English Possessive s Clitic and Ax John J - PDF document

English Possessive s  Clitic and Ax John J
English Possessive s  Clitic and Ax John J

English Possessive s Clitic and Ax John J - Description


Lowe University of Oxford 1 Introduction The synchronic syntactic analysis of the PresentDay Engli sh PDE possessive s has been the subject of considerable debate most recently B57590rjars et al 2012 with earlier references Some scholars eg Zwicky 1 ID: 34832 Download Pdf

Tags

Lowe University Oxford

Embed / Share - English Possessive s Clitic and Ax John J


Presentation on theme: "English Possessive s Clitic and Ax John J"— Presentation transcript


EnglishPossessive's:CliticandAxJohnJ.LoweUniversityofOxford1.IntroductionThesynchronicsyntacticanalysisofthePresent-DayEnglish(PDE)possessive'shasbeenthesubjectofconsiderabledebate;mostrecentlyBörjarsetal.(2012)withearlierreferences.Somescholars,e.g.Zwicky(1987),Lapointe(1990),Miller(1991),Payne(2009),seektoanalysetheEnglishpossessiveasan`edgeax',i.e.anaxattachednottowordsbuttosyntactic constructionexistingsidebyside.Morphologically`irregular'(i.e.lexicallyspecic)genitiveformsarestillfound,butallornearlyallnounshavetheoptionofusing-(e)s.Atthesametimethephrasalgenitivebecamefullyestablishedasapossibility(thoughitremainedrare).Whatmany(includingAllen)assumewasareanalysisofaxascliticmusthaveoccurredgraduallyoveralongperiodoftime;betweenthe14thcenturyandtheearly17thcenturybothphrasal(i.e.clitic)andcombined(i.e.axal)possessivesexistsidebyside.Evenmoretellingly,thephrasalpossessiveoriginatedincertainsyntacticcontexts,andlaterspread,asdiscussedbyRosenbach(2004).Itoriginatedincontextswherethepossessor`phrase'wasmosteasilyanalyzableasasinglesyntacticunit,namelywithappositionalphrases,coordinatedphrasesandxed,lexicalizedexpressions(esp.ofthetype[TITLEofPLACE]'sX).Itisclear,then,thatwecannottalkaboutanabsolutechangefromaxtoclitic,butmustacknowledgeagradualprocessofchangeovertime.Assuming,therefore,thattheexistenceofthephrasalpossessiveissucienttoadmitaclitic-s,therewasastageinearlyMiddleEnglishwherethepossessiveexistedbothasacliticandasanax.Thatis,therewasatimewhenthephrasal(clitic)possessivecouldbeusedincertainsyntacticcontexts,whileinothercontextsthenon-phrasal(axal)formwasrequired.IfthiswaspossibleinMiddleEnglish,itstandstoreasonthatthesameisatleastpossibleinPDE.3.LFGand`LexicalSharing'TreatingthePDEpossessiveasbothcliticandaxcouldbeconsideredtheoreticallyundesirable.Ifthepossessiveisbothcliticandax,notonlyisitlessclearhowacoherent,uniedanalysiscouldbeundertaken,buttherearealsopracticalproblems,suchashowtopreventacliticfromappearingwhentheaxappears,orviceversa.ByutilizingLexical-FunctionalGrammar(LFG;Bresnan,2001;Dalrymple,2001;Falk,2001),andinparticularthetheoryof`LexicalSharing'developedbyMichaelWescoat(2002,2005,2007,2009)inthisframework,boththetheoreticalandtechnicalproblemsoftreatingthepossessiveasbothcliticandaxcanbeovercome.InthefollowingIadaptWescoat'sLexicalSharingmodelinvariouswaystotmoremainstreamLFGarchitecturalassumptions;spacedoesnotpermitmetoexplaintheseadaptionsinanydetail,butthefundamentalsofWescoat'sapproacharepreserved.LFGassumesaseparatelevelofgrammaticalrepresentationbesidesthehierarchicalconstituentstructure(andbesidesthefunctionalstructure),thes-string(Kaplan,1987),whichessentiallyrepresentsasequenceofwordsasastring,i.e.asetofsyntacticelementslinearlyorderedinaccordancewiththeir`surface'order.Theconstituentstructureisthenprojectedfromthes-string,informaltermsbymeansofaprojection.Usually,oneiteminthes-stringmapstooneiteminthec-structure.Wescoatshows,however,thatcertainsetsofwordsinsomelanguagesarebestanalysedbyassumingthatoneiteminthes-string(Wescoat's`l-structure')correspondsrathertotwonodesinthec-structure.Thisisthecase,forexample,withpronoun-auxiliarycontractionsinPDE,andpreposition-determinercontractionsinFrenchandGerman.Bypermittingaone-to-twocorrespondence,aconsistenthierarchicalrepresentationcanbeobtained,forexample,forallFrenchprepositionalphrases,despitethefactthatinsomeofthesephrasestheprepositionandfollowingdeterminerareclearlyseparatewords(e.g.àla),whileinotherstheyareclearlyasinglelexicalitem(e.g.au,du).(4)PP P  DP D  NP N  auto.thegarçonboy(5)PP P  DP D  NP N  àtolathellegirl4.TheLexicallySharedPossessiveWenowhavethreepossibilitiesforthePDEpossessive,inrelationtowhichtheregularpossessiveformation(1)isinprincipleambiguous:2 (6)Clitic:DP DP D" NP D  NP N  N  Henry'scars(7)LSax:DP DP D" NP D  NP N  N  Henry'scars(8)Ax:DP DP D" NP NP N  N  Henry'scarsWehaveseenthatsomecontextsprovideclearsupportforacliticpossessive,whileothersprovidegoodsupportforanax,suchthatwecanassumethatbothformationsexistsidebysideinPDE.Aphrasalpossessivesuchas(3b)requiresthecliticanalysis(9),sinceotherwisewewouldhavetoassumethateveryniteverbform(etc.)hasanaxal`possessive'formusedonlyinthesecontexts.Sincethephrasalpossessiverequiresaclitic,itismostparsimonioustoassumethecliticconstructionalsoforallregularpossessives,i.e.(6)inpreferenceto(7)or(8).Incontrast,nounswiththeaxal`zero'possessive(2c)utilizeLexicalSharing(10)suchthat,whilethesepossessiveformsaresinglelexicalitems(sincethepossessivemarkerisanax),theirsyntacticparallelismwiththetwoword(nounpluspossessiveclitic)sequencesispreserved,yieldingaconsistentsyntacticanalysisofPDEpossession.(9)SomeoneIknow'sbrother.DP DP D" D" D  NP D  CP N  IP SomeoneIknow'sbrother(10)Thespecies'immunity.DP DP D" D" D  NP D  NP N  N  thespecies'immunitySimilarly,whenthelastwordofaphrasalpossessiveisanounthattakesanaxal`zero'possessive,lexicalsharingisutilizedinpreciselythesameway(11).(11)Thefemaleofthespecies'deadliness.DP DP D" D" D  NP D  NP N  N" N  PP P" P  DP D" D  NP N  thefemaleofthespecies'deadliness3 In(11)thelinearsequenceofnounspeciesfollowedbypossessiveDsurfacesasthelexicallyidiosyncraticpossessiveformofthenoun,species',eventhoughspeciesitselfisnotthepossessornounandhasnodirectsyntacticrelationwiththepossessiveDnode.Wecanassumethatthe`possessive'formofthenoun,species',islistedinthelexicon.However,thisformisnotusedwhenthenounisitselfthepossessor,butratherwhenthenounappearsattheendofapossessorDP,directlypreceding,inlinearterms,theheadDnode,i.e.whenthe`next'nodeinlineartermsistheD0nodeofthesuperordinateDP.ThiscanbespeciedalongthelinesofWescoat'slexicalinstantiationrules,whichinourtermscanbeincludedinthelexicalentryinthefollowingway.