Chickering’s

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theory of identity development. Adam Crawford. Premise. “Building on Erikson’s discussion of identity and intimacy (1959/1980), . Chickering. saw the establishment of identity as the core developmental issue with which student grapple during their college years” (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patto.... ID: 202585 Download Presentation

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Chickering’s




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Presentations text content in Chickering’s

Slide1

Chickering’s theory of identity development

Adam Crawford

Slide2

Premise

“Building on Erikson’s discussion of identity and intimacy (1959/1980),

Chickering

saw the establishment of identity as the core developmental issue with which student grapple during their college years” (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, &

Renn

, 2010, p. 65).

Slide3

Arthur Chickering - Background

Chickering

developed theory @ Goddard College

Evaluated curriculum/student development

Theory first outlined in

Education and Identity

Based on research (1959-1965)

Achievement/personality tests, diaries, interviews

Later incorporated studies on various small colleges

Target: Faculty

Relevance to Student Affairs profession: accident

Slide4

Revision

Original

Education and Identity

published in 1969

Used, researched extensively

Focus on white, middle-class, straight men

Revised in 1993 w/ Linda

Reisser

Incorporated new research/findings by others

Summarized other theorists’ related work

More inclusive of gender/race/sexuality

Slide5

Chickering’s Theory

Seven

V

ectors of Development

Direction & magnitude

Wibbly

-wobbly” (not linear)

Build on one another

Key

I

nfluences

(7)

Educational environments have strong influence

Admonitions

(3)

Keys to creating positive, powerful educational environments

Slide6

Developing CompetenceManaging EmotionsMoving Through Autonomy Toward InterdependenceDeveloping Mature Interpersonal RelationshipsEstablishing IdentityDeveloping PurposeDeveloping Integrity

Seven Vectors of Development

Slide7

1. Developing Competence

Three elements:

Intellectual Competence

Acquiring/refining knowledge, skills, culture, reasoning

Physical and Manual Skills

Athletics, wellness, recreation, artistic/manual activities

Interpersonal Competence

Communication, leadership, being a team

player

Held together by overall sense of confidence in your ability to persevere and succeed in life

Slide8

Developing Competence: Pitchfork Metaphor

Intellectual CompetencePhysical & Manual SkillsInterpersonal CompetenceConfidence in one’s ownperseverance and success

Slide9

2. Managing Emotions

Recognize, accept, express, & control emotions appropriately/responsibly

Original focus: “caveman instincts”

Aggression, sexual desire

More recent focus: wide range of emotions

Negative: Anxiety, depression, shame, guilt

Positive: Optimism, empathy, inspiration

Slide10

What Not to Do…

Managing Emotions

Slide11

3. Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence

Three elements:

Emotional Independence

Continual praise/approval/affection not needed

Instrumental Independence

Self-directed, problem-solver, mobile

Interdependence

Recognize & accept interconnectedness w/ others

Renamed for revised edition

Slide12

Autonomy/Interdependence Quotes

+

“The essence of independence has been to think and act according to standards from within, not without.” ~ Aleister Crowley

“No man is an island.” ~ John Donne

Slide13

4. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

Interpersonal/intercultural tolerance

Appreciation of differences & similarities

Ability to maintain long-lasting, deep relationships

Both romantic & platonic

Overarching Theme:

Accepting people for who they are

Slide14

What Not to Do…

Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

Slide15

5. Establishing Identity

Comfort w/ body, appearance, gender, sexual orientation, roles, etc.

Secure sense of self, self-acceptance, & self-esteem

Even when faced w/ others’ feedback/criticism

Revised Theory:

Acknowledges differences in identity development based on gender, race, and/or sexuality

Slide16

6. Developing Purpose

Developing goals, sticking with meaningful interests/activities, & forming solid interpersonal commitments

“Intentionally making and staying with decisions, even in the face of opposition” (

Blahblah

, 2011).

Life calling

Slide17

Superheroes!

Slide18

7. Developing Integrity

Three Sequential/Overlapping Stages:

Humanizing Values

Move away from rigid morality system

Interest of others balanced w/ own interests

Personalizing Values

Own core values affirmed

Others’ acknowledged/respected

Developing Congruence

Your values = Your actions

Slide19

Institutional ObjectivesInstitutional SizeStudent-Faculty RelationshipsCurriculumTeachingFriendships and Student CommunitiesStudent Development Programs and Services

Seven Key (Environmental) Influences

Slide20

Activity: Application of Key Influences

With each key influence, consider how well Missouri State (or your alma mater) does in utilizing these environmental factors to advance student development.

After each slide, I’ll ask for a few examples, opinions, or comments.

