Judaism, Christianity & Islam

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Monotheism. As states and empires increased in size and contacts between . regions multiplied. , religious and cultural systems were transformed. . Religions and . belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical . ID: 649792 Download Presentation

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Judaism, Christianity & Islam

Monotheism. As states and empires increased in size and contacts between . regions multiplied. , religious and cultural systems were transformed. . Religions and . belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical .

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Judaism, Christianity & Islam




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Presentation on theme: "Judaism, Christianity & Islam"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Judaism, Christianity & Islam

Monotheism

Slide2

As states and empires increased in size and contacts between

regions multiplied

, religious and cultural systems were transformed. Religions and belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.

KC 2.1: The

Development and Codification of

Religious and Cultural Traditions

Slide3

These shared beliefs also influenced and reinforced political

, economic

, and occupational stratification. Religious and political authority often merged as rulers (some of whom were considered divine)

used religion

, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation.

KC 2.1: The

Development and Codification of

Religious and Cultural Traditions

Slide4

The Beginning of Judaism

According to the

Torah, about 2000 B.C. a man named Abraham lived near Ur in Mesopotamia.

He and his family migrated to Canaan, modern-day Israel.

Slide5

Slide6

The Beginning of Judaism

Abraham’s

descendants became known as the Israelites (Israel was the name of Abraham’s grandson). Ancient Israelites, also called Hebrews, differed from their neighbors in that they were

monotheistic

.

Slide7

Judaism Expands

According to the Torah, God made a two-part promise called a

covenant to Abraham:God would have a special relationship with Abraham and his descendants.

God would give the land of Canaan to the Israelites, it therefore became known as “the promised land.”

The Israelites were to be faithful to God and fulfill certain obligations to Him.

Slide8

Judaism Expands

A

famine in Canaan caused the Israelites to migrate to Egypt where they became slaves.An Israelite named Moses later renewed the covenant and eventually led the Israelites out of Egypt back to the land of Canaan

.

Moses authored the Torah,

the first 5 books of the Bible.

Slide9

Judaism Expands

By

1000 B.C. the Israelites set up their nation. They consisted of twelve separate tribes.The second King of Israel, David, united the kingdom and his son,

Solomon

expanded it further.The nation split and experienced civil war after Solomon’s reign:

North = Israel South = Judah

Slide10

Israel & Judah conquered

722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered Israel

586 B.C. The Babylonian armies of Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah and forced most of the people to move and live in exile in Babylon.539 B.C. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and began to free the Israelites.Since most of them came from Judah, they became known as

“Jews.”

Many Jews returned to Jerusalem in Judah and began rebuilding the temple.

Slide11

Judaism beliefs

The concepts of law, civil order and morality were central to Judaism from its beginning.

Many of their laws dealt with everyday matters such as cleanliness and food preparation. Others defined criminal matters, moral principles and religious ceremonies.The 10 Commandments are a set of laws the Jewish people believe God gave to them through Moses.

Jewish

prophets taught a strong code of ethics and called the people to be faithful to God.

Slide12

Judaism today

Judaism is a major world religion today.

Christianity and Islam trace their roots back to Judaism.There are several groups within Judaism today:Orthodox

Conservative

ReformedThose who are Jewish by culture but are not religious

Slide13

Christianity

Slide14

Rise of Christianity

About 30 A.D. a Jew named Jesus developed followers as a result of his preaching.

Most of what we know about him comes from the New Testament portion of the Christian Bible.

Slide15

Rise of Christianity

According

to the New Testament, people followed Jesus because:His teaching was based on Jewish traditionWord spread that he could perform miracles

He used parables and simple stories to teach understandable moral principles

His focus was on loving God and loving your neighbor

Slide16

Rise of Christianity

The New Testament

Gospels tell how the Jewish leaders did not like Jesus because they feared his speeches would ignite rebellion against Rome.He was betrayed by one of his closest followers, tried and condemned to be executed

.

Slide17

Rise of Christianity

The

Roman government frequently used crucifixion as a means of execution: nailing or binding a person to a cross and left to die.The Gospels report that after Jesus died, he

was buried but came

back to life and commanded his followers to take his message of love and forgiveness to the world.

Slide18

Christianity spreads

Followers of Jesus spread his message throughout the Roman world.

Before long Christianity was declared illegal and widespread persecution broke out.However Christianity continued to appeal to many as they found comfort in the message of love, equality, mercy, and the promise of a better life after death

.

Slide19

Christianity spreads

Persecution

ended in 313 A.D. when the emperor Constantine issued the “Edict of Milan,” which gave freedom of worship to all citizens of the empire.

Slide20

Christian beliefs

Basic New Testament concepts:

No one is perfect and is therefore in need of forgiveness.Forgiveness comes from God to anyone who places their faith, or belief, in the idea that Jesus paid the price for their imperfection when he died on the cross.

After being forgiven, Christians follow the teaching of Jesus to love God and love their neighbor.

Slide21

Christian Structure Today

Roman

Catholic

Baptist

Presbyterians

Lutherans

Greek Orthodox

Roman

Catholic

Amish

Nondenominational

Methodist

There are many denominations that adhere only to the teachings of the New Testament

Latter Day Saints

Jehovah Witnesses

Christian Science

There are some groups that include additional sources of inspiration

Slide22

Islam

Slide23

Rise of Islam

Who are the Arabs?

Semitic people like Phoenicians, Jews, Egyptians, Syrians

Tradition - son of Abraham through Ishmael

Roman times - many were Bedouin- lived in desert, usually tribal and polytheistic

R

evered

Black meteor Ka’ba in Mecca

Slide24

Founder Mohammed 570-632

Married wealthy widow, managed trade

Received a message from Gabriel

(angel)

with a new revelation to

follow the monotheism of

Judaism and Christianity

spent time in desert contemplating

returned to convert others – trouble

Hijra

: 622 A.D he left and went to Medina.

Turning point for Islam - many converts here

Slide25

Founder Mohammed 570-632

Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 A.D.

Destroyed idols in KaabaUnited Arabs under IslamMuhammad died in 632 A.D. but Islam has grown into one of the world’s largest religions.

Slide26

Beliefs of Islam

Qur’an (Koran)- basis sacred book, ethical guide

Five Pillars

One God and his name is Allah

(Mohammed is his prophet

)

Pray 5 x a day facing Mecca

Fast during daylight during Ramadan

Pilgrimage to Mecca - once in life time

Give alms to the

poor

Slide27

Beliefs of Islam

Laws-

no alcohol, pork, dishonest

Belief in being hospitable

Slide28

Spread of Islam

Abu

Bakr

, Muhammad’s father-in-law was chosen as his successor (caliph)

Ali – Muhammad’s son-in-law (Shiites)

Leader must come from Muhammad’s daughter

Others felt any good, devoted male from Muhammad’s tribe could be leader (Sunnis)

Today 90% of Muslims are Sunni.

Slide29

Through the centuries

Slide30