Edward “. Smitty. ” Smith and Mike Lewis. October 4, 2017. Overview. Introduction. Different Technologies, Shared Challenges. Helpful Terms for Understanding Acronym Soup. Overview of Drones. Types and Classifications.
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Silicon Flatirons Drone and Satellite Primer
Presentation on theme: "Silicon Flatirons Drone and Satellite Primer"— Presentation transcript:
Drone and Satellite Primer
” Smith and Mike Lewis
October 4, 2017Slide2
Different Technologies, Shared Challenges
Helpful Terms for Understanding Acronym SoupOverview of DronesTypes and ClassificationsUAS ApplicationsUAS Regulatory EnvironmentHAPsOverview of SatellitesBasics: How Satellites WorkOrbital Altitudes and TypesFrequency Ranges and AllocationsSatellite ServicesChallengesSlide3
Various Space/High Altitude Systems by AltitudeSlide4
UAV/HAPS Under 60,000 feetSlide5
Very small UAVs
Micro or Nano UAVs
Mini UAVsSmall UAVsMedium UAVsLarge UAVsRange Classification:Very low cost close range UAVsClose range UAVsShort Range UAVsMid-range UAVsEndurance UAVsDrone Classification StandardsDepartment of Defense Classification:
AGL = Above Ground Level**MSL = Mean Sea Level
Max Gross Takeoff
Wt (lbs)Normal Op Alt
UAS Size Classification: Examples
Very Small UAV:Slide8
Aircraft weighing less than 55 Pounds
Small UAS Rule: 14 CFR Part 107 (“Part 107)
Select Operational Reqs:Aircraft must weigh less than 55 lbsVisual line-of-sight (VSOL) only operationMay not operate over nonparticipantsDaylight-/civil twilight-only operationYield right of way to other aircraftMax groundspeed of 100 mph (87 knots)Max altitude of 400 ft above ground level (AGL)Airspace restrictionsCarriage and External load rulesSpecial Rule for Model Aircraft (Public Law 112-95 Section 336)UAS Regulatory Environment
Aircraft weighing more than 55 Pounds
Section 333 Government Entities
Fly under Part 107 small UAS ruleObtain blanket public Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COA)Slide9
27, 49, 50, 53, 72, and 75 MHz – RF frequencies for toys, etc.
2.4 GHz – Commonly used by small and hobbyist drones
5.8 GHz – Commonly used by small and hobbyist dronesL Band (portions of 960-1215 MHz) & C-Band (503-5091 MHz)Mobile NetworksAvionics:Identification Signals (ADS-B)Detect and Avoid Technologies Drone Payload Communications:A future challengeSpectrum Usage: DronesSlide11
High Altitude Platforms (HAPs)
(“atmospheric satellites”)DronesGoogle SolaraFacebook AquillaOthersBalloons Google Loon
Stratospheric AirshipsSpectrumITU actions
Pros and Cons vs. Satellites
Lower link budget
Indoor coverage (possible)
Lower cost/ease of launch
Ease of replacement/upgrade
Smaller coverage area
Greater need for monitoring and control
Less well-defined regulatory spaceSlide13
Space Station/ Satellite
Other Satellite Applications:
(LEO) – Satellites below 1,200 miles altitude (often at 300-500 miles altitude). Closest to users but 40-70 satellites are required for full coverage. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) – Satellites 1,200 - 22,300 miles altitude. Closer to users on Earth but 10-18 satellites are required for continuous coverage. Geostationary Orbit (GEO) – Satellites at approximately 22,300 miles altitude in geosynchronous (GSO) orbit at the equator. Three satellites can cover most of the globe.High Earth Orbit (HEO) – Orbit above GEO (i.e. above 22,300 miles)Elliptical Orbit (ELI) – Also called “eccentric orbit” used for high latitude/polarOrbit Types:Semi-Synchronous Orbit (SSO) – Type of MEO orbit (approximately 12,600 miles) with a 12 hour orbit. Commonly used for Global Positioning Satellites (GPS).Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO) – Satellites that orbit at the same speed as the earth’s rotation (approx. 24 hours per orbit). NGSO (Non-Geosynchronous) – Satellites that are not in geosynchronous orbit.New Developments in LEO NGSO – Small sats (pico, nano, cubes)Satellite Orbital Altitude Classifications and Orbit TypesSlide16
– Includes allocation for Mobile Satellite Services (MSS)*S-Band - (2–4 GHz) – Includes allocations for MSS, Digital Audio Radio Services (DARS)*C-Band - (4-8 GHz) – Includes allocation for Fixed Satellite Services (FSS)*Ku-Band - (12-18 GHz) – Includes allocations for FSS; Broadcast Satellite Service (BSS)*U.S. Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS): DirecTV, Dish Network, Skyangel IPTVKa-Band - (17.7 - 21.2GHz and 27.5 – 31 GHz) - Includes allocations for FSS Broadband and inter-satellite links** For purpose of simplicity and relevance, not listing all allocations for these bands, just those relevant to this presentation.ITU Frequency Ranges, Allocations, and Services
and data, remote data telemetry, maritime and aeronautical
Video distribution, private networks/VSAT networks, data broadcasting, rural
, cellular backhaul
C-, Ku-, and
-Bands: Intelsat (GSO), SES (GEO),
X-Band: XTAR (GEO)
DirecTV, Dish Network,
Maintains registry to coordinate world frequency uses.
