police

3. Provide public services: keep public healthy and safe.

Ex: fire departments, driver’s licenses, test waterSlide34

Levels of Government

National: The government of an entire country.

In the USA, the national government is also called the

Federal Government.

State: The government of a specific region or area of a country;

in the USA we call these

states

. Other countries call them provinces, prefects, regions, etc.

Local:

The government of a small area

, usually a county, city, or town.Slide35

Branches of Government

Legislative:

Makes laws

-Ex: US Congress, NC General Assembly

Executive: Enforces laws

- President Barack Obama, Governor Bev Perdue

Judicial:

Interprets

laws

- CourtsSlide36

Types of Government

Democracy:

Government by the citizens/people

-

Direct Democracy: All citizens have the chance to vote for any law or action.

-

Representative Democracy: citizens elect people to represent them in making government decisions.Slide37

Democratic Principals

Voting – fair and competitive elections determine who rules.

One person, one vote

Voters have choices – people chose between different ideas and points of view

Majority Rule – whatever most people want, that is what happensSlide38

Other Types of Government

- Monarchy

: a King or Queen controls the entire government and makes all decisions

Constitutional monarchy: the King or Queen shares power with a legislative body

, often called the parliament

Dictatorship/Autocracy/Totalitarian State:

A single ruler completely controls the government

and all decision-making. This person usually came to power by military force.

Theocracy:

Government is controlled by religious leaders

Oligarchy:

Government of the few; often a small group of wealthy nobles/aristocratsSlide39

English Political Traditions

What aspects of the English government do we use in the US today?Slide40

The Magna Carta

England’s government has historically been a monarchy

The Magna Carta:

In 1215, King John I was forced to sign a document called the Magna Carta which

guaranteed certain rights to the citizens of England

. Important rights established by the document and adopted by the US government include:

1.

Accused people are guaranteed a trial with a jury. They are presumed innocent until proven guilty.

2. All citizens are guaranteed justice

3. All citizens, regardless of class, must follow the same laws and will be punished in the same way if they break a law.Slide41

The Parliament

The Parliament: Originally a group of advisors to the monarch, the Parliament slowly took on more and more power. Today the Parliament has all powers of government in England.

“The Glorious Revolution”: In 1688, Parliament forced the King out of power and installed his daughter and her husband (William and Mary) as the rulers of England. This event established the Parliament as stronger than the monarch.

Following the Glorious Revolution, the Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights. Important parts of the English Bill of Rights are 1) members of Parliament elected 2) no cruel and unusual punishmentSlide42

Common Law

England’s laws have not always been written down in the way that we have today. This type of system is called

Common Law.

Common Law: A system of law based on customs and precedents.

Precedent: a decision or ruling in a court case which is used as a basis for similar cases.Slide43

Enlightenment Philosophy

The Enlightenment was a time when people in Europe began to question the traditional ideas about government and power

, and came up with new ideas about who should be involved in government.

Several important writers of the 1700s

helped pave the way for the American Revolution.Slide44

John Locke

The most important Enlightenment philosopher in the design of the government of the United States.

Natural Rights: purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of citizens; these rights are “life, liberty, and property”

Social Contract: people in a society agree to give up some of their freedom in exchange for protection of their natural rights by a governmentSlide45

Montesquieu and Rousseau

Baron de Montesquieu: Separation of Power

powers of government should be divided into branches

(Legislative Branch: Makes Laws; Executive Branch: Enforces Laws; Judicial Branch: Interprets Laws)Jean-Jacques Rousseau: “All Men Are Created Equal”Slide46

The Articles of Confederation

Essential Question: In what ways did the Articles of Confederation attempt to correct the problems of the colonial period? Slide47

We’re Independent!

…Now what?

Note: At the First Continental Congress, requests were made for better treatment. At the Second Continental Congress ( the most important one) a Declaration of Independence was made.

After the colonies declared independence in 1776, they had to go to war against Great Britain.

Ultimately, the colonies won the war so now we were free from British control to establish our own, new government.Slide48

Wanted:

Weak

Central

Gov’t

The former colonies were now called “states”. Each state wrote their own Constitution, but there were still some things that individual states could not provide on their own – like a military.So, the founding fathers realized that we need to create a central government.We were fearful of a strong central gov’t because we had just fought a war to break away from a controlling government.Slide49

A “Confederation”

“League of Friendship” - Cooperation between states

The new states decided that they should form a weak central government to provide an army and to deal with foreign countries.Slide50

The Articles of Confederation

Structure of the new government:

Most powers were left up to

the individual states

No Executive BranchNo Court SystemOne branch called CongressCongress could not: collect taxes, regulate trade, or enforce lawsIn order to pass laws, Congress had to get approval from 9 of the 13 states, which was very difficult. Any changes to the Articles had to be approved by all 13 states – nearly impossible!

