Figurative Language Types of figurative Language
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Types of figurative Language
Alliteration: Repetition of initial consonant sound.
“Peck of pickled peppers”
Anaphora: repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses.
By building toward a climax, anaphora can create a strong emotional effect.
A swelling, or raising up of emotion
“I Have a Dream Speech”Slide3
A group of words with a subject and a predicate.
Can be independent or dependent
“Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” (Ferris
any small group of words within a sentence or a clause. Includes a headword, which determines the type or nature of the phrase.Slide4
More Figurative Language
juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses.
Plural: antitheses Adjective: Antithetical
“Damned if you do, damned if you don’t”
'Cause you're hot then you're cold
You're yes then you're no
You're in then you're out
You're up then you're down
You're wrong when it's right
It's black and it's white
We fight, we break up
We kiss, we make up
You! You don't really want to stay, no
You! But you don't really want to go-oSlide5
Addressing some absent or nonexistent thing as if present and capable of understanding.
“Twinkle, twinkle, little star”
repetition of similar vowel sounds in neighboring words.
“I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless” (Thin
, “With Love”)
verbal pattern (type of antithesis) in which the second half of the expression is balanced against the first with the parts reversed.
“You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget.” (Cormac McCarthy,
Euphemism: the substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit; “glossing over”.
“passed away” for “died”
Dysphemism: substitution of a more offensive term for one considered less so.
Meant to shock and offend
Signals annoyance, anger, disapproval, or frustration of the author/speaker
Used to shame, humiliate, degrade.Slide7
Hyperbole: (a type of irony) exaggeration used for effect, or emphasis; an extravagant phrase.
Idiom: a set expression of 2 or more words that mean something other than the literal meaning of its individual words.
“If we play our cards right” “the graveyard shift”
Informal, makes text feel more relaxed
Imagery: vivid description that appeals to one or more of the senses.
Illustrations of thoughts
Solidify image in the mind of the reader
Helps to communicate the writer’s world to the readerSlide8
use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; a statement of situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the idea.
a trope in which the intended meaning of a statement differs from the meaning that the words appear to express.
involves an incongruity between what is expected or intended and what actually occurs.
: an effect produced by a narrative in which the audience knows more about the present or future circumstances than a character in the story.Slide9
Litotes: figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating (or denying
“Not bad at all”
“No ordinary city”
“You are not wrong”
Litotes are a way to state an idea or agreement without coming right out and doing it directly.Slide10
Metaphor: an implied comparison that is made between 2 unlike things that actually have something in common.
Expresses the unfamiliar (the tenor) in terms of the familiar (the vehicle).
“The streets were a furnace, the sun an executioner.” (
Metonymy: Substituting one word or phrase for another with which it is closely related (“crown” for “royalty”).
“the suits on Wall Street” “Hollywood”
Also a rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it, such as describing someone’s clothing to characterize the individual.Slide11
Onomatopoeia: use of words (such as “hiss” or “murmur”) that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or associations they refer to.
Adjective: onomatopoeic or onomatopoetic
Oxymoron: when incongruous or contradicting terms appear side by side; a compressed paradox.
Plural: oxymora or
Adjective: oxymoronic or
Alone together; old news; small crowd; clearly misunderstoodSlide12
Paradox: a figure of speech in which a statement appears to contradict itself.
“The swiftest traveler is he that goes afoot.” (Henry David Thoreau,
Personification: a trope or figure of speech (generally considered a type of metaphor) in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities.
“Oreo: Milk’s favorite cookie”Slide13
Pun: A play on words, either on different senses of the same word or on the similar sense or sound of different words.
known as paronomasia
Kings worry about a receding heir line.
Simile: A figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as
"Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong
slogan of Pan-American Coffee Bureau)Slide14
Synecdoche: A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole (for example, ABCs for alphabet) or the whole for a part ("England won the World Cup in 1966
Synecdoche is often treated as a type of
“Give us this day our daily bread.”
Understatement: A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is. Contrast with
"I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain
Holden Caulfield in The Catcher In The Rye, by J. D. Salinger)