Chapter 1 Science Skills - PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 1 Science Skills
Chapter 1 Science Skills

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Slide1

Chapter 1Science Skills

SPS2 Students will explore the nature of matter, its classifications, and its system for naming types of matterSlide2

1.1 What is Science?

How does the process of science start and end?What is the relationship between science and technologySlide3

What is Science?

Generally scientists believe that the universe can be described by basic rules and these rules can be discovered by careful, methodical study.Slide4

Branches of Science

Physics

: The study of

Forces and Energy

Chemistry

: The study of

Matter and its changesSlide5

Pure Science vs Technology

Pure Science - Scientists

who do experiments to learn

more about the world.

Technology – the

application of science

(usually by engineers who look for ways to use the science)Slide6

Scientific Theory

Is an explanation that has been tested by repeated observations.Are always being

questioned and examined.

To be valid, a theory must continue to pass each test.Slide7

Scientific Theory (cont.)

A theory must explain observations simply and clearly.Experiments that illustrate the theory must be repeatable.

You must be able to predict from the theorySlide8

Scientific Law

States a repeated observation about nature.Does

not

explain why an event happens.Slide9

Theories and Laws are not absolute

Sometimes theories or laws have to be changed or replaced completely

when new discoveries are made.Slide10

Qualitative vs Quantitative

Qualitative – describes with words.Quantitative – stated as mathematical equations.Slide11

1.1 What is Science

Curiosity – leads to discoveryScience – system of knowledge and methods to find knowledgeSlide12

1.1 What is Science

Technology – applying knowledge to solve problemsAdvances in science lead to advances in technologyExamples (my childhood and yours)Computers – 1979 Atari 400 (16Kb Ram, 5.25 Floppy 760 Kb)I-Pad (16-64

Gb

, wireless, flash)Slide13

1.1 What is Science?

Telephones

1979 – Black Rotary Phone – called people

2010 – Motorola Droid – phone, internet access,

gps

, camera

Science (and

Technolgy

are always changingSlide14

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

What is the scientific method?How does a scientific law differ from a scientific theory?Why are scientific models useful?Slide15

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Walking or running in the rain – which keeps you dryer?

How can we know for sure?

Scientific Method – organized plan for gathering information

According to most studies, it is better to run (although the

Mythbusters

disagree)Slide16

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Steps (in traditional order)Making Observations – using your senses to gather informationAsk a Question – usually based on some observations (Do cell phones cause brain cancer?)Hypothesis – a proposed answer to a question – so it is a statement (Eating fish makes a person smarter.)Slide17

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Testing a Hypothesis (doing the experiment)Sometimes formal, sometimes informalManipulated variable – variable that causes a change in anotherResponding variable – changes in response to manipulated variable

Controlled experiment – only one variable is changedSlide18

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Testing a Hypothesis (doing the experiment)Hypothesis – soccer players are smarter than football playersManipulated variable – sport the students playResponding variable – score on SAT

Controlled experiment – must be same age, same socio-economic background, have the same educational background (what else?)Slide19

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Drawing Conclusions The hypothesis is correctThe hypothesis is incorrect (retest)The hypothesis needs some modification (retest)

Examples

Eating Omega 3 Fatty Acids improves brain function and health

Glucosamine supplements heal knee jointsSlide20

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Developing a Theory – a well tested explanation for a set of observationsTheory of EvolutionKinetic TheoryString TheorySlide21

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Scientific Laws – describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it.Law of Gravity – masses are attracted toward each otherThe explanation is provided by a theory

Theory of GravitonsSlide22

1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

Scientific Laws – describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it.Law of Gravity – masses are attracted toward each otherThe explanation is provided by a theory

Theory of GravitonsSlide23

1.3 Measurement

Why is scientific notation useful?What units do scientists use for their measurements?Slide24

1.3 Measurement

Scientific Notation – represents very large or very small numbers as powers of 10Large numbers have a positive exponentSmall numbers have a negative exponentSlide25

