PYRILLA

PYRILLA PYRILLA - Start

Added : 2017-10-21 Views :27K

Download Presentation

PYRILLA




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "PYRILLA" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentations text content in PYRILLA

Slide1

PYRILLA PERPUSILLA

THE

SUGAR

CANE

LEAF HOPPER

Slide2

PYRILLA PERPUSILLA

SYSTEMATIC

POSITION

;

Phylum - Arthropoda

Class - Insecta

Order - Hemiptera

Family - Fulgoridae

Genus - Pyrilla

Species - Perpusilla

Slide3

INTRODUCTION

The term was given by

Walker

in

1851.

It was found in

Punjab

for the first time in

1917

at

Lahore

.

Four years later it was found damaging

maize

[

Zea mays

] at agricultural farm

Lyallpur

.

It was on the introduction of soft and broad leaves varities of sugarcane [

Saccharum officinarum

] in

1920

.

Slide4

DISTRIBUTION

Pest is found throughout the

Indian

subcontinent

from

Afghanistan

to

Burma & Thailand

.

Widely distributed in

Punjab

, where it has been recorded from the various localities :

Ferozpur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Hissar, Lyallpur, Karnal, Patiala

etc..

Outside the Punjab it has been recorded in

Bihar

,

Orissa, Nagpur, Uttar Pradesh

.

Slide5

FOOD PLANTS

WINTER

SUMMER

Wheat [Triticum spp]Barley [Hordeum vulgare]Oats [Avena sativa]Swank grass [Panicum colonum]

Chari [

Andropogon

sorghum

]

Maize [

Zea mays

]

Bajra [

Pennisetum typhoidum

]

Guinea grass [

Panicum maximum

]

Slide6

LIFE STAGES

EGG

:

Length = 1mm

Breadth = o.47mm

Elongated oval, chorion smooth.

Pale white

to

light bluish

when freshly laid, developing an ochraeous

brown tinge

before hatching.

Slide7

EGG’S OF PYRILLA

Slide8

EGG’S OF PYRILLA

Slide9

LIFE STAGES

NYMPH

:

Initially

greenish

, later turn

pale brownish

.

Wingless

& with a pair of

anal filaments

covered with a

fluffy waxy

material.

Starts feeding by sucking

sap

from the cane leaves.

Nymphs are very

hard

& not affected by

frost

.

It undergoes

4-5 moults

.

Slide10

NYMPH

Slide11

LIFE STAGES

ADULT

:

Length = 7-8mm

Soft

,

light brown

with a

pointed snout

bearing

piercing

and

sucking

mouthparts.

Prominent

red eyes

and a pair of

whitish brown

anal processes with white mealy wax.

Wings have

dark

patches

.

Slide12

ADULT

Slide13

ADULT

Slide14

LIFE HISTORY

Pyrilla

breeds

throughout the year &

migrates

from one crop to another for

fresh food

.

The adults are fairly

long lived

.

From emergence to death of males is between

27-130 days

with an average of

80 days

.

The females average is rather

longer

than males.

Slide15

Slide16

PRE-OVIPOSITION

The duration of pre-oviposition periods depends upon the

season

:

During

April to October

it lasts for

13-25 days

with an

average

of

19 days

.

During

November-December

it lasts for

24-47 days

with an

average

of

32 days

.

Slide17

OVIPOSITION

A female

dies soon

after

oviposition

during

summer

but

lives

for a

long time

in

winter

.

For example during the period from

April to October

during

1931-1935

female

lived 1-9 days

while during

November to March

they lived

50-118

days

.

In

summer

the female leafhopper lays

eggs

in

clusters

on the

undersurface of leaf

and within the

leafsheaths in winters

.

Slide18

EGG’S OF PYRILLA

Slide19

EGGS CLUSTER

WITHIN LEAFSHEATH

UNDERSURFACE OF LEAF

Slide20

OVIPOSITION

There are

300-500 eggs

in a

cluster

.

Eggs are laid by

installments

, the oviposition period occupying

15-126 days

.

Eggs laid in

April-October

hatches out in

8-10

days

.

Eggs laid during

mid-October- mid-November

&

mid-November- mid-December

takes

20-29 days

and

25-41 days

respectively to hatch.

Slide21

THE NYMPHAL INSTARS

There are

5 nymphal instars

, the duration of which varies according to the

season

.

From

April to September

the seperate stages averaged

7-11 days

with a total period of

28-69

days

.

Those hatching in

October

averaged

17-41 days

with a total period of

160 days

.

Those hatching in

January

averaged

14-32 days

with a total of

103 days

.

Slide22

THE

NYMPHAL

INSTARS

Slide23

THE ADULT

Adult lives 4-7 weeks in Summer and 18-20 weeks in Winter.Entire life cycle takes 65 days in Summer and 160 days in Winter.

Slide24

LIFE CYCLE

Slide25

SEASONAL HISTORY

Slide26

DAMAGE

Both

adult & nymphs

do

damage

,

sucking

the juice usually from

underside

of a leaf.

The attacked leaf became

pale & wilted

.

The pest produces

“Honeydew”

an excellent substratum for the development of soothy mould

[

Capnodium spp

.]

.

The mould

interfers

in the proper functioning of leaves

.

Slide27

ADULT PYRILLA & NYMPH DAMAGING THE CROP

Slide28

The mould interferes with

photosynthesis

and adversely affects the

quantity

and

quality

of crop.

The

sugar content

of the crop

falls

upto

35%

.

The

glucose content increases

while

sucrose

decreases

.

Slide29

CONTROL

MECHANICAL

METHOD’S

:

Burning

all the

thrash

after

harvesting

the sugarcane crop in an

infected field

.

Slide30

Uprooting & Destruction Of Seriously Infected Plants

Slide31

CHEMICAL METHOD’S

Dusting the infected crop with

10% BHC

&

10% Carbaryl

or

5% Malathione

@

20-40 kg/ha

Slide32

SPRAY ENDOSULPHAN OR FENITROTHION

Slide33

BIOLOGICAL METHOD’s

Introducing hyper parasite

:Tetrastychus pyrillae parasitize the eggs.Dryinus pyrillae parasitized the nymphs

Slide34

CONCLUSION

Pyrilla perpusilla is one of the

most destructive

sugarcane pest.

Widely

distributed, also feeds on

oats

,

wheat

,

barley

,

maize

,

chari

etc..

Three life stages:

Egg, Nymph & Adult

.

Causes

destruction

in

functioning

of leaves.

Control can be done by

Mechanical

,

Chemical

and

Physical

methods.

Slide35

THANK YOU

]


About DocSlides
DocSlides allows users to easily upload and share presentations, PDF documents, and images.Share your documents with the world , watch,share and upload any time you want. How can you benefit from using DocSlides? DocSlides consists documents from individuals and organizations on topics ranging from technology and business to travel, health, and education. Find and search for what interests you, and learn from people and more. You can also download DocSlides to read or reference later.
Youtube