Organizational Factors in Transit

Organizational Factors  in Transit Organizational Factors  in Transit - Start

Added : 2018-11-04 Views :5K

Download Presentation

Organizational Factors in Transit




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "Organizational Factors in Transit" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentations text content in Organizational Factors in Transit

Slide1

Organizational Factors in Transit

Zaida E. Rico, P.E., M.S.C.E.E.Ph.D. Candidate zaida.rico@upr.edu Department of Civil Engineering and Land SurveyingUniversity of Puerto Rico – Mayagüez Campus, Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program,Coordinator: Prof. Alberto Figueroa, P.E., Ph.D.Advisor: Prof. Didier Valdés, Ph.D.August 12, 2010

Slide2

Agenda

As this project has being through fully presented to most of this audience before, this presentation contains:Introduction including the main objective, scope and background general information.Brief summary of the methodology that is relevant to the new work performedGeneral results and interpretationsConcluding discussion and recommendations for further study resulting from the new work performed

Slide3

Introduction

Slide4

Objective Scope

To study if there is an effect of some organizational factors on the effectiveness of its transit institution. It is presumed that the system’s effectiveness is proportional to the relative usage of its services. NTD reporting institutionsManage heavy rail

Slide5

Background Information

Transportation related systems are comparable to the organizational framework components. NTD includes several organizational capacity variables, however, internal organizational environment is not well represented.Figure re-drawn from: Douglas Horton et al. EVALUATING CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT: Experiences from Research and Development Organizations around the World. International Development Research Centre, Canada. 2003.Figure re-drawn from: Manheim, M.L. Fundamentals of transportation systems analysis, Volume 1. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. 1979.

Activity

System

Transportation System

Flows

Internal

Environment

Organizational Capacity

Organizational

Performance

External Operating

Environment

The Organization

Transportation-Related Systems

Organizational Framework

Slide6

Methodology

Slide7

Methodology

Literature reviewPreliminary analysis using the National Transit Database (NTD) of 2008Cluster analysis to select sampleSurvey development and executionAll answered that will pass it to appropriate personNone answer receivedData collection through institutions’ websitesEvaluation of collected dataDeveloping conclusion and providing recommendations regarding the study approach and organizational factors

Slide8

Cluster Analysis to DetermineSample for Conceptual Analysis

Centroid (UPT/ Population) Cluster Cases in Cluster System

0.606130

2

1

NYCT

0.322865

1

7

MBTA

0.154466

3

35

MARTA

0.063253

5

114

MDT

0.012186

4

421

PATH

PRHTA

category

Total

 

578

 

Slide9

Selection of Factors

Previously performed literature review on both transportation and organization was used to select the factors to be studied. Factors mentioned in literature that, according to Business Dictionary, are also the major components of the internal environment of an organization: organization's mission statementleadership stylesorganizational culture. Institutional structure is added, as it was specifically considered important by Leland & Smirnova (2008) and Marsden & May (2006).

Slide10

Selection of Factors

 FactorsDefinition

Literature Review

Organization's Internal Environment

(1)

Conditions, entities, events, and factors within an organization which influence its activities and choices, particularly the behavior of the employees.

Major factors considered part of the internal environment of an organization includes

: organization's mission statement, leadership styles, and its organizational culture

. (1)

Organization’s Mission

(1)

Written declaration of a firm's core purpose and focus which normally remain unchanged

Transportation in the New Millennium in 1999 identified, among others, that for the future it is needed that agencies, in order to be effective, must have in place

well-defined missions, goals, and objectives; sophisticated strategic planning tools; and outcome-oriented processes for prioritizing investment decisions based on customer input

.

Leadership

Style (1)

Formal and informal organizational structure, policies, and procedures through which leadership is exercised

Leland & Smirnova (2008) concluded that future research should consider the analysis of variables that specifically relate to the different

types of authority systems

Organizational Culture (1)

Organization's past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and are expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations

TCRP Report 21 (1997) concludes that unless the agency is one that

encourages innovation and communication up and down organizational lines

, the new view of service will be thwarted.

