Chapter 7 Southern Slavery
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Chapter 7 Southern Slavery

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Chapter 7 Southern Slavery




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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Southern Slavery"— Presentation transcript:

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Chapter 7Southern Slavery

From Slavery to Freedom

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The Domestic Slave TradeKing CottonTechnology supported expansion of slave laborEli Whitney’s 1794 invention of the cotton gin

Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama rapidly

grew with demand for cotton and sugarcane

Growing prosperity in new states caused wave of migrants and greater demand for slavesInsatiable demand for cotton resulted in: acquisition of Florida; admission of Missouri as slave state; annexation of Texas; war with Mexico

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The Cotton Gin

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The domestic slave trade 1808-1865

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The Domestic Slave TradeThe Interstate Slave TradeDomestic slave trade augmented westward movementAfter 1808 illegalization of Atlantic slave trade, interstate trade became increasingly profitableSlaves brought overland; mostly chained and

on foot

Slaves a “product” sold by business firms, lottery, and by slave-trading firms

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1835 advertisement for slaves

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The Domestic Slave TradeSpeculation integral to slave-trading businessSlaves gathered in pens for direct shipment to New Orleans or for resale to other long-distance tradersUntil ended by Congressional action in 1850, District of Columbia seat of slave trade

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Alexandria slave pen

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The Domestic Slave TradeA Capitalist EnterpriseSlave trade financially driven; mostly seen as a capitalistic enterpriseFamilies separated because slaves brought higher prices when sold individuallySeparation of Families by Sale

Harriet Tubman

Large number of single slaves on market evidence of constant separation of families

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The Domestic Slave TradeMarket PricesPrices of slaves responded to market factorsAs demand increased, so did the price of slavesAfter financial turmoil, price and demand slumped

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Average Prices of Prime Field Hands (young slave men, able-bodied but unskilled)

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Table: Average Prices of Prime Field Hands (young slave men, able-bodied but unskilled)

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Persistence of the African TradeExtent of the Illegal TradeAtlantic slave trade continued despite its illegalityThe Movement to Reopen the African Trade

Between 1854 and 1860, every southern commercial convention considered proposals to reopen Atlantic slave trade

1808 federal law so weak and lax, repeal not really necessary

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The illegal slave trade to the United States, 1808-1860

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The illegal slave trade to the United States, 1808-1860

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The Slave CodesThe Slave CodesPassage of slave codes accompanied expansion of slavery Codified viewpoint that slaves were not people but property

Slaves denied most rights and freedoms

Laws often made stricter in response to insurrections

EnforcementMachinery set up for enforcement of slave codesReluctant to imprison because it meant taking away an owner’s investment

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The Slave CodesThe Patrol SystemA type of militia; free white men expected to serve on patrol for period of time apprehending runaway slaves and returning them to mastersIn quiet times, slave codes disregarded, and slaves given more freedoms

Masters tended to prefer taking matters regarding their slaves into their own hands

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On the PlantationOn the PlantationWork of slaves primarily agriculturalIn 1860, ¾ of white people in South did not own slavesSlaves concentrated in hands of relatively few

Bulk of staple crops produced on large plantations

Owners dominated political and economic thinking

Field HandsLarge plantations had two groups of workers: house servants and field hands© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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On the PlantationWork regimen for cotton demandingGang-labor system usedBelieved that one slave needed for every 3 acres of cotton

Work hours longest during harvest time

Gender Division of Labor

Certain jobs indentified by sexSlave women integral to plantation economyRanked each other’s status according to creative abilityAlso worked in fields alongside men

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Cotton and slaves, 1820 and 1860

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On the PlantationOverseers and BrutalityOverseers employed on farms of more than 20 slaves where owner was an absentee landlordNo personal interest in slaves’ welfareOwners demanded overseers get most out of slaves; often treated slaves with brutality

Some plantations employed driver slaves who assisted overseer and compelled work from fellow slaves

Often viewed as a traitor by other slaves

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On the PlantationThe Slave DietEach slave household received ration of meal and salt porkSometimes allowed to maintain own gardensSome even allowed to market their produce

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Urban and Nonagricultural SlaveryBlack Artisans and InventorsSlaves demonstrated diversity of talent in skilled tradesSlaves used in pottery and textile mills, iron furnaces, and tobacco factories

Slaves proved value as inventors

Not allowed to get patent; after 1861 slave owner could be issued patent for his or her slave’s invention

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Haywood Dixon, slave carpenter

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Urban and Nonagricultural SlaverySlave HiringOwners put slaves out for hire in period between harvest and new plantingSome urban slaves allowed to self-hire; although illegal under southern law

Self-hire gave dual sense of freedom and its limits

Slaves could not legally contract for their services; contract was between master and hiring employer

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Social and Cultural LifeSocial and Cultural LifeSlaves’ personal expression and recreation a rejection of chattel principleReligious ActivityWorship services held on larger plantations and

in towns

With rise of abolition movement and rumors of slave conspiracies, slaves increasingly made to attend owners’ churches

Sat in separate sections; earliest example of segregation© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Slave wedding in Virginia 1838

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Social and Cultural LifeThe Slave ChurchBlended Christianity and folk beliefsSlave FamiliesPermanency of slave marriage depended on opportunity to live and work together

Childbearing difficult; inadequate medical care

Interracial Relationships

Children born of slave women and white men visible throughout SouthMost often the result of physical coercion

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Social and Cultural LifeMulatto SlavesTreatment by white fathers variedSome emancipated their slave children

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ResistanceSlave Market GambitsSlaves used tricks in order to gain control over would-be purchasersExhibited behavior appealing to a master of their choosing; pretended to be sick or weak in front of undesirable master

Sabotage and Suicide

Engaged in sabotage like breaking farm tools

Suicide widespreadAlso performed acts of self-mutilation to render themselves ineffective workers© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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ResistanceRunning AwayMost common form of overt resistance was running awayFederal and state legislation sought to aid in recovery of runaway slavesViolent Resistance

Owners feared violent resistance

Use of poison against masters; Murder of masters

Slave RevoltsSlaves emboldened by Haitian revolution© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Reward handbill for a runaway slave, 1837

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Major American Slave Rebellions

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ResistanceDenmark VeseyFreed black who plotted slave revoltWhites caught wind of conspiracy and rounded up suspectsNat TurnerBelieved he had been selected by divine power to deliver his people from slavery

Began revolt by killing his master and family; revolt spread rapidly until overpowered by state and federal troops

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Nat Turner exhorting his followers