Inspiring Initiatives in Qualitative Inquiry - Description
Focus Group Interviews Indianapolis 12 April 2013 ACRL 2013 Imagine Innovate Inspire Lynn Silipigni Connaway Ph D Senior Research Scientist OCLC LynnConnaway Qualitative Research ID: 286789 Download Presentation
11771077800403262360 ARTICLE QUALITATIVE INQUIRY April 2004 Guillemin Gillam ETHICALLY IMPORTANT MOMENTS Ethics Reflexivity and Ethically Important Moments in Research Marilys Guillemin Lynn Gillam University o
Module 14. Overview. Qualitative Research. Broad view of features. Many traditions. Contrasts with quantitative research. Qualtitative. method roadmap. Data collection methods. Standards of evaluation.
Part Two. January 20, 2010. Today’s Class. Qualitative Methods. Probing Question for next class. Special session. Assignment #2. Surveys. Clarification questions?. Any questions on dialectic or phenomenology brewing in your minds since last class?.
Narrative, phenomenological, ethnographic, case study, Action research, grounded theory. Research paradigms. Qualitative researchers generally see human behavior as something that is influenced by both internal and external factors. Thus, human behavior is variable, and can change from person to person, time to time, and situation to situation.
Qualitative Methods Part Two January 20, 2010 Today’s Class Qualitative Methods Probing Question for next class Special session Assignment #2 Surveys Clarification questions? Any questions on dialectic or phenomenology brewing in your minds since last class?
In Theory . Quotes from Inspiring Education gov’t documents. . vs. . In Practice. Direct experiences from the teachers and parents in Alberta. Inspiring Education. “We must abandon our image of what school is…”.
What is an inquiry?. “Inquiry is an approach to learning whereby students find and use . a variety of sources . of information and ideas to . increase their understanding. of a problem, topic or issue of importance. It requires more than simply answering questions or getting a right answer. It espouses .
Approaches to Qualitative Inquiry Narrative, phenomenological, ethnographic, case study, Action research, grounded theory Research paradigms Qualitative researchers generally see human behavior as something that is influenced by both internal and external factors. Thus, human behavior is variable, and can change from person to person, time to time, and situation to situation
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Inspiring Initiatives in Qualitative Inquiry
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Inspiring Initiatives in Qualitative Inquiry
Focus Group Interviews:
Indianapolis, 12 April 2013ACRL 2013: Imagine, Innovate, Inspire
Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. D
Senior Research Scientist
“Methods focus on observing events from the perspective of those involved and attempt to understand why individuals behave as they do.”
(Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 2)Slide3
Focus group interviews:
A face-to-face group interview of a target population designed “to explore in depth the feelings and beliefs people hold and to learn how these feelings shape overt behavior”
(Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 173)Slide4
Communications research & propaganda analysis
Used in WWII to increase military moraleUnderutilized in social sciences
History of Focus Group Interviews
(Connaway, Johnson, & Searing, 1997)
(Krueger & Casey, 2009)Slide5
Understand perceptions & attitudes
Orient to new fieldDevelop ideasEvaluating different research populations
Develop & refine research instrumentsWhy Focus Group Interviews?
& Powell, 2010)Slide6
Community analysisPromotional strategies for new services
Evaluation of library resources & servicesInformation-gathering patterns Development of resources & services
Focus Group Interviews in LIS Research
Sense-making the Information ConfluenceSeeking Synchronicity
User-Centered Design of a Recommender System for a "Universal" Library Catalogue
Focus Group Interviews in Our ResearchSlide8
COLLECTING& ANALYZING DATASlide9
Plan processesIdentify project goals
Evaluate all optionsIdentify personnel & budgetingDevelop timelines
Decide who will be interviewedTypically 5-12 people
As representative as possible of populationDevelop recruitment screening & invitation scriptsDetermine follow-up procedures
(Connaway & Powell, 2010)
Food & beveragesHold in a comfortable, convenient, informal locationFollow up & send reminders
(Connaway & Powell, 2010)
Little data of user-base
Participants across 3 continentsHard-to-reach populationsHistorians
Direct, easy wordingMeaning clearly conveyedConsistent between groups
Characteristics of Good Questions
Test and revise your questions!
(Krueger, 1998, p.22)Slide16
Example: WorldCat.orgFocus Group Interview Questions
1. Tell us about your experiences with WorldCat.org
A broad introductory question intended to reveal the extent to which users have engaged with WorldCat.org, and the information-seeking contexts within which they use the system.
2. Describe a time when you used WorldCat.org that you considered a success.
Explores the features and functions of WorldCat.org that participants view positively. Requiring participants to discuss a particular instance provides richer data about the range of uses of the system.
3. Describe a time when using WorldCat.org was unsuccessful – i.e., you did not get what you wanted.
Explores the features and functions (or lack thereof) of WorldCat.org that participants view negatively.
4. Think of a time when you did not find what you were looking for, but did find something else of interest or useful to your work?
Intended to encourage discussion about the role of serendipity in information seeking, and the extent to which WorldCat.org facilitates resource discovery .
5. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal WorldCat.org provide?
Encourages participants to discuss potential improvements to WorldCat.org. The use of the phrase “magic wand” ensures that participants are not restricted by what they believe to be practical or realistic.Slide17
Define role of the moderatorMultiple moderators
Train moderatorsDevelop questions for discussion guideIdentify external props or materials
Determine what kind of field notes moderator will takeModerating
(Krueger, 1998, p.22)Slide18
Not affiliated with institution or organization conducting the researchNo vested interest in results
Trained in focus group techniquesGood communication skills
The Ideal Moderator
& Powell, 2010)Slide19
Guide discussion, remain neutral
Ask open-ended questionsNatural conversational approachRemain flexible to accommodate natural flow of discussion
Ensure everyone responds in each question area Evaluate individual naturesThe Moderator’s Job
(Krueger, 1998, p.22)Slide20
Interrupt diplomatically Take a break
Discontinue eye contactCall on participant by nameWrite questions for all to see
Dealing with Problem Participants
(Krueger, 1998, p.59-63)Slide21
After focus groupOrganize data & review for completenessTranscriptsCode-book