Institutional Structure (2)

An organization's complex system of mutually connected and dependent elements or parts, which make up a definite manner of arrangement.

Marsden & May (2006) pointed out that a combination of the following can achieve significant improvements in a short period of time: right powers and institutional structure, flexible funding, and a strong political support.

(1)

businessdictionary.com

(2) eionet.europa.eu

Slide11

Survey

As previously mentioned, a survey was developed and distributed. However, it was non-responsive.ControlMission Statement1

What's your institution's mission statement?

2

About how many times your institution's mission statement have changed in the past 20 years?

3

When was the last time your institution's mission statement changed? (Year)

 

Organizational Culture

4

Who (position, department, etc.) is responsible/in charg of performing strategic planning in your institution?

5

How your institution's strategic planning is performed? (leadership, regulations, processes)

6

How the priorities and processes are established in your institution and by whom? (leader's policy, mission statement, department's historical goals and objectives, as trouble appears, patron's survey, stakeholder's particular interests, etc.)

 

Institutional Structure

7

Can you provide me a copy of your institution's organizational charts (related to other complementary institutions and the internal one)?

8

Can I contact you later if I have questions regarding the organizational structure of your institution?

9

On which decade was your institution created?

10

What is the service sector of your institution? (municipality, region, state, country)

11

Which modes of transportation is your institution responsible for?

12

Which are your institution's main

fundig

sources? (government assignment, service & products income, private support, taxes, bonds)

Leadership Style

I'll be describing you different leadership styles. Please let me know which style best describes your organization's. Please let me know if different styles apply at different levels. If that's the case, please indicate me at which level each style applies, by indicating the leader position at which it refers. Please let me know if you would like to add any comment or appropriate discussion.

Style

Description

Authoritarian

The leader dictates policies and procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved, and directs and controls all activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates.

Dominant

Leadership characterized by a clear line of authority that gives the leader the power of delegation, and the power to control the subordinates' level of participation in decision making process.

Transformational

The leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executes the change with the commitment of the members of the group.

Achievement oriented

Management which sets challenging goals, assists in training, emphasizes improvement, and expects the highest levels of performance.

Participative

The leader involves subordinates in goal setting, problem solving, team building etc., but retains the final decision making authority.

Delegative

The leader transfers decision making power to one or more employees, but remains responsible for their decisions.

Bureaucratic

Emphasizes procedures and historical methods regardless of their usefulness in changing environments. Bureaucratic leaders attempt to solve problems by adding layers of control, and their power comes from controlling the flow of information.

Laissez-faire

Laissez faire (French for, allow to pass or let go). Non-authoritarian leadership style. Leaders try to give least possible guidance to subordinates, and try to achieve control through less obvious means. They believe that people excel when they are left alone to respond to their responsibilities and obligations in their own ways.

Slide12

Information Gathered Through Institutions’ Websites

MissionMission StatementLeadership Style (inference interpretation from structure)Government StructureGovernance General LeadershipIndividual LeadershipInstitutional StructureAuthority Level Organizational Culture (indirect)Diversity of operated modes Existence of fare integration Own Transportation Police HistoryAgency Enacting Law Date Transportation History Fact at Date of Enacting Main Organization Paradigm as per Literature at Date of Enacting

Slide13

Results

Slide14

Mission

Mission StatementMission Key WordMTA

MBTA

MARTA

Dade

PANYNJ

PRHTA

Count

service

x

x

x

x

x

x

6

economic

x

 

x

 

x

x

4

quality

x

 

 

x

x

 

3

regional

x

 

x

 

x

 

3

excellence

x

 

x

 

 

x

3

community

 

x

x

x

 

 

3

safe

 

 

x

x

 

x

3

efficient

 

 

 

x

 

x

2

customer

 

x

x

 

 

 

2

reliable

 

x

 

x

 

 

2

environment

 

 

x

 

 

x

2

Count

5

4

8

6

4

6

33

Slide15

Mission Statement

ObservationsThe most repeated word is “service”, which is found at all mission statements. The institution with most of those words in their statement is MARTA, which have 8.The system with more usage, MTA, emphasizes the following: service, economy, quality, region and excellence.The system centroid of the lesser usage, PANYNJ, emphasizes: service, economy, quality and region. These are the same as MTA, except for “excellence”.ConclusionIt doesn’t appear to be a relation between the concepts being important to be included in the mission and the relative patronage.