1.3 Measurement

Multiplying Exponents

1. First multiply the numbers

2. Add the exponentsSlide26

1.3 Measurement

Dividing Exponents

1. First divide the numbers

2. Subtract the exponentsSlide27

1.3 Measurement

PracticeSlide28

1.3 Measurement

International System of Units (SI or metric system)Base UnitsLength – meter (m)Mass – kilogram (kg)Temperature –

kelvin

(K)

Time – second (s)Slide29

1.3 Measurement

International System of Units (SI or metric system)Derived Units – combinations of base unitsVolume – length x width x height meter x meter x meter

m

3

Density – mass divided by volume

Grams divided by meter x meter x meter

g/cm

3

(in chemistry)Slide30

1.3 Measurement

You will be asked to calculate densityMass (in grams) divided by volume (in cm3

or

mL

)

What is the density of a 63

mL

block with a mass of 22.5 g?Slide31

1.3 Measurement

You will need to know 3 metric prefixesKilo (k) – 1000 – multiplies the unit by 1000 times1 kg Gold bar worth $42,268.16 (7/9/10)

centi

(c) – 1/100 – multiplies the unit by 0.01

Centipede – they don’t really have 100 legs

milli

(m) – 1/1000 – multiply by 0.001

Millipede – they don’t have 1000 legsSlide32

1.3 Measurement

Converting units (learn this well, you do similar stuff all year!)Convert by multiply by a conversion factor – () with a fraction insideWhat goes inside the fraction

The unit that you want goes on top

The unit you are getting rid of goes on the bottomSlide33

1.3 Measurement

So if I wanted to convert 18 g to mgUnit I want is mgUnit I want to get rid of is g

Now I have to remember that 0.001 g = 1 mg (or 1g = 1000 mg)

Put the numbers in your calculator and get the answerSlide34

1.3 Measurement

PracticeConvert 912 g to kg

Convert 11.2 L to

cLSlide35

1.4 Presenting Scientific Data

How do scientists organize data?How can scientists communicate experimental data?Slide36

1.4 Presenting Scientific Data

Line graphsYou must be able to draw a line graph of

data

First label each axis

and give the graph

a title

Mass (g)

2

4

5

7

10Volume (cm3)122.53.5

5

Density of Unknown Substance

Volume (cm

3

)

Mass (g)Slide37

1.4 Presenting Scientific Data

Line graphsThe hard part – determine the

value of each

space

Mass (g)

2

4

5

7

10

Volume (cm

3)122.53.5

5

Density of Unknown Substance

Volume (cm

3

)

Mass (g)

22 spaces

10 g/22 = 0.45

1 box = 0.5 g

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

22 spaces

5/22 = 0.23

1 b0x = 0.25

1

2

3

4

5Slide38

1.4 Presenting Scientific Data

Line graphsNow plot your pointsFinally draw the best straight line or curve

Mass (g)

2

4

5

7

10

Volume (cm

3

)

122.53.55

Density of Unknown Substance

Volume (cm

3

)

Mass (g)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

2

3

4

5Slide39

1.4 Presenting Scientific Data

Line graphsYou should be able to get data from your graphWhat is the volume of a 8.5g sample?

4.25 cm

3

Density of Unknown Substance

Volume (cm

3

)

Mass (g)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

2

3

4

5Slide40

BAR Graph

A bar graph is often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts , or changes.Slide41

Using the grid provided , graph the following information using the appropriate type of graph.( Don’t forget to label axes)

January has 5 cm of rain fall

March has 10 cm of rain fall

August has 2 cm of rain fall

October has 8 cm of rain fallSlide42

Circle Graph

A circle graph is a divided circle that shows how a part or share of something relates to the whole.Slide43

West Virginia State University has a significant number of out-of –state students attending its institution.

23% of its students originally reside in North Carolina, 17 % reside in Ohio, 8 % reside in Maine, 42% reside in West Virginia , and 10 % reside in California.

Graph the following information using the appropriate type of graph to display the student population of west Virginia state University.

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Chapter 1 Science Skills - Description

SPS2 Students will explore the nature of matter its classifications and its system for naming types of matter 11 What is Science How does the process of science start and end What is the relationship between science and technology ID: 709280 Download Presentation

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