The News Effect Dustyn Bailey

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Introduction . „. News is a global phenomenon that pervades many different types of media, it is important to develop an understanding of how news effects the masses who consume media sources like Fox, CNN, MSNBC, and the Daily Show. Through the examination of framing theory, selective exposure t.... ID: 736388 Download Presentation

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The News Effect Dustyn Bailey

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The News Effect

Dustyn Bailey




News is a global phenomenon that pervades many different types of media, it is important to develop an understanding of how news effects the masses who consume media sources like Fox, CNN, MSNBC, and the Daily Show. Through the examination of framing theory, selective exposure theory, and agenda setting theory; our research provides a better understanding of how news affects their audiences.



News in the Media



Framing Theory

Agenda Setting Theory

Selective Exposure Theory


Framing Theory



Negative Effects




The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning. Framing is an important topic since it can have a big influence and therefore the concept of framing expanded to organizations as well.



Often stories are crafted by news stations in ways that will be more likely to receive the most attention from audiences




In a content analysis study which looked at international news coverage of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, it was proven that the most frequently used frame was one titled the savior frame. In this type of

portrayal, news stations would discuss the amount of aid and support their country’s government was

giving to Haiti. Viewers at home watching the natural disaster unfold on television were more likely to

respond to a story which looked at the after effects and then was framed with how their country was

specifically helping the cause. In international news coverage, most citizens want to see their country

being displayed positively rather than negatively. (Saving Haiti: Framing in International News Coverage of Natural Disasters by Haiyan


, Cristina


, Dan


, Cory Hahn, & George Christo-Baker).



Framing theory and Agenda Setting are two theories which can work together when news stations are telling a story. While framing helps tell viewers what to think, agenda setting tells viewers what to think about by highlighting certain stories and usually showing only one side of an issue.


Agenda Setting Theory






Agenda Setting Theory in “Mass Media, Mass Culture” is the process whereby the mass media determine what we think and worry about.





and 2


Order Effects

First Level: Media coverage can affect how citizens think about issues.

Second Level: When the way media covers issues becomes the way citizens think about issues.



Iraq War coverage: People who watched MSNBC, CNN, and Fox News coverage of the Iraq War. 69 percent of MSCNBC viewers favored democratic arguments about the war. 64% CNN. Only 32% of Fox viewers favored democratic views. Conservatives/republicans in study were 88 times more likely to say that the war was not worth it when they did not watch Fox News, compared to .55 watching fox news. Those who were liberal/democrat and watched fox news or did not their opinion changed very little,(.96/ .97)


Selective Exposure Theory


Social Influences News Factor



Selective Exposure Theory is the individuals’ tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. 


Social Influences

• A 2011 study studying


data found that Facebook was the fastest growing source of referrals to major news websites, while news aggregators account for an even larger share.

• The effect of social endorsements was strongest for partisans selecting articles from ideologically misaligned sources, and stronger for Republicans than for Democrats.

• Social media may constitute a force that drives citizens to read news, or at least headlines and abstract

• Companies like Facebook and Google often select content to display by employing filtering algorithms that predict which content a customer will be most likely to view and endorse which may serve to isolate individuals in a “filter bubble.”


News Application

Both CNN and FOX News claim to follow notions of objectivity, presenting impartial information to the audience and reporting in a balanced manner when covering the news.

• For conservative Republicans, FOX News acts as an echo chamber, reinforcing their already negative inclinations against Mexican immigrants. But even for liberals and Democrats, watching FOX News was significantly related to their support for Mexican immigrants.

• Selective exposure may be taking place not only when individuals watch television news, but also when they read newspapers, listen to radio shows, or browse the Internet.



Through communication theories this study develops an idea of how the news media affects the people who consume their information. Framing Theory teaches us how the news stations focus their attention on certain events and constructs certain meanings, Agenda Setting Theory influences what issues the audience feels are important, and Selective Exposure Theory there is an expectation for consumers of media to have a stance on an issue and seek more information. All of these theories help develop a better comprehension of how the news media affects people.




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