Slide16

Leadership Style

StyleDescriptionAuthoritarian

The leader dictates policies and procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved, and directs and controls all activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates.

Dominant

Leadership characterized by a clear line of authority that gives the leader the power of delegation, and the power to control the subordinates' level of participation in decision making process.

Transformational

The leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executes the change with the commitment of the members of the group.

Achievement oriented

Management which sets challenging goals, assists in training, emphasizes improvement, and expects the highest levels of performance.

Participative

The leader involves subordinates in goal setting, problem solving, team building etc., but retains the final decision making authority.

Delegative

The leader transfers decision making power to one or more employees, but remains responsible for their decisions.

Bureaucratic

Emphasizes procedures and historical methods regardless of their usefulness in changing environments. Bureaucratic leaders attempt to solve problems by adding layers of control, and their power comes from controlling the flow of information.

Laissez-faire

Laissez faire (French for, allow to pass or let go). Non-authoritarian leadership style. Leaders try to give least possible guidance to subordinates, and try to achieve control through less obvious means. They believe that people excel when they are left alone to respond to their responsibilities and obligations in their own ways.

Definitions

as per BusinessDictionary.com

Slide17

Leadership Style…

General Governance BoardBoard Members

Appointed

By

Notes

Interpretation

MTA

Y

17

Governor

Positions recommended by mayor or county executives of service region.

Appears to be Participative or

Delegative

as positions, while appointed by Governor, are recommended by different

leaders.

MBTA

Y

5

Governor

MassDOT

board governs it and MBTA. MBTA will be part of

MassDOT

but will retain a separate legal existence.

Appears to be Dominant due to the relation among agencies

sharing the board.

MARTA

Y

18

 

Members represents service cities and counties.

Could

be Participative due the big amount of board members and their representation.

Dade

Y

 

 

Conty governed by board of comisioners.

Not enough information.

PANYNJ

Y

12

Governors

Each governor appoints 6 comissioners, subject to state senate approval. Comissioners are public officials without pay for overlaping 6 years. Governors retains veto for acts of his state comissioners.

Appears to be Participative

due the role and term of commissioners while governors retains veto (final decision).

PRHTA

N

1

Governor

PRHTA Board

suppressed

in 1971, powers given to the Secretary of Transportation who governs DTPW.

Appears

to be Authoritarian, as an unique leader is responsible for policy.

Slide18

Governance

As can be noticed, all systems, but PRHTA, are governed by a Board composed of several members. Not all boards have uneven amount of members. The institutions with more users (MTA, MBTA) have multiple and uneven amount of members. The systems with lesser amount (MARTA, MANYNJ, PRHTA) have either even amount of members or a single one.Boards are generally appointed by the Governor.PRHTA used to be governed by a board, but since 1971 it is governed by a single person, the Secretary of Transportation, who is appointed by the Governor.Remark: The relation between governance or style and effectiveness is not evident, although the amount and representation of board members might be related to it.

Slide19

…Leadership…

Leadership Structure…Principal LeaderMain Divisions

Other Leadership

Interpretation

MTA

Chairman

/

Chief

Executive

Officer

Chief Operating Officer, Chief of Staff, Senior Advisor to

Chariman

, Deputy Executive Director for Corporate and Community Affairs, Director for Labor Relations, Chief Financial Officer, Auditor General, Chief Diversity Officer, Deputy

Executive Director

for General Counsel, Deputy Executive Director for Administration, Deputy Executive Director for Security, Director of Government Affairs, Director for Policy and Media Relations, and Director of Special Project Development & Planning

Each of 7 MTA agencies have its president. Agencies: NYCT, Long

Isaland

Rail Road, Long Island Bus, Metro-North

Rairoad

, Bridges and Tunnels, Capital Construction, Bus Company.