Slide21

1. Institutional Objectives

Clear, specific

Used as guide by personnel when developing programs & services

Leads to greater consistency

Highlights values of institution

Students can agree/challenge said values

Slide22

2. Institutional Size

Significant immersion in/satisfaction with campus life important for student development

If # of people > range of opportunities…

Development potential hindered for all

Students feel redundant, unnecessary

Slide23

3. Student-Faculty Relationships

Extensive/varied interactions

See faculty as real people (GASP!)

Positive Components:

Accessible, authentic

Knowledge of students

Use of good communication skills

Slide24

4. Curriculum

Relevant to students’ history

Offer diverse perspectives

Challenge assumptions & pre-existing info

Opportunities to integrate into current knowledge

Slide25

5. Teaching

“For development to occur, teaching should involve active learning, student-faculty interaction, timely feedback, high expectations, and respect for individual learning differences” (Evans et al., 2010, p. 70).

Slide26

6. Friendships & Student Communities

Meaningful friendships & diverse organizations w/ shared interest develop all 7 vectors

Res Hall floors, student orgs, classes, etc.

Best: Interaction, collaboration, diversity, inclusive, knowledge base

Slide27

7. Student Development Programs & Services

Collaboration of faculty &

StA

Professionals

Staff redefine themselves as educators & “Student Affairs Professionals”

Educate the whole student

Slide28

Integration of Work and LearningRecognition and Respect for Individual DifferencesAcknowledgement of the Cyclical Nature of Learning and Development

Three Admonitions

Slide29

Three Admonitions

Integration of Work & Learning

Many students also work/volunteer

Collaboration between business, community, & IHE

Recognition & Respect for Individual Differences

Tension will increase w/ diversity unless addressed

Educators must adjust w/ their students’ backgrounds

Cyclical Nature of Learning & Development

New experiences/challenges => discomfort

That’s okay. Learning is occurring!

Slide30

AssessmentValidationSpecific Student PopulationsRelated Factors

Research

Slide31

Assessment

Difficult to assess psychosocial development

Complex

Ongoing

Must be taken in context w/ culture

Two tools developed:

Student Developmental Task & Lifestyle Assessment

Iowa Student Development Inventories

Slide32

Validation

Studies range from partial to full support

Difficult to determine if theory is invalid or assessment tools are bad

Further research is needed

Slide33

Specific Student Populations: Women

Men/Women Differ in Development

Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

Precedes autonomy

Achieve autonomy through these relationships

More developed @ start of college than men @ end

Slide34

Racial/Ethnic Groups

Chickering’s

theory considered weak in examining development of students of color

Racial/ethnic identity can delay other vectors

Assimilation to a dominant culture

Different cultural values

Isolation/loneliness on white campuses

Confidence, secure ethnic identity, and realistic self-valuing vital to African American student success on white campuses.

Slide35

LGBT Students

Little research on validity of theory to LGBT students

Sexual identity development can hinder other vectors for LGBT students

Disadvantaged for early vectors, adversely affect later vectors

Give up majority identity to develop new minority identity

Coming out a uniquely LGBT experience

Slide36

Related Factors

Involvement on campus helps development

Some exceptions in research: athletics, Greek life

Life experiences can affect psychosocial development

Psychosocial development correlated with…

Career Development

Moral Development

Slide37

ProgrammingIndividual InteractionsEnvironmental Interventions

Applications

Slide38

Programming

Develop programs to meet seven vectors

Evaluate/explain impact of programming

Help students w/ developmental deficiencies

Students drawn to programs that focus on already-developed vectors

Special effort to match program/right students

Slide39

Individual Interactions/Environmental Interventions

Knowing students’ likely concerns can help prepare

StA

Professionals on what to know/suggest

Introduce environmental catalysts for development

Residential Learning Contract

Learning Center (faculty/

StA

collaboration)

Slide40

Critique

Applauded for integrating secondary research and critiques into revised theory

Practical, easy to understand/use

More research on validity needed

Vector definitions general/hard to measure

More research on relation to diverse groups

May be impossible to develop all-inclusive theory

Slide41

References

Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., &

Renn

,

K. A

. (2010).

Student development in college: theory, research

and practice

.

(2nd ed.).

San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons

.

Lounsbury

, J. W.,

Saudargas

, R. A., Gibson, L. W. , & Leong, F. T. (2005). An investigation of broad and narrow personality traits in relation to general and domain-specific life satisfaction of college students.

Research in Higher Education, 46

(6), 707-729.

doi

: 10.1007/s11162-004-4140-

6

Riggs, R. O. (1994). Education and identity (2nd Ed.).

Educational Studies, 25

(4), 295. http://

tandfonline.com

/

toc

/heds20/current


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