Nutrition Management in Critically Ill Patients
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Nutrition Management in Critically Ill Patients

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Nutrition Management in Critically Ill Patients




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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Management in Critically Ill Patients"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Nutrition Management in Critically Ill Patients

Lana Gettman,

Pharm.D

.

Harding University College of Pharmacy

AAHP Fall Seminar

September, 2016

Slide2

Learning Objectives

Describe metabolic and nutritional changes during critical illness.

Discuss nutrition assessment in the ICU patients.

Review current guidelines for provision of nutrition support in adult critically ill patients.

Slide3

Definition of a Critically Ill Patient

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

“Critically ill patients are defined as those patients who are at high risk for actual or potential life-threatening health problems. The more critically ill the patient is, the more likely he or she is to be highly vulnerable, unstable and complex, thereby requiring intense and vigilant nursing

care”.

Slide4

Slide5

Nutrition and Malnutrition

in the Critically Ill Patient

Nutrition plays a key role for recovery from illness

Up to 50% of critically ill patients have preexisting nutritional disorders

Patients who are well nourished prior to ICU admission, develop nutritional disorders rapidly

Metabolic demands of illness and healing

Rapid fluid shifts

Loss of specific vitamins and trace elements

Extent of muscle wasting and weight loss is inversely correlated with long-term survival

5

Slide6

Physiological Changes During Critical Illness

Slide7

Catabolism and Urine Urea Nitrogen

Protein breakdown

Loss of nitrogen in the urine in the form of urea

16-24 g/day in critically ill

vs

10-12 g/day in healthy individuals

Loss

of 16 g

N as urea = loss of 1 lb of skeletal muscle/lean body mass per dayFunctional impairment

Respiratory muscles

 respiratory failure

Heart muscles

 heart failure

GI mucosa muscles  diarrheaRapid development of malnutrition

7

Slide8

Results and Manifestations of Malnutrition in Critical Illness

Results

Loss of body cell mass

Changes in fluid/electrolytes/mineral homeostasis

Organ dysfunction

Manifestations

Impaired immune function

Prolonged dependence on mechanical ventilation

Increased rates of infection

Slide9

Terminology

Nutrition Support

Adjunctive care to provide exogenous fuels to preserve lean body mass and support the patient throughout the stress response

Nutrition Therapy

Help reduce the metabolic response to stress, prevent oxidative cellular injury, and favorably modulate immune response

Achieved by

E

arly enteral nutrition (EN), appropriate macro-and micronutrient delivery, “meticulous glycemic control”

Potential outcome

Reduce disease severity, decrease complications, decrease length of stay (LOS) in the ICU, favorable patient outcomes

Slide10

Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of

Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.

)

Target Patient Population

Adult (>/=18 years) critically ill patient expected to require length of stay greater than 2-3 days in MICU or SICU who cannot sustain “volitional intake”

Patients with

organ failure (lungs

, liver, kidney),

acute pancreatitis, trauma, traumatic brain injury, open abdomen, burns, sepsis, post-op major surgery, chronic critically ill, and critically ill obese

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral

Nutrition

. 2016;40(2):159

-211.

Slide11

Addressed Criteria

Nutrition assessment

Initiation of enteral nutrition (EN)

Dosing of EN

Monitoring tolerance and adequacy of EN

Selection of appropriate enteral formulation

Adjunctive therapy

When to use parenteral nutrition (PN)

When to maximize efficacy of PN

Slide12

Addressed Criteria (Cont.)

Pulmonary failure

Renal failure

Hepatic failure

Acute pancreatitis

Surgical subsets: trauma, traumatic brain injury, open abdomen, burns

Sepsis

Postoperative major surgery (SICU admission expected)

Chronically critically ill Obesity in critical illnessNutrition therapy end-of-life situations

Slide13

Guidelines Recommendations are Based on the Data Derived From:

Randomized controlled trials

Nonrandomized cohort trials

Prospective observational studies

Retrospective case series

Quality of evidence ranges from very low-low-moderate-to high

Slide14

Current Guidelines Limitations

Data was obtained through December 31, 2013

Other landmark studies published after this date were not included in this guideline

Slide15

Nutrition Assessment:

Determine Nutrition Risk

for

All Patients Admitted

to the

ICU

Use NRS 2002 or NUTRIC score.

Slide16

Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002)

Slide17

Slide18

Nutrition Assessment (Cont.)

NRS 2002

Risk

NRS 2002 >3

High risk

NRS 2002 >/=5

NUTRIC

High risk

NUTRIC >/=5

Slide19

Nutrition Assessment:

Energy Requirement

Method

Comments

Indirect calorimetry (IC)

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Accuracy affected by air leaks, chest tubes, supplemental oxygen, ventilator settings, CRRT, anesthesia, PT, excessive movement.

