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Lesson EIGHT: produce suited to High tunnel production

High Tunnel Fruit and Vegetable Production

Slide2

The Man Who Ate Wolf Peaches

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Objectives

Identify the fruit and vegetable crops that are well-suited for high tunnel production.

Select the best crops for producer’s unique needs.

Recall methods for extending the growing season and increasing profits.

Slide4

Cool Season Root Crops

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Beets

Days to Maturity: 40-50Planting: Plant 30 days before frost-free date; Mid February to Early April/August; Plant every 2 weeksConcerns: Provide beets with consistent moisture, particularly during early development.

Slide6

Carrots

Days to Maturity: 70-85Planting: Plant in early Spring or late Summer; Mid February to Late March/AugustConcerns: Provide 1 in. of water per week during growing season

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Potatoes

Days to Maturity: 100-120Planting: Seed from late February to early April; May need to protect with row covers if shoots emerge early.Concerns: Provide uniform moisture throughout growing season.

Slide8

Radishes

Days to Maturity: 25-35Planting: Mid February to Late April; Mid-August to Mid-SeptemberConcerns: Keep soil consistently moist to prevent radishes from becoming bitter and mealy. Can be grown within other crops.

Slide9

Turnips

Days to Maturity: 35-70Planting: Mid February to Mid-March; Early August to Early September; Earlier for north and later towards the Bootheel.Concerns: Provide plenty of water to help prevent woody stems. Turnips can withstand several light freezes.

Slide10

Cool Season Surface Crops

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Cabbage

Days to Maturity: 70-80

Planting: Start seeds as soon as early February and plant from late February to Mid-April. For Fall: Start seeds in early July. Set plants out from July 20 to August 5.

Concerns: Provide an even supply of moisture but avoid overwatering transplants. Cooler temperatures improve cabbage flavor because plant cells convert starches to sugars to protect the plant from the cold.

Slide12

Cauliflower

Days to Maturity: 65-75Planting: Late February to Late March; Mid-August to Early SeptemberConcerns: Cauliflower is blanched to maintain white heads. To blanche cauliflower, tie the outer leaves over the heads when the heads become visible. Self-blanching varieties are also available. Care required when handling.

Slide13

Lettuce

Days to Maturity: 55-80Planting: Early February to Late April; Late August to Late OctoberConcerns: Provide continuous moisture to promote vigorous growth and keep lettuce from becoming bitter. When hot, shade lettuce lightly if possible (30% to 50%).

Slide14

Spinach

Days to Maturity: 40-50Planting: Early February to Late March; Late August to Late OctoberConcerns: Provide continuous moisture to promote vigorous growth and keep spinach from becoming bitter. Spinach is highly perishable and is usually marketed or eaten soon after harvest.

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Long Season Crops

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Cantaloupe

Days to Maturity: 80-90Planting: Early to Late AprilConcerns: Bee or hand pollination will be needed.

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Gourds

Days to Maturity: 100-180

Planting: Plant gourds as a crop after Spring/Early Summer crops.

Gourds are a low care, low input, and low return fill in crop.

Concerns: Because of their long growing season, gourds should be started indoors 4 weeks before planting outdoors. Bee or hand pollination will be needed. Gourds are often grown on a trellis or arbor. Gourds vary greatly in weight and size. Be sure the structure will support the weight of the gourds.

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Pumpkins

Days to Maturity: 95-120Planting: Plant pumpkins as a crop after Spring/Early Summer crops.Concerns: Watering plants early in the day and keeping water off foliage helps prevent mildew. Do not plant pumpkins until the danger of frost has passed and the soil has warmed.

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Watermelons

Days to Maturity: 85-95Planting: Plant melons as a crop after Spring/Early Summer crops.Concerns: Adequate water early in the season improves vine growth and yield. Bee or hand pollination will be needed.

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Winter Squash

Days to Maturity: 80-120Planting: Plant squash as a crop after Spring/Early Summer crops.Concerns: Bee or hand pollination will be needed. Monthly application of a complete fertilizer is recommended to improve plant health and yield. Squash plants are not hardy and are susceptible to frost in the Spring and Fall.

Slide21

Warm Season Crops

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Cucumbers

Days to Maturity: 50-70Planting: Late March to Late April; Late July to Mid-August; Plant from seeds.Concerns: Cucumbers need plenty of water to stay crisp and juicy. Water in the morning so that leaves can dry during the day.

Slide23

Eggplants

Days to Maturity: 80-90Planting: Late March to Mid-April; Early to Mid-July; Use 6 to 8 week old transplants.Concerns: Dull skin indicates over-ripening.

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Green Beans

Days to Maturity: Bush: 50 to 60; Pole: 60 to 70

Planting: Spring: Mid-March to Early May; Late Summer: Early August to Early September; Consider several plantings 2 to 3 weeks apart.

Concerns: Sensitive to moisture stress. Bush beans require less space and produce more beans at one time, but pole beans provide a more constant supply. Equipment considerations include poles or trellis for pole beans.

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Okra

Days to Maturity: 55-60Planting: Early April to Late JuneConcerns: Okra pods develop twice as fast with every 18°F rise in temperature. Harvest every other day in hot weather.

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Peppers

Days to Maturity: 70-80

Planting: Late March/Early April to Early July; Typically transplanted ~2 weeks later than tomatoes.

Concerns: Peppers are shallow-rooted, so mulch can be used to prevent moisture loss. Fruit will not set at night temperatures below 60°F. Temperatures above 90°F can cause fruit drop or failure to set fruit.

Slide27

Summer Squash

Days to Maturity: 80-90Planting: Mid to Late MayConcerns: Drip irrigate or water at base to reduce mildew.

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Tomatoes

Days to Maturity: Staked: 70 to 90 depending on type

Planting: Set out transplants when soil temperatures are above

60°F.

Temperatures below 50°F will impair tomato growth.

Southern Missouri—Early to Mid-March

Central Missouri—Mid to Late