Judaism, Christianity & Islam

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Monotheism. As states and empires increased in size and contacts between . regions multiplied. , religious and cultural systems were transformed. . Religions and . belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical . ID: 649792 Download Presentation

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Judaism, Christianity & Islam

Monotheism. As states and empires increased in size and contacts between . regions multiplied. , religious and cultural systems were transformed. . Religions and . belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical .

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Judaism, Christianity & Islam

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Judaism, Christianity & Islam



As states and empires increased in size and contacts between

regions multiplied

, religious and cultural systems were transformed. Religions and belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.

KC 2.1: The

Development and Codification of

Religious and Cultural Traditions


These shared beliefs also influenced and reinforced political

, economic

, and occupational stratification. Religious and political authority often merged as rulers (some of whom were considered divine)

used religion

, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation.

KC 2.1: The

Development and Codification of

Religious and Cultural Traditions


The Beginning of Judaism

According to the

Torah, about 2000 B.C. a man named Abraham lived near Ur in Mesopotamia.

He and his family migrated to Canaan, modern-day Israel.



The Beginning of Judaism


descendants became known as the Israelites (Israel was the name of Abraham’s grandson). Ancient Israelites, also called Hebrews, differed from their neighbors in that they were




Judaism Expands

According to the Torah, God made a two-part promise called a

covenant to Abraham:God would have a special relationship with Abraham and his descendants.

God would give the land of Canaan to the Israelites, it therefore became known as “the promised land.”

The Israelites were to be faithful to God and fulfill certain obligations to Him.


Judaism Expands


famine in Canaan caused the Israelites to migrate to Egypt where they became slaves.An Israelite named Moses later renewed the covenant and eventually led the Israelites out of Egypt back to the land of Canaan


Moses authored the Torah,

the first 5 books of the Bible.


Judaism Expands


1000 B.C. the Israelites set up their nation. They consisted of twelve separate tribes.The second King of Israel, David, united the kingdom and his son,


expanded it further.The nation split and experienced civil war after Solomon’s reign:

North = Israel South = Judah


Israel & Judah conquered

722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered Israel

586 B.C. The Babylonian armies of Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah and forced most of the people to move and live in exile in Babylon.539 B.C. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and began to free the Israelites.Since most of them came from Judah, they became known as


Many Jews returned to Jerusalem in Judah and began rebuilding the temple.


Judaism beliefs

The concepts of law, civil order and morality were central to Judaism from its beginning.

Many of their laws dealt with everyday matters such as cleanliness and food preparation. Others defined criminal matters, moral principles and religious ceremonies.The 10 Commandments are a set of laws the Jewish people believe God gave to them through Moses.


prophets taught a strong code of ethics and called the people to be faithful to God.


Judaism today

Judaism is a major world religion today.

Christianity and Islam trace their roots back to Judaism.There are several groups within Judaism today:Orthodox


ReformedThose who are Jewish by culture but are not religious




Rise of Christianity

About 30 A.D. a Jew named Jesus developed followers as a result of his preaching.

Most of what we know about him comes from the New Testament portion of the Christian Bible.


Rise of Christianity


to the New Testament, people followed Jesus because:His teaching was based on Jewish traditionWord spread that he could perform miracles

He used parables and simple stories to teach understandable moral principles

His focus was on loving God and loving your neighbor


Rise of Christianity

The New Testament

Gospels tell how the Jewish leaders did not like Jesus because they feared his speeches would ignite rebellion against Rome.He was betrayed by one of his closest followers, tried and condemned to be executed



Rise of Christianity


Roman government frequently used crucifixion as a means of execution: nailing or binding a person to a cross and left to die.The Gospels report that after Jesus died, he

was buried but came

back to life and commanded his followers to take his message of love and forgiveness to the world.


Christianity spreads

Followers of Jesus spread his message throughout the Roman world.

Before long Christianity was declared illegal and widespread persecution broke out.However Christianity continued to appeal to many as they found comfort in the message of love, equality, mercy, and the promise of a better life after death



Christianity spreads


ended in 313 A.D. when the emperor Constantine issued the “Edict of Milan,” which gave freedom of worship to all citizens of the empire.


Christian beliefs

Basic New Testament concepts:

No one is perfect and is therefore in need of forgiveness.Forgiveness comes from God to anyone who places their faith, or belief, in the idea that Jesus paid the price for their imperfection when he died on the cross.

After being forgiven, Christians follow the teaching of Jesus to love God and love their neighbor.


Christian Structure Today






Greek Orthodox






There are many denominations that adhere only to the teachings of the New Testament

Latter Day Saints

Jehovah Witnesses

Christian Science

There are some groups that include additional sources of inspiration




Rise of Islam

Who are the Arabs?

Semitic people like Phoenicians, Jews, Egyptians, Syrians

Tradition - son of Abraham through Ishmael

Roman times - many were Bedouin- lived in desert, usually tribal and polytheistic



Black meteor Ka’ba in Mecca


Founder Mohammed 570-632

Married wealthy widow, managed trade

Received a message from Gabriel


with a new revelation to

follow the monotheism of

Judaism and Christianity

spent time in desert contemplating

returned to convert others – trouble


: 622 A.D he left and went to Medina.

Turning point for Islam - many converts here


Founder Mohammed 570-632

Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 A.D.

Destroyed idols in KaabaUnited Arabs under IslamMuhammad died in 632 A.D. but Islam has grown into one of the world’s largest religions.


Beliefs of Islam

Qur’an (Koran)- basis sacred book, ethical guide

Five Pillars

One God and his name is Allah

(Mohammed is his prophet


Pray 5 x a day facing Mecca

Fast during daylight during Ramadan

Pilgrimage to Mecca - once in life time

Give alms to the



Beliefs of Islam


no alcohol, pork, dishonest

Belief in being hospitable


Spread of Islam



, Muhammad’s father-in-law was chosen as his successor (caliph)

Ali – Muhammad’s son-in-law (Shiites)

Leader must come from Muhammad’s daughter

Others felt any good, devoted male from Muhammad’s tribe could be leader (Sunnis)

Today 90% of Muslims are Sunni.


Through the centuries