Simplistic formula:

25-30 kcal/kg/day

Use dry or usual body weight

for normal weight patients; use IBW for obese patients.

Predictive equations

Less accurate in obese and underweight patients.

Reevaluate energy expenditure more than once per

week.

Account for dextrose-containing fluids and lipid-based

medications.

Slide20

Nutrition Assessment:

Protein Requirements

P

rotein requirements are higher than energy requirements

Provision of protein is more closely correlated with positive patient outcomes than provision of total energy

Not easily met by routine enteral formulations and patients might benefit from protein supplementation

Weight-based recommendation: 1.2-2 g/kg/day

(actual body weight

)

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

May be higher in burn/trauma/CRRT patients

Slide21

Nutrition Assessment:

Protein Requirements (Cont.)

Albumin

T ½ = 21 days

Indicates body protein stores

Good indicator of initial nutritional status

Not a good indicator of early protein malnutrition

Pre-albumin

T ½ = 2-3 days

Responds more rapidly to nutrition support

Reflects improvements in nutrition intake and status

Renally

eliminated

 falsely elevated in ARF/CRF

Do not use

serum protein markers to determine

adequacy of

protein provision.

Slide22

Enteral Nutrition

Slide23

Enteral Nutrition

Supports structural integrity of the gut

If structural integrity compromised

Increased bacterial challenge

Risk of systemic infections

Risk of multiple-organ dysfunction

Initiate within 24-48 hours (

Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Use EN over PN (Quality of Evidence:

Low to Very

Low)

Bowel sounds and evidence of bowel function are

not required

for initiation of ENSafety data came from studies involving critically ill surgical patientsInitiate EN in the stomach, unlessHigh risk for aspiration

Not able to tolerate gastric infusion

Hold EN in hemodynamically unstable patients

Use caution in patients undergoing withdrawal of vasopressor support

Slide24

Figure 1. Early enteral nutrition (EN) vs delayed EN, mortality.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide25

Figure 2. Early enteral nutrition (EN) vs delayed EN, infectious complications.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide26

Figure 3. Enteral nutrition (EN) vs parenteral nutrition (PN), infectious complications.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide27

Dosing/Amount of EN

Patients with low nutrition risk and low disease severity (NRS 2002 </=3 or NUTRIC </=5) do not require nutrition therapy during the first week in the ICU

Reassess daily

Patients with ARDS/acute lung injury and are on mechanical ventilation, should receive either trophic (10-20 kcal/

hr

or 10-20 ml/

hr

or up to 500 kcal/day) or full EN during the first week in the ICU

Patients at high nutrition risk (NRS 2002 >/=5 or NUTRIC >/=5) should be advanced to goal over 24-48 hours

Slide28

Monitoring Tolerance

and

Adequacy of

EN:

Daily

Tolerance

Normal physical examination

Passage of flatus and stool

Absence of pain or abdominal distension Normal radiologic evaluation

Intolerance

Vomiting

Diarrhea

Reduced passage of flatus and stool

Abdominal distensionComplaints of discomfort

Abnormal abdominal radiographs

High NG output

High gastric residual volume (GRV) >500ml/24hrs

GRV does not correlate with incidences of PNA, regurgitation, or aspiration

Not recommended to do routine GRV measurements in patients on EN

Not recommended to hold EN for GRV <500ml/24hrs in the absence of other signs of

intolerance (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

GRV 200-500ml/24hrs, need to implement measures to reduce risk of aspiration

Slide29

Who is at Risk for Aspiration?

Inability to protect the airway

Presence of

nasoenteric

enteral access device

Mechanical ventilation

Age >70 years

Reduced level of consciousness

Poor oral careInadequate nurse:patient ratioSupine positionNeurologic deficit

Gastroesophageal

reflux

Transport out of the ICU

Bolus intermittent EN infusion

Slide30

If at Risk for Aspiration

D

eliver

EN to the small bowel instead of stomach OR

U

se

prokinetic

agents IV or PO (Quality of

Evidence: Low) Metoclopramide 10 mg QID for normal renal functionE

rythromycin

3-7 mg/kg/

day

Intubated patients receiving EN – head of bed to be elevated 30°-45° and use

chlorhexidine mouthwash BIDReduce level of sedation/analgesia when possibleMinimize transport out of the ICU for diagnostic tests and procedures

Slide31

Figure 7. Motility agents vs placebo, outcome lower gastric residual volume.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide32

Selection of Enteral Formulation

Use standard polymeric formula

Avoid routine use of specialty or disease-specific

formulas

E

xception:

immune-modulating formula in post-op patient in SICU setting

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Rationale for use of pulmonary formulas (high fat:carbohydrate ratio) “has shown to be erroneous”

Slide33

Adjunctive Therapy

Fermentable soluble fiber additive

-To be considered in all hemodynamically stable ICU patients on standard EN.

