The History of Afghanistan PowerPoint Presentation

The History of Afghanistan PowerPoint Presentation

2018-10-13 7K 7 0 0

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From . http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5380.htm . ~Afghanistan’s ethnically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading through Central Asia. ~Pashtuns make up the largest ethnic group at 42%. ID: 689283

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The History of Afghanistan

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From

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5380.htm ~Afghanistan’s ethnically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading through Central Asia~Pashtuns make up the largest ethnic group at 42%

~Afghanistan is an Islamic country~An estimated 80% of the population is Sunni; the remainder is predominantly Shi’a

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~ Despite attempts during the years of communist rule to secularize Afghan society, Islamic religious traditions and codes, together with traditional tribal and ethnic practices, have an important role in personal conduct and dispute settlement

~Afghan society is largely based on kinship groups, though somewhat less so in urban areas

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Afghanistan, often called the crossroads of Central Asia, has had a turbulent history

In 328 BCE, Alexander the Great entered the territory of present-day Afghanistan, then part of the Persian Empire, and established a Hellenistic state in BactriaInvasions by Scythians, White Huns, and Turks followedIn 642 CE, Arabs invaded the entire region and introduced Islam

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Arab rule gave way to the Persians until they were conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998

But eventually the Turks lost control to various princesThis was followed by a destructive Mongol invasion in 1219 led by Genghis KhanFollowing Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, a succession of chiefs and princes struggled for supremacyIn the late 14

th century, Tamerlane incorporated Afghanistan into his own empire

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In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani established his ruleDuring the 19

th century, collision between the expanding British Empire and czarist Russia significantly influenced Afghanistan in what was termed “The Great Game”British concern over Russian advances in Central Asia and growing influence in Persia precipitated two Anglo-Afghan wars

Eventually, the British retained control over Kabul’s foreign affairs but in a third war, the war-weary British relinquished control by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August 1919

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In commemoration of this event, Afghans celebrate August 19 as their Independence Day

King Amanullah (1919-1929) moved to end his country’s traditional isolation and modernize the nationSome of his reforms included the abolition of the traditional Muslim veil for women and the opening of a number of co-educational schools but the King alienated tribal leaders

The King was forced to abdicateEventually, Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973

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However, new reforms permitted the growth of unofficial extremist parties on both the left and the right

These included the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), which had close ideological ties to the Soviet UnionAmid charges of corruption against the royal family and poor economic conditions, former Prime Minister Sardar Mohammad Daoud seized power in a military coup on July 17, 1973Daoud abolished the monarchy

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On April 27, 1978, the PDPA initiated a bloody coup, which resulted in the overthrow and murder of Daoud and most of his family

Opposition to the Marxist government emerged immediatelyDuring its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA brutally imposed a Marxist-style “reform” program, which ran counter to deeply rooted Afghan traditionsIn addition, thousands of members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment, and the intelligentsia were imprisoned, tortured, or murdered

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Conflicts within the PDPA also surfaced early and resulted in exiles, purges, imprisonments, and executions

By the summer of 1978, a revolt began in eastern Afghanistan and quickly spread In December 1978, Moscow signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation with Afghanistan, and the Soviet military assistance program increased significantlyThe regime’s survival was increasingly dependent upon Soviet assistance as the insurgency spread

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As much as 80% of the countryside eluded government controlAn overwhelming majority of Afghans opposed the communist regime

Afghan fighters (mujahideen) made it almost impossible for the regime to maintain a system of local government outside major urban centers

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Poorly armed at first, in 1984 the mujahideen began receiving substantial assistance in the form of weapons and training from the U.S. and other outside powers

By the mid-1980s, the Afghan resistance movement was exacting a high price from the Soviets, both militarily within Afghanistan and by souring the U.S.S.R.’s relations with much of the Western and Islamic worldInformal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan had been underway since 1982

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In 1988 the Geneva accords were signed, which included a timetable that ensured full Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan by February 15, 1989

About 14,500 Soviet and an estimated one million Afghan lives were lost between 1979 and the Soviet withdrawal in 1989Significantly, the mujahideen were party to neither the negotiations nor to the 1988 agreement, and, consequently, refused to accept the terms of the accords