Satellite filings may only be submitted to ITU by an administration of an ITU member state
Assigns priority to member state applications on a “first-come, first-served” basis.Focus has historically been on GEO slots.FCCLicenses all nongovernment satellites, regardless of size.3 Different Satellite Licensing Procedures: Part 25 – Primary vehicle for satellite licensing (particularly commercial sats); Part 5 – Experimental operations; and Part 97 – Amateur radio service satellitesFCC reforming/streamlining process for NGSOs.NTIA, State Department, DoDSatellite RegulationSlide19
FCC Grant of
Approval FCC Report and Order and FNPRM (Updating Rules for Non-Geostationary-Satellite Orbit FSS Constellations)Update, clarify, and streamline the Commission’s rules to facilitate the deployment of recently proposed NGSO FSS satellite systems. Amend the U.S. Table of Frequency Allocations to accommodate NGSO and geostationary satellite operations that are currently being authorized through waivers and to allow new satellite use of frequencies that are designated for, but underutilized by, specific types of satellite systems. Relax the NGSO milestone rules for deployment and remove international geographic coverage requirements to provide greater flexibility to NGSO FSS operators. Adopt a coordination trigger among NGSO FSS systems to govern spectrum sharing, absent voluntary coordination, which reflects current system designs and provides flexibility and equal access to spectrum. Invite comment on whether to give satellite operators more flexibility by allowing innovative new system designs that target particular areas, such as the Arctic. Recent FCC ActionSlide20
ChallengesUASID and TrackingCommunicationsSpectrum Access, Management, and SharingTraffic Management Collision Avoidance
SatellitesDebris avoidanceCommunicationsSpectrum Access, Management, and SharingMarket Access GloballySlide22
Interference and Orbital Debris
Millions of pieces of debris traveling at very high speeds
May remain in orbit for
decades or centuries
Thousands of new satellites
Need to avoid interference with GEOs, other NGSOs and TerrestrialSlide23
UAS Traffic Management
Alternative needed to ATM system that does not stifle innovation or dynamic access to airspace for beyond line-of-sight flights.
Flights would be coordinated with UTM manager to establish real-time geo-fences to help other UAS and aircraft to steer clear.
Authentication and identification necessary components. Slide24
Edward “Smitty” SmithEdward.Smith@dlapiper.com
Silicon Flatirons Drone and Satellite Primer - Description
Edward Smitty Smith and Mike Lewis October 4 2017 Overview Introduction Different Technologies Shared Challenges Helpful Terms for Understanding Acronym Soup Overview of Drones Types and Classifications ID: 710911 Download Presentation
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The B ebop Drone is super high tec h leisure quadricopter with features of a professional one Equi ed with a 14 mega pixels fish eye camera the Parrot Bebop Drone takes video and pictures of the world in 18 field with remar able ima ge quality Endo
The popular fund-raising platform, Kickstarter, was recently taken to by a French inventor seeking to raise funds to help construct and sell a drone called the Metafly. The drone design was inspired by winged insects, and with nearly 2,000 people pledging funds to help enable the drone to be sold on the market, its popularity is set to rise.
Many companies are working hard on new drone applications to enable them to be incorporated into our home surveillance systems, or indeed, to have them be used as the sole security system in modern homes. There are of course many challenges facing such companies, but a few of those who are making headway have come up with some innovative and exciting new drone security systems:
Never have Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV’s) or drones been allowed to fly over groups of people but it seems like a new innovation in drone parachute technology by a company called Indemnis may change that in the near future.
The environmental group Greenpeace hit the news recently when they flew a drone shaped and designed to look like Superman, straight into the wall of a French nuclear power plant. In a deliberate attempt to draw attention to the vulnerability of the power plant, an activist from Greenpeace piloted the drone into the no-fly zone around the French utility company EDF’s nuclear power plant near Lyon, and then proceeded to fly the UAV into the wall of the spent-fuel pool building at the site.
It seems as if drones are just getting techier and techier, and that the limits for refining and improving them are endless. One of the latest new inventions for drones are landing structures, giving them the ability to perch on structures mid-way through flight.
Disruption at one of the UK’s busiest airports, Gatwick, over the festive period, was caused by multiple drone sightings which led to a complete shutdown of flights both in and outbound. Approximately 1,000 flights were affected, causing chaos, misery and disappointment for thousands of passengers. The chaos was compounded by the incident happening so close to the run up to Christmas; the airport was forced to close between December 19 and 21st, and few could have imagined what problems such a careless act could create for so many people.
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