-10-20 g/24

hrs

of a fermentable soluble fiber in patients with diarrhea.

Probiotics

Recommendation cannot be made at this time with regards to routine use

across all types of ICU patients.

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Probiotics MOA: competitive inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth and epithelial attachment of invasive pathogens, elimination of pathogenic toxins, enhancement of intestinal epithelial barrier, favorable modulation of host inflammatory response.

Documented safety and outcome benefit in selective patient populations: liver transplantation, trauma, pancreatectomy.

Antioxidant vitamins and trace minerals

-To be provided in patients with burns, trauma, and on mechanical ventilation. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Slide34

Parenteral Nutrition

Slide35

When to Use PN

Patient

at low nutritional risk

(NRS 2002 </=3 or NUTRIC score </=5)

If early EN not

feasible, recommend to withhold PN over the first 7 days following ICU admission, unless PN dependent.

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Patient

at high nutritional risk

(NRS 2002 >/=5 or NUTRIC score >/=5) or severely malnourished

If early EN not

feasible, recommend to initiate PN as soon as possible following ICU admission.

In patients at low or high nutrition risk who are on EN but unable to meet >60% of energy and protein requirements, recommend use of supplemental PN after 7-10 days. Once patient is able to receive >60% of their goal via EN, recommend to d/c PN.

Slide36

Risks Associated with PN

Slide37

Risk Factors for Refeeding Syndrome

Advance to goal over 3-4 days.

Slide38

How to Maximize Efficacy of PN in High Risk/Severely Malnourished Patients

During first week (Quality of Evidence: Low)

H

ypocaloric PN: </=20 kcal/kg/day or 80% of estimated energy

Adequate protein: >/= 1.2 g/kg/day

Once patient is stable, advance to 100% of estimated goal

Withhold or limit soy-based IV fat emulsion during the first week of PN to maximum of 100 g/

wk

(divided in 2 doses/wk) if there is concern for essential fatty acid deficiency (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Target BG 140 or 150-180 mg/

dL

Slide39

EN/PN Recommendations

for

Organ Dysfunctions

Slide40

Organ Dysfunctions

Pulmonary failure

-Do not

recommend

use

of high-fat/low CHO formulations to reduce CO2 production in patients with acute respiratory failure.

(Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

-Avoid rapid

infusion of IVFE.

-Use fluid-restricted energy-dense EN formulations.

-Close serum phosphate monitoring and appropriate replacement.

Renal failure

(AKI/ARF)

-Use standard enteral formulation.

-Energy provision: 25-30 kcal/kg/day.

-Protein

provision: 1.2-2 g/kg/day

(actual body weight);

up to 2.5 g/kg/day if on HD or CRRT (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

.

-Consider specialty formulations (low in phosphate and potassium) with appropriate electrolyte profile.

Slide41

Organ

Dysfunctions (Cont.)

Hepatic failure

(cirrhosis)

-Use dry weight or usual weight to determine energy and protein requirements.

-

Avoid

restricting protein.

-EN is preferred route.

-Use standard EN formulation (there is

no evidence of benefit of branched-chain amino acids

formulations on coma grade in patients with encephalopathy).

Acute pancreatitis

Mild pancreatitis:

specialized nutrition is not recommended;

advance to oral diet as tolerated.

If not able to advance to oral diet within 7 days, then consider specialized nutrition. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Moderate to severe pancreatitis:

start EN (preferred over PN) at a low-volume rate within 24-48

hrs

of admission and advance to goal as tolerated. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Consider use of probiotics with severe pancreatitis in patients on EN. (Quality of Evidence: Low)

If EN not feasible, use PN after 1 week from the onset of symptoms.

Slide42

Figure 12. Parenteral nutrition (PN) vs enteral nutrition (EN) in severe acute pancreatitis, mortality.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide43

Figure 13. Parenteral nutrition (PN) vs enteral nutrition (EN) in severe acute pancreatitis, infections.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide44

Recommendations

for

Surgical Subsets

Slide45

Surgical Subsets

Trauma

-Early

EN within 24-48

hrs

of injury with high protein. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

-Energy requirements: 20-35 kcal/kg/day. Less energy in early phase and more energy in rehabilitation phase.

-Protein requirements: 1.2-2 g/kg/day, target higher end of range.

-In severe trauma: consider immune-modulating formulations. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Traumatic brain injury

-Early

EN within 24-48

hrs

of injury. (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

-Energy requirements: vary depending on use of paralytics and/or coma-inducing agents.