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As a result, the civil war continued after the Soviet withdrawal, which was completed in February 1989

Eventually, the victorious mujahideen entered Kabul to assume control over the city and the central government but a new round of internecine fighting began between the various militiasWith the demise of their common enemy, the militias’ ethnic, clan, religious and personality differences surfaced, and the civil war continued

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As a result, the country sank even further into anarchy

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The Taliban had risen to power in the mid-1990s in reaction to the anarchy and warlordism that arose after the withdrawal of Soviet forces

Many Taliban had been educated in madrassas in Pakistan and were largely from rural southern Pashtun backgroundsIn 1994, the Taliban developed enough strength to capture the city of Kandahar from a local warlord and proceeded to expand its control throughout Afghanistan

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By the end of 1998, the Taliban occupied about 90% of the country

The Taliban sought to impose an extreme interpretation of Islam – based on the rural Pashtun tribal code – on the entire country and committed massive human rights violations, particularly directed against women and girlsThe Taliban also committed serious atrocities against minority populations

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In 2001, as part of a drive against relics of Afghanistan’s pre-Islamic past, the Taliban destroyed two huge Buddha statues carved into a cliff face outside of the city of Bamiyan

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From the mid-1990s, the Taliban provided sanctuary to Osama bin Laden, a Saudi national who had fought with the mujahideen resistance against the Soviets, and provided a base for his and other terrorist organizations

Bin Laden provided both financial and political support to the TalibanIn addition to previous terrorist attacks, Bin laden and Al-Qaida have acknowledged their responsibility for the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States

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Following the Taliban’s repeated refusal to expel bin Laden and his group and end its support for international terrorism, the U.S. and its partners in the anti-terrorist coalition began a military campaign on October 7, 2001, targeting terrorist facilities and various Taliban military and political assets within Afghanistan

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Under pressure from U.S. military and anti-Taliban forces, the Taliban disintegrated rapidly, and Kabul fell on November 13, 2001

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Afghan factions opposed to the Taliban met at a United Nations conference and agreed to restore stability and governance to Afghanistan – creating an interim government and establishing a process to move toward a permanent government

A nationwide “Loya Jirga” (Grand Council) decided on the structure of the governmentOn October 9, 2004, Afghanistan held its first national democratic presidential election

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More than 8 million Afghans voted, 41% of whom were womenHamid Karzai was announced as the official winner and was inaugurated as Afghanistan’s first democratically elected president

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The democratic government’s authority is growing, although its ability to deliver necessary social services remains largely dependent on funds from the international donor community

U.S. assistance for Afghanistan’s reconstruction from the fiscal year 2001 to 2011 totals over $40 billion

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An estimated 85% or Afghans are dependent on agriculture and related agribusinesses for their livelihoods

Opium poppy production and the opium trade continue to have a significant monetary share of the country’s agricultural economyHowever, both this share and the number of farmers growing poppy continue to decline, as more farmers are taking advantage of opportunities to produce and market alternative crops

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Afghanistan is endowed with natural resources, including extensive deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, iron ore, and precious stones

Unfortunately, ongoing instability in the country, rugged terrain, and an inadequate infrastructure and transportation network have made mining these resources difficult

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Afghanistan has one of the highest mortality rates in the worldOne in five children dies before the age of five and one out of every eight Afghan women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth each year

Life expectancy is only 44 years for both men and women

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Insecurity along the border has led to a lack of health workers and an increase in polio cases

Yet Afghanistan has made impressive advances in increasing basic educationDuring the Taliban regime, no girls were registered in schoolsToday 36.3% of the population is girls

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Adult literacy activities increased rapidly in 2009From a situation of total illiteracy, learners can now read, write, form simple sentences, and do basic mathematical calculations

Ongoing support of literacy and basic education is paramount, as well as the quality and preparation of teachers in order to close the literacy gap left by 30 years of conflict

Slide30

The United Nations has played an important role in Afghanistan for more than 20 years, assisting in the repatriation of Afghan refugees and providing humanitarian aid


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