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# BASICS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT - PowerPoint Presentation

## BASICS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT - PPT Presentation

Section A Energy Basics These resource materials were developed by the Kentucky Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Louisville for KEEPS Kentucky Energy Efficiency Programs for Schools with support from the US Department of ID: 653838

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Slide1

BASICS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Section A - Energy BasicsSlide2

These resource materials were developed by the Kentucky Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Louisville for KEEPS – Kentucky Energy Efficiency Programs for Schools – with support from the U.S. Department of

Energy,

and the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence.

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide3

Basics of Energy Management

Electricity Units

Watt (W)

Electrical unit of power

Kilowatt (kW)

Unit of power equivalent to 1,000 watts of electrical demand

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

Amount of energy consumed when 1,000 watts are used for one hourSlide4

Basics of Energy Management

Electric Demand Components

Demand Period

Time interval during which flow of electricity is measured (usually in 15-, 30- or 60-minute increments depending on rate structure)

Peak Demand

Highest average demand over the demand period in the billing period

Indicates if peak demand is high for the facilitySlide5

Basics of Energy Management

Electric Demand ProfileSlide6

Basics of Energy Management

Natural Gas Units

Btu: British thermal unit

MMBtu: Million British

thermal unit

Btu/hr: British

thermal

unit

per hour

CCF: Hundred

cubic

feet 10

CCF = 1 MMBtu

Dth: Dekatherm 1

dth = 1 MMBtu or ~10 CCFSlide7

Conversion – Apples to Apples

Horsepower (hp) = 745.6 watts

Motor hp = 2,545 Btu/hr

Boiler hp = 33,475 Btu/hr

Cooling ton = 12,000 Btu/hr

1 kilowatt = 3,412.3 Btu/hr

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide8

Efficiency

Work

done divided by work put into the system

Efficiency Terms

work out

work in

= %

EfficacyMeasure of performance using units lumens/watt for lighting kW/ton for chillersBasics of Energy ManagementSlide9

HVAC Efficiency – COP

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

Measurement of how efficiently a heating or cooling system operates at a single outdoor temperature condition

Temperature condition for heat pumps = 47°F

Heat Pump

ChillerBtu of heat produced (47◦

F)Btu of electricity used (47◦F)3.516kW/ton

Methods to calculate COP

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide10

HVAC Efficiency – EER

Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)

Measurement of how efficiently a cooling system operates when the outdoor temperature is at a specific level (95

°F)

Commonly used when referring to:

air conditioners (window, unitary)

heat pumps (window, unitary, water-source, geothermal)

Btu/hr cooling at 95°Fwatts used at 95°FMethod to calculate EER

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide11

Conversion - Apples to Apples

Btu of cooling produced

Wh of electricity used

EER =

Energy or heat output (total)

Energy or heat input (external)

COP =

EER

3,412 Btu/Wh

COP =

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide12

HVAC Efficiency – SEER

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)

Measurement of how efficiently a residential central cooling system operates over an entire cooling season

air conditioner or heat pump

Not to be confused with

EER

Split cooling system SEER must be greater than 13, effective 2006seasonal Btu of cooling

seasonal watt-hours usedMethod to calculate SEERBasics of Energy ManagementSlide13

HVAC Efficiency – HSPF

Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF)

Measurement of how efficiently all residential and some commercial heat pumps operate in their heating mode over an entire normal heating season

Btu of heat produced over heating season

watt-hours of electricity used over heating season

Method to calculate HSPF

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide14

HVAC Efficiency – AFUE

Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE)

Measurement of how efficiently a gas furnace or boiler operates over an entire heating season

Percentage of energy consumed by system that is actually converted to useful heat

AFUE for most gas furnaces must be at least 78%

Btu of heat produced over heating season

Btu of natural gas used over heating season

Method to calculate AFUEBasics of Energy ManagementSlide15

Energy Accounting Terms

Energy Use Index (EUI): Btu/ft

2

/year

Use when tracking energy savings

Energy Cost Index (ECI): \$/ft

2/yearUse when comparing within your districtmust be a small district with single utility provider

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide16

Energy and the Environment

1 lb of coal burned produces 1 to 1.25 kWh

*100 lb/yr of coal not burned*

T12 (34W) upgrade to Super-T8 (32W) for 10 fixtures with four lamps per fixture

Basics of Energy ManagementSlide17

Review of Energy Basics

Electric Units – kW, kWh, peak demand, ELF

Natural Gas Units – CCF, MMBtu, dth

HVAC Efficiency – COP, EER, SEER, HSPF, AFUE

Energy Accounting – EUI and ECI

Energy and the Environment

1 lb coal burned produces about 1 to 1.25 kWh

Basics of Energy Management