-Protein requirements: 1.5-2.5 g/kg/day.

-Suggest arginine-containing immune-modulating formulation or EPA/DHA supplement with EN formulation.

Slide46

Surgical Subsets

Open abdomen

-Early

EN within 24-48

hrs

post-injury in the absence of a bowel injury.

-Determine energy needs similar to other patients in surgical or trauma ICU.

-Protein requirements: suggest additional 15-30 g of protein/liter of exudate lost.

Burns

-EN should be provided if GI tract is functional

and be initiated within 4-6

hrs

of injury.

-PN reserved if EN not feasible or not tolerated.

-Suggest IC

to assess energy needs, repeat weekly.

-Protein requirements: 1.5-2 g/kg/day.

Slide47

Sepsis

EN to be initiated within 24-48

hrs

of diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock as soon as resuscitation is complete and patient is hemodynamically stable

Hemodynamically stable: adequate perfusion pressure, stable doses of vasoactive drugs, stabilized or decreasing levels of lactate and metabolic acidosis, MAP >/=60 mmHg

Regardless of patients’ nutrition risk,

do not recommend

use of exclusive PN or supplemental PN in conjunction with EN early in the acute phase of severe sepsis/septic shock (Quality of Evidence: Very Low)

Energy requirements: up to 500 kcal/day during first 24-48

hrs

of initial phase, then advance to >80% of goal energy (25 kcal/kg/day) over the first week

Protein requirements: 1.2-2 g/kg/day

Cannot make recommendation regarding selenium, zinc, and antioxidant supplementation due to conflicting results

Slide48

Postoperative Major Surgery

(SICU Admission Expected)

Provide EN within 24

hrs

postoperatively

Exceptions:

GI obstruction, bowel discontinuity, increased risk of bowel ischemia, ongoing peritonitis

Recommend immune-modulating formulas for post-op patients on EN

EN is suggested in patients with prolonged ileus, intestinal anastomosis, open abdomen, on vasopressors (Quality of Evidence: Low to Very Low)

In patients s/p major upper GI surgery and

EN not

feasible, initiate PN only if duration of therapy is anticipated >/=7 days and be initiated post-op day 5-7

Exception:

in patients at high nutrition risk may initiate it earlierPost-op diet to be advanced to solid food and not clear liquids

Slide49

Chronically Critically Ill

Persistent organ dysfunction requiring ICU LOS >21 days

“Persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome”

Recommend

Aggressive high-protein EN therapy

Glycemic control

Slide50

Obesity in Critical Illness

EN within 24-48

hrs

of ICU admission

Determine actual, usual, and ideal weight

Adjusted body weight is not recommended

Calculate BMI, identify class of obesity, measure waist circumference (if possible)

Evaluate biomarkers of metabolic syndrome: BG, TG, cholesterol

Assess preexisting conditionsIn patients with history of bariatric surgery, supplement thiamine prior to initiating dextrose-containing IV fluids or nutrition therapy

Evaluate for micronutrient and trace minerals deficiency

Implement high-protein hypocaloric feeding

Slide51

Obesity in Critical Illness (Cont.)

BMI

Weight-based

energy

requirements

30-50

11-14

kcal/kg

actual body weight

/day

>50

22-25 kcal/kg

ideal body weight

/day

-Energy goal should not exceed 65-70% of goal as measured by IC.

-Weight-based equations represent 65-70% of measured energy expenditure.

Slide52

Obesity in Critical Illness (Cont.)

BMI

Protein

requirements

30-40

2

g/kg

ideal

body weight

/day

>/=40

Up to 2.5 g/kg

ideal body weight

/day

Slide53

Nutrition and Hydration Therapy

in End-of-Life Situations

Not obligatory

Cultural, ethnic, religious, or individual patient issues may necessitate delivery of nutrition and hydration

Should be communicated to

patients, family members, or decision makers

Respect for dignity and patient autonomy

Slide54

Table 2. Bundle Statements.

Stephen A. McClave et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016;40:159-211

Copyright © by The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Slide55

Question #1

You do NOT use serum protein markers to determine adequacy or protein provision.

True

False

Slide56

Question #2

When should admitted patients be required for initial nutrition screening?

No later than 24 hours

Within 48 hours of admission

At admission

None of the above

Slide57

References

Bongard

F.S., Sue D.Y.,

Vintch

J.E. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Critical Care, 3

rd

edition, McGraw Hill 2008, Ch.6.

Gastroenterology and Nutrition. ACCP PSAP, 6

th edition, book 9, pp.119-128.Kondrup J., et al. Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002): a New Method Based on an Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. Clinical Nutrition 2003; 22(3):321-336

.

McClave

S.A., et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.).

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

2016; 40(2):159-211.

57