Dominant / Bureaucratic

MBTA

MassDOT is administered by a Secretary of Transportation, appointed by the Governor to serve as Chief Executive Officer. 

MassDOT oversees four new divisions: Highway, Mass Transit, Aeronautics and the Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV), in addition to an Office of Planning and Programming. 

A single person occupy the positions of General Manager of the MBTA and the Rail & Transit Administrator of MassDOT to manage the day-to-day operations of the MBTA and MassDOT ‘s Transit Division. 

Authoritarian

MARTA

 

Operations, Maintenance, Finance, Human Resources

Executive

Management

Team

Participative

Slide20

…Leadership…

…Leadership Structure…Principal LeaderMain Divisions

Other

Leadership

Interpretation

Dade

Miami-Dade has a Mayor with the power to veto Commission action items. In January 2007, the Mayor was given additional powers providing for the oversight of the day-to-day operations of Miami-Dade.

Departments (sample): Transit, Public Works, Sustainability, Port of Miami, Planning & Zoning, Environmental Resources Management, Aviation, Building Code Compliance, among others.

Department

Directors

Authoritarian / Bureaucratic

PANYNJ

An Executive Director, appointed by the Board of Commissioners, is responsible for managing the operation of the Port Authority in a manner consistent with the agency's policies, as established by the Board.

There are four main officers under the Executive Director: financial, administrative, operating and capital planning.

Under the Chief Operating Officer there are the following divisions/modes: aviation, tunnels/bridges/terminals, rail tranist, port commerce.

Dominant

PRHTA

PRHTA has an Executive Director, appointed by the

DTPW Secretary with the approval of the Governor.

There are common divisions of legal affairs, communications & public relations, and strategic planning that are shared among the DTPW and PRHTA. In general, PRHTA builds infrastructure and DTPW maintains it. PRHTA also operates the freeway and heavy rail systems. PRHTA main divisions: Infrastructure, Traffic and Freeways, Transportation, Finance, Human Resources.

Each PRHTA main

division

has a Deputy Executive Director.

Authoritarian / Bureaucratic

Slide21

LeadershipRemark:

The relation between structure or style and effectiveness is not evident from this exercise.

Slide22

Institutional StructureAuthority Level

The three representatives of the clusters with more usage have a master institution that manages several modes at a regional level, covering several counties or several cities. The representative of the clusters with mid level usage have a smaller coverage area in terms of amount of jurisdictions (one county). The representative of the clusters with less usage have state or bi state jurisdiction.Remark: Authority level might have some influence with effectiveness.

Slide23

Organizational Culture…

ModesAll institutions from the different cluster representatives manage several modes.Could be interpreted that the general culture includes the multimodal point of view.Therefore, this might not be a differentiating characteristic.Fare IntegrationAll institutions have some level of fare integration.The cluster with the major usage have a single fare pass integrating other modes managed by the institution and also another heavy rail managed by other institution (this one is in the smaller usage cluster).It appears that level of integration might be a differentiating factor.Could be interpreted that the integration vision could be part of the culture.

Slide24

…Organizational Culture

Own PoliceThe following have their own police force:MTAMARTAMiami-Dade CountyPort Authority NY/NJDTPW has an order corps to emit parking violation tickets.Having an own police for enforcement could be interpreted as a culture of empowerment to enforce policies and strategies.Doesn’t seem to be a differentiating characteristic.

Slide25

…Organizational Culture: History…

Agency Enacting Law DateTransportation History at Date of Enacting

Organization Paradigm in Literature

MTA

1968 (1st MTA Board Chair)

On 67, Public Roads Administration, Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety and National Highway Safety Bureau becomes part of the Federal Highway Administration; under the Department of Transportation. On 68, Federal Aid Highway Act amended to include a section of Civil Rights within the Office of the Secretary of Transportation. Office of Civil Rights turned into a departmental office on 69.

Recognition of specialization and that its rate of increase is faster than rate of change of organizational culture.

MBTA

1964 (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, having been voted into law in June of that year by the General Court)

On 63, Vietnam war. On 64, Under president Lyndon Johnson, Urban Mass Transportation Act (3-year program).

