Genre L earning in a Writing Classroom:

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Genre L earning in a Writing Classroom:




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Presentations text content in Genre L earning in a Writing Classroom:

Slide1

Genre Learning in a Writing Classroom: From the Perspectives of SFL and EFL

Soomin

Jwa

& Justin

Cubilo

Slide2

S

ystemic

F

unctional

L

inguistics (Sydney School)

E

nglish forSpecificPurposes

Rhetorical GenreStudies

Colombi (2009)

Cheng (2008)

Slide3

Key Concepts: SFLGenre is “staged, goal-oriented social processes through which social subjects in a given culture live their lives” (Martin, 43)Form-function relationshipContext Context of culture

 genre

Context of situation  register

Register

Field, tenor & mode

Explicit instructionGrammatical metaphor (Halliday, 1985)Teaching-learning cycle

ModelingJoint negotiation of textIndependent construction of text

Slide4

Teaching-learning cycleModelingJoint negotiation of textIndependent construction of text

Slide5

Key Concepts: ESPDiscourse community“sociorhetorical networks that form in order to work towards a set of common goals” (Swales, 1990)

Communicative purpose

starting point for genre analysis

Textual analysis (Bhatia, 1993)

Move/step analysis

e.g., The three-move CARS modelEstablishing a territory (move1)Establishing a niche (move2)Occupying the niche (move3)Text-patterning

Lexico-grammatical features

Slide6

Slide7

Similarities & Differences between SFL & ESPSimilarities Difficulties

Analytical focus:

Pedagogical commitment:

Target audience:

SFL

ESP

Types of genre to teachSFLESP

Slide8

Similarities & Differences between SFL & ESPSimilarities Differences

Analytical focus:

connection between linguistics features and social context and function

Pedagogical commitment:

explicit instruction

Target audience:

SFL: Primary/secondary school studentsESP: Advanced, graduate-level NNSTypes of genre to teachSFL: pre-genres (explanations, recounts, or descriptions)ESP: academic, professional genres (research articles, conference abstracts, job application letters, etc.)

Slide9

Discussion Questions1. Which approach do you prefer? And why?2. What are the possible challenges you might face when you adopt either SFL or ESP approach to genre?

Slide10

Article Analysis

Approach described by

Cheng

(200

8

) as “ESP”

Approach described byColombi

(2009) as “Sydney School”Implied educational context (including learners)

ESP/L2 writing instruction;universitiesacademic & professional settingsnondominant

(“at-risk”) language learner (primary and secondary) [Who also have potentially advantaging linguistic and cognitive resources (79)] -> L2 and L1  

adult learners (migrant workers - L2 -- workplace competency)

  

Underlying theory/ies

of language and/or genre

Genre as social action, staged, recognizable

 

Writing is a social activity

 

genre as a tool

for analyzing and teaching the spoken and written language required of nonnative speakers in academic and professional settings” (

Hyon

p. 695)

 

genres are the answer to recurring social situations and communicative needs of a social group

authority is given to ideas when they follow expected generic standards

Language as a system of meaning making (SFL)

 

Not all language is equal

 

Oral and written language do different things, in different ways, in different contexts

 

Genres give access to different degrees and kinds of social power (Martin, 1991), but they are not fully controlled or determined by individual writers (67)

  

Language is a system of meaning making (SFL)

 

Literacy=ability to

denaturalise

language and account for linguistic structure in terms of social purpose for wide range of discourses

Slide11

Article Analysis

Approach described by

Cheng

(200

8

) as “ESP”

Approach described byColombi

(2009) as “Sydney School”Underlying theory/ies of language and/or genre

Genre as social action, staged, recognizable Writing is a social activity

 “genre as a tool

for analyzing and teaching the spoken and written language required of nonnative speakers in academic and professional settings” (Hyon

p. 695)  

genres are the answer to recurring social situations and communicative needs of a social group

authority is given to ideas when they follow expected generic standards

Language as a system of meaning making (SFL)

 

Not all language is equal

 

Oral and written language do different things, in different ways, in different contexts

 

Genres give access to different degrees and kinds of social power (Martin, 1991), but they are not fully controlled or determined by individual writers (67)

  

Language is a system of meaning making (SFL)

 

Literacy=ability to

denaturalise

language and account for linguistic structure in terms of social purpose for wide range of discourses

Slide12

Article Analysis

Approach described by

Cheng

(200

8

) as “ESP”

Approach described byColombi

(2009) as “Sydney School”Underlying theory/ies of learning

Vygotskyan (scaffolding, collaboration)“Noticing”  

Learning to write is needs-oriented, requires explicit outcomes and expectations, is a social activity.

  

Classroom applications of genre = outcomes of communicative approaches; current ideas of literacyVygotskyan

learning theory

 

starting with student experiences

  

Learning genres to develop, change, disrupt --not simply to reproduce forms

 

learning to write is... a social activity ; is needs-oriented ; requires explicit outcomes/expectations ; involves learning to use language (Hyland)

Slide13

Article Analysis

Approach described by

Cheng

(200

8

) as “ESP”

Approach described byColombi

(2009) as “Sydney School”Main principles of the pedagogical approach

social context & form are important teaching students formal qualities of genres

 ESP instructors concerned with “communicative needs of particular academic and professional groups-- Genres = properties of communities of use, not of the culture

 

Text types in genre theory and pedagogy have been fairly specialized.

scaffolding - authoritative (not authoritarian) teacher

 

*explicit teaching*

 

deconstruct and challenge mainstream texts students are often required to write in educational contexts

 

explicit analysis of generic features--critique of social function of genre--writing in the genre

 

Teaching and learning cycle --

modelling

, joint negotiation of text, independent construction of text

 

teaching of genre empowers students

Slide14

Article Analysis

Approach described by

Cheng

(200

8

) as “ESP”

Approach described byColombi

(2009) as “Sydney School”Example of a classroom activity

mini-analysis of a feature text in students’ disciplines -- compare with students in other fields;Compare written and spoken nodes (e.g., lecture and textbook) - teachers need to illustrate activities that help students gain awareness of the communicative purposes and linguistic features of texts in their professions.

Microstructure [lesson sequencing]

Focus question: present students with a grammatical problem.

Input step - text is presentedAnalysis

step - students analyze texts (move from analytical to critical)Main ideas

- define what we have been noticing

Application - write your own text using this example.

Evaluation

- Can the grammatical generalizations, which we have just been using, work for us in other places or say other things?

 

curriculum macrostructure:

move from canonical genres to

multigeneric

and intergeneric texts.

Slide15

Discussion QuestionsHow can we adopt the genre approach (either SFL or ESP one) in the context of WR097, WR098, WR100 or WR150?

Slide16

Transfer of Genre KnowledgePrior Genre knowledge/ antecedent knowledge Transfer is “‘the personal creation of relations of similarity . . . or how the new situation is connected with the

thinker’s trace

of a previous situation’ in a way that enables something learned to be anew”

(

Lobato, 2003 , p

. 18). Reiff & Bawarshi (2011)Boundary crossers

Boundary guarders Perkins & Salomon (1989)High-road transferLow-road transfer

Slide17

Questions & AnswersThank you!

Slide18

Across contexts and approaches, genre-based pedagogy...is about making processes and conventions visibleis about awareness, consciousness, metaknowledge, metalanguage

involves some kind of “explicit” teaching

views genre as social

aims for staged learning, scaffolding

recognizes the importance of exposure to and working with sample texts (input matters)

is not inherently prescriptive  See Hyland (2007)

Slide19

Slide20


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