Had to rely on the states to create military and because they couldn’t control the states, the military was almost non-existent.Slide51

The Constitutional Convention

How did the American colonists attempt to fix the problems of the Articles of Confederation?Slide52

Problems Facing the Young Nation

Just like the British in the French & Indian War, the USA faced a very high debt after the Revolutionary War

The national government could not impose taxes, so the individual states placed high taxes on their citizens. This caused many businesses to fail, and many people lost their property because they could not pay back their loans.Slide53

Shays’ Rebellion

Daniel Shays lost his farm in Massachusetts and then raised an army that marched through the countryside. They tried to prevent farms from being seized by the courts.

The national government had a very difficult time stopping the rebellion, and people began to think that the government was too weak to protect them.Slide54

Constitutional Convention 1787

Delegates from 12 states meet in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. They quickly decide to throw out the Articles and start over.

They made George Washington the head of the convention and decided to keep everything they were doing secret during the convention.Slide55

Make sure you finished the Declaration of Independence Assignment, and answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper

afterwords

.

1

) How does the article describe the character of Daniel Shays?2) Why did Shay’s end up leading a revolt about taxes?3) What is the articles point of view on the men in the Oregon rebellion? (Use ACE!)4) What differences are there between the Oregon Militia and Shays Rebellion? (Use ACE!)5) How do you think the Oregon “Militia” will be remembered in history?Slide56

Two Competing Plans

Virginia Plan:

supported by states with a large population

1. Bicameral legislature

2. Representation based on population: large states have more representatives and more power.

New Jersey Plan:

supported by states with a small population

1. Unicameral Legislature

2. Equal Representation: 1 state, 1 voteSlide57

Compromises

Delegates from the small states threaten to leave the convention

Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise

1. Bicameral Legislature

2. Senate with equal representation

2 per state

3. House of Representatives with representation based on population

Three-fifths Compromise

1. Southern states want slaves to be counted as part of their population. Northern states opposed to this because it makes slave states more powerful

2. Decide that three out of every five slaves will count in a state’s populationSlide58

Trade/Commerce Compromise

1. Northern states want the national government to be able to regulate trade. Southern states concerned that this regulation will include taxes on exports and laws against the slave trade

2. National government given the power to regulate trade, but cannot put a tax on exports. Also cannot pass new laws about the slave trade for 20 years.Slide59

Presidential Compromise

Who will choose the President?

1. Constitution writers do not trust regular people to make a good choice about the Presidency

2. Answer the question with the Electoral College

State legislatures choose electors who meet together to decide the President.

-Other issues – south vs. north (slavery) factored into the Presidential voteSlide60

Ratification of the New Constitution

Ratify = Approve

¾ of states (9 out of 13) must ratify the Constitution before it will take effect

Federalists:

Group that supports ratification. Named for the concept of Federalism

a system of government where the national a state governments share power

Anti-Federalists:

Group that opposes the Constitution. Anti-Federalists believe the Constitution makes the national government too powerful and does not adequately protect citizens.Slide61

Finally Ratified…

After a year of arguing, the Federalists agree to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution if the Anti-Federalists will support ratification

July 21, 1788: New Hampshire becomes the 9

th

state to ratify the Constitution and it becomes the official plan of government for the USA.NC did not ratify until over a year

later.

We were the next to last of the original states to ratify.Slide62

Government and the PeopleSlide63

Need for Government

Government is the ruling authority for a community or a society.

Governments have existed for as long as there has been societySlide64

What Governments Do:

It’s most important job is

to pass laws or rules of conduct.

Government helps

prevent conflicts and settle conflicts that come upThey provide security to citizens. (police, military)Provide services to the public

(libraries, fire protection, hospitals)

Slide65

Types of Democracy

Democracy – people rule themselves

Direct Democracy – all citizens meet and vote on issues

This was used in Ancient Greece

Representative Democracy – people elect representatives to rule for themAmerica is a Representative DemocracyConstitutional Monarchy – A democracy that also has a King of Queen

Great

Britian

, or England, is a

Constutitional

Monarch

This was used in Ancient GreeceSlide66

Democratic Principals

Voting – fair and competitive elections determine who rules.

One person, one vote

Voters have choices – people chose between different ideas and points of view

Majority Rule – whatever most people want, that is what happensSlide67

Other types of government

Oligarchy – rule of the rich

Authoritarian Monarchy –

a ruler with unlimited power to rule as they wished

Very few countries in the world today have authoritarian monarchsDictatorships are similar to authoritarian monarchs, except they usually take power by forceUsually, they rely on military or police to stay in power

Totalitarianism

governments control almost every part of a persons life.

Totalitarianism usually tells people what they can read, where they go to church, what they watch on

tv

, among other things

What are the benefits and drawbacks to each type?

Shom More....
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