Recognition of specialization and that its rate of increase is faster than rate of change of organizational culture.

MARTA

1965 (the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Act was passed by the state legislature and subsequently approved in four counties and the City of Atlanta, creating MARTA)

On 64, Under president Lyndon Johnson, Urban Mass Transportation Act (3-year program).

Recognition of specialization and that its rate of increase is faster than rate of change of organizational culture.

Dade

County: 1957 (Metropolitan Dade County government was officially established) Transit: 1960 (The County Commission passed an ordinance creating the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) to unify the different transit operations into one countywide service. This ordinance provided for the purchase, development, and operation of an adequate mass transit system by the County. These companies included the Miami Transit Company, Miami Beach Railway Company, South Miami Coach Lines, and Keys Transit Company on Key Biscayne and would be managed by National City Management

Co.)

On 56, Under Dwight David Eisenhower presidency, Federal Aid Highway Act to support National system of Interstate & Highway Defense, creation o f Highway Trust Fund.

Organization is a mean to satisfy performance. Its efficiency is tied to its simplicity, short chain of command and manager's training.

PANYNJ

Port Authority 1921. PATH 1962

On 56, Under Dwight David Eisenhower presidency, Federal Aid Highway Act to support National system of Interstate & Highway Defense, creation o f Highway Trust Fund.

Recognition of specialization and that its rate of increase is faster than rate of change of organizational culture.

PRHTA

DTPW: 1952. PRHTA: 1965 (Highway Authority, 1991

ammended

to Highway and Transportation Authority)

On 64, Under president Lyndon Johnson, Urban Mass Transportation Act (3-year program). On 91, Under president Bush Sr., Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, creation of Federal Transit Administration, and

Intermodalism

office at the Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

Recognition of specialization and that its rate of increase is faster than rate of change of organizational culture.

Slide26

…Organizational Culture

HistoryEnacting year of the institutions was compared to an historical event related to transportation and to the main transportation paradigm as per literature of that time.Most institutions were created around the 1960’s. At that time, federal agencies were re-arranging and laws were created to emphasize mass transit.Organization literature of the time emphasized the fact of specialization.Remarks: The historical perspective might have influenced on the creation of subdivisions. This could lead to confusion of roles if not well planned or if the intention is merely to comply with regulations.Since is similar for most, might not be a differentiating factor.

Slide27

Conclusion and Recommendations

Slide28

Concluding Discussion

Since the greater usage was found on the institution that integrated its fare, not only with all its modes but with some modes managed by other institution, the study of mode integration deserves further study. It may appear that if an institution finds out that its users needs other existing services managed by others, the service quality and its usage may be improved with some kind of coordination, fare and/or other integration measures.As the three institutions with greater usage are ones that serve at regional level, while the lesser usage is observed at institutions that serve at state or greater level, it can be said that to study the service area level may be worthwhile. While a regional level appear to be beneficial in considering several stages of its user’s trips, this ability seems to diminish in greater areas of service.Other aspect that seems to deserve be further studied is the configuration of the boards governing and taking decisions in the institutions. The ones with greater usage have multiple and uneven amount of members. The ones with less usage have either even amount of members or a single one, situation that could make the decision making process a time consuming one (in the case of even members) or bias it (in the case of a single member).The organizational configuration is the other factor that is recommended to be further investigated. The institutions with the greater usage have operational divisions per modes, however, the rest of the administration is considered as a whole or as a system.

Slide29

Recommendationsfor Further Study

Consider the following factors as they might have some influence on transit usage: Mode integration How is it consideredJurisdiction of service area Coverage and how it is consideredGoverning board configurationHow is the decision making processOrganizational configuration How are the responsibilities distributed

Slide30

Thank YouQuestions & Comments

Slide31


About DocSlides
DocSlides allows users to easily upload and share presentations, PDF documents, and images.Share your documents with the world , watch,share and upload any time you want. How can you benefit from using DocSlides? DocSlides consists documents from individuals and organizations on topics ranging from technology and business to travel, health, and education. Find and search for what interests you, and learn from people and more. You can also download DocSlides to read or reference later.
Youtube