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Textiles and Clothing

Std 10 2014-15. H SC . Facilitator :. Jasmina. S. LAUNDERING OF CLOTHES. Laundering involves washing, drying,finishing and storing. Two. Processes:. Washing –to remove stain and dirt.

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Textiles and Clothing






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Slide1

Textiles and Clothing

Std 10 2014-15

H SC

Facilitator :

Jasmina

SSlide2

LAUNDERING OF CLOTHES

Laundering involves washing, drying,finishing and storing

Two

Processes:

Washing –to remove stain and dirt

Finishing-restoring its lustre and crispness

If they are not laundered properly they loose their durability and colourSlide3

Principle of laundering

Process of removing dirt from fabrics

Process of finishing to restore the original colour ,quality and maintain the durability of the fabricsSlide4

Methods

Sorting

Preparation

Steeping

Washing

Rinsing

Starching and Blueing

Drying

Finishing

Storage of clothes

Dry CleaningSlide5

Sorting

Fibre Type :cotton ,silk, wood, synthetic material

Use: Personal separated from household linen

Color: Dark separated from white

Degree of dirt: Heavy soiled garment from light soiled garmentsSlide6

Preparation

Mend and repair all tear

Replace buttons

Remove stains

Turn the garment inside out

Sort the clothes acc to their fibre, color,textureSlide7

Enamel bowls and basins

Various purpose

Starching

Blueing

Washing small and delicate articlesSlide8

Scrubbing brushes and boards

Made of wood with wooden frame work

Usually 12 inches width and 18 inches in length

Strip stops half way the length

Board is placed in the tub such that bottom touches the water in the tub ,other end rest at the waist.

Article is placed on this and soaped, rubbed up and down

Soft bristled brush is used to scrub it clean.Slide9

Suction Washer

Consist of 2 parts

Top part is wooden hand

Bottom part is the washer-hollow inside and has holes all over its broad base, requires special care.

Articles are placed in the basin full of soap solution ,the washer is worked up and down on the clothesSlide10

Drying racks ,cloth lines ,pegs or cloth pins

Out door drying is possible all the year round.

Drying racks , and clothes to be placed as per convenience.

Clothes pins are used to hold the clothes on the line to prevent it from dust and dirt Slide11

Iron , Ironing board or tables

Finishing the laundry clothes

Many varieties are available-Electric Iron , Charcoal Iron-wt and designs

Iron boards –removes fatigue and improves efficiency

Board ht should be adjustable –members of the family.Slide12

Steeping

Soak in soap solution

Use of warm water-loosens dirt, removes

stain

, starch

of previous laundering is softened

Use clean plastic bucket

Light clothes to be soaked for 10

mins

Dirty for 30

minsSlide13

Washing

Essential factors in the process of cleaning is the solvent to remove grease and application of pressure

Four ways of applying pressure

1 Application of friction:

Hand rubbing- Friction is applied when there is less stain on small articles and lightly soiled

Scrubbing by brush

Rubbing and scrubbingSlide14

Application of pressure

2 Application of light pressure:

Applied on light fabrics soaked in soap water through squeezing. Continue till lather left disappears (indicates presence of dirt)

Heavy soiled can be brushed with soft brushSlide15

Application of pressure

3 Application of suction

Small and large fabrics can be washed

Method: Cloth is seeped in soap

soln

and suction washer is worked up and down to remove dirt

Saves time and

labourSlide16

Application of Pressure

4) Use of Washing Machine

Cloth is agitated in a

soap solution by revolving . Rinsing is done

Labour

saving device

High costSlide17

Rinsing

Cloth is rinsed after washing –plenty of hot ,clear soft water

Cold water hardens the soap and makes it difficult to remove dirt

Retains whiteness of the fabric

Rinse clothes 2-3 times in clean waterSlide18

Starching and blueing

/bluing

Clothes are starched for the purpose of keeping them clean longer , also to give them a fresher and newer appearance

1 quart boiling water. 1 ½ tablespoonfuls of starch.

½. teaspoonful of borax.

½ teaspoonful of white wax or fat.

Mix the starch with a little cold water. Then add the borax and fat. Pour boiling water over this mixture and boil gently for about ten minutes or until it becomes almost transparent. Starch should be strained to prevent lumps and should be used while hotSlide19

Starching and blueing

On white cotton and linen clothes are blued

Water containing starch and blues should be stirred well –streaks and patches

Cloth

shd

be squeezed inside water with hands Slide20

Drying

Cotton and linen – SUN

Clothes turned upside down

Moisture to be squeezed with hands

Straightened and smoothenedSlide21

FINISHING

Ironing: Process of running hot iron with forward and backward movement on the cloth to remove crease

Cotton cloth-dampened before ironing

Right and wrong side

Attention –pleats, collar, frills etc

Damp muslin cloth on

woollen

fabrics

Silk-less of ironing, no water to be sprinkledSlide22

Ironing

Pressing:

Placing hot iron on the creased surface and lifting it OFF and ON

on

the creased surface –no forward backward movement

Dry pressing

done on dry clothes and wet pressing over moist muslin cloth over the garment

eg

woollen

Non automatic iron

-traditional

eg

electricity and coal

Automatic iron

-lighter in wt and works on electricity. Regulates temp Slide23

Steaming

Utilized for fabrics which have piled weaving

eg

Velvet and velveteen

Pile is neither ironed nor pressed for removing wrinkles

On a gas stove or heater, water is boiled in a kettle . Damp article before it gets totally dry, is held before the jet of the steam coming out of the nozzle and it removes the wrinklesSlide24

Calendering

Commercial scale

Straight piece of cloth (not stitched) is moistened and passed between 2 large heated metal rollers which rotates continuously in the opposite direction.

The heat and pressure of the metal rollers removes the wrinkles from the fabric

Textile mills-cloth is manufacturedSlide25

Ironing

Used on cotton , silk and synthetic fabrics

Different fabrics have different heat resistance hence iron has to be heated at different temp

Synthetic clothes need very less heat to crease out the wrinkles.

Cotton and linen are ironed at high temp

Precaution: Maintain appropriate temp -turn yellow /scorched (damage the texture)/burntSlide26

DRY CLEANING

Dry cleaning

(or

dry-cleaning

) is any cleaning process for

clothing

and

textiles

using a chemical

solvent

rather than

water

.

Principles:

to remove dirt from fabrics without using water

restore the durability

lustre

, shine and color of the fabricSlide27

Dry Cleaning Solvents and Absorbents

Solvents

–help to remove oily stains and easily absorbed by the fabric.

Liquids and evaporates quickly

Solvents : Petrol, Benzene,

Methylated

- spirit, Mineral turpentine, carbon tetrachloride

They are highly inflammable –use with special careSlide28

Dry Cleaning-Absorbent

Absorbent :

Dry powder :fuller’s earth ,

french

chalk, talcum powder, salt, bran , sulfur, baked flour, bread crumbs, etc

Used –heavily soiled parts like collars,

cuffs,light

color Slide29

Methods and Principles of DC

Sorting :Color, Use, Garments

Color: White colored separated from dark colored

Use: Draperies are separated from daily use clothes

Garments: brushed well to remove all loose particles of dirtSlide30

Cleaning

Clothes-Dry cleaning cylinder

Delicate clothes are put in net bags

Solvent is flowed through perforated drums into the garmentSlide31

Advantages and Disadvantages of DC

Advantages

Soft fabrics ,pile fabrics ,crisp fabrics are

drycleaned

successfully without damage

Pleated and set garments retain their shape and size after dry cleaning

No effect on natural or special finishes given to the fabricSlide32

Dry Cleaning

Disadvantages

Expensive Process

Solvents create air pollution

Most solvents are inflammable

Special care, skill and equipment are required for its handling

Solvents cannot remove water soluble dirt and stainsSlide33

Things learnt

Principles of laundry

Laundry equipments

10 Methods of laundry –sorting, preparation, steeping, washing, rinsing, starching and bluing, drying,

finishing

, storing

.

Dry cleaning-Principles, advantages and disadvantages, Solvents and absorbents