(12) species':=NDN(#PRED)=`species'D"POSS Thepartiallexicalentryin(12)statesthatthewordspecies'mapstoasequenceofNfollowedbyDinc-structure,themeaningoftheNis`species',andtheDmusthaveapossessoratf-structure.Thisissucienttoensurethatlexicallyspeciedpossessiveslikespecies'areusedonlywhennalinthepossessorDP(whethertheheadofthatDPornot).SothePDEpossessiveexistsinbothclitic(6)andLSax(7)forms,butthereisnoevidencefora`simple'axal(8)possessive.Spacedoesnotpermitfurtherdiscussion,butitispossibletotreatallthedata,muchofwhichhasnotbeenmentionedhere,inthismodel.5.ConclusionLinguisticcategorizationisrarelyneat,insofaraslinguisticphenomenararelytabsolutelyintotheboxesweconstructforthem.WhilethereissomethingtheoreticallyelegantaboutbeingabletosaythatthePDEpossessiveispurelyaclitic,orpurelyanax,theevidencedoesnotsupporteitherabsoluteanalysis.Ihave,Ihope,shownthatitisinfactpossibletoprovideacoherent,consistentanduniedanalysisofthePDEpossessive,whileatthesametimerecognizingthatitdisplayspropertiesof,andtoanextentis,bothcliticandax.TheLexicalSharingLFGanalysisutilizedherepermitsamorene-grainedrepresentationofsuchdual-naturecategories,makingtheanalysiscloser,perhaps,totherealityofnon-discretelinguisticphenomena.ReferencesAllen,CynthiaL.(1997).`TheOriginsofthe`GroupGenitive'inEnglish'.TransactionsofthePhilologicalSociety95(1),pp.111131.ˆAllen,CynthiaL.(2003).`DeexionandthedevelopmentofthegenitiveinEnglish'.EnglishLanguageandLinguistics7(1),pp.128.ˆAllen,CynthiaL.(2008).GenitivesinEarlyEn-glish:TypologyandEvidence.OxfordUniversityPress.ˆAnderson,StephenR.(2008).`TheEnglishGroupGenitiveisaSpecialClitic'.EnglishLinguistics25,pp.120.ˆBörjars,Kersti,DavidDenison,andAlanScott(eds.)(2012).MorphosyntacticCategoriesandtheExpressionofPossession.Benjamins.ˆBresnan,Joan(2001).Lexical-FunctionalSyntax.BlackwellPublishing.ˆDalrymple,Mary(2001).LexicalFunctionalGram-mar.AcademicPress.ˆFalk,YehudaN.(2001).Lexical-FunctionalGrammar:anIntroductiontoParallelConstraint-BasedSyntax.CSLIPublications.ˆKaplan,RonaldM.(1987).`ThreeSeductionsofComputationalPsycholinguistics'.InWhitelocketal.(eds.),LinguisticTheoryandComputerApplications,AcademicPress,pp.149181.ˆLapointe,StevenG.(1990).`EdgefeaturesinGPSG'.InZiolkowskietal.(eds.),Papersfromthe26thRegionalMeetingoftheChicagoLinguisticSociety,vol.1:TheMainSession,ChicagoLinguisticSociety,pp.221235.ˆMiller,PhilipH.(1991).Cliticsandconstituentsinphrase-structuregrammar.Ph.D.thesis,RijksuniversiteitteUtrecht.ˆPayne,John(2009).`TheEnglishgenitiveanddoublecase'.TransactionsofthePhilologicalSociety107(3),pp.322357.ˆQuirk,Randolf,SidneyGreenbaum,GeoffreyLeech,andJanSvartvik(1985).AComprehensiveGrammaroftheEnglishLanguage.Longman.ˆRosenbach,Anette(2004).`TheEnglishs-genitive:Acaseofdegrammaticalization?'InFischeretal.(eds.),UpandDowntheCline:TheNatureofGrammaticalization,Benjamins,pp.7396.ˆWescoat,MichaelThomas(2002).`OnLexicalSharing'.Ph.D.Thesis,StanfordUniversity.ˆWescoat,MichaelThomas(2005).`EnglishNonsyllabicAux-iliaryContractions:AnAnalysisinLFGwithLexicalSharing'.InOnlineProceedingsoftheLFG05Conference,CSLIPublications,pp.468486.ˆWescoat,MichaelThomas(2007).`Preposition-DeterminerContractions:AnAnalysisinOptimality-TheoreticLexical-FunctionalGrammarwithLexicalSharing'.InOnlineProceedingsoftheLFG07Conference,CSLIPublications,pp.439459.ˆWescoat,MichaelThomas(2009).`UdiPersonMarkersandLexicalIntegrity'.InOnlineProceedingsoftheLFG09Conference,CSLIPublications,pp.604622.ˆZwicky,ArnoldM.(1987).`SuppressingtheZs'.JournalofLinguistics23,pp.133148.4

Shom More....
danika-pritchard
By: danika-pritchard
Views: 90
Type: Public

Download Section

Please download the presentation from below link :


Download Pdf - The PPT/PDF document "English Possessive s Clitic and Ax John..." is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.

Try DocSlides online tool for compressing your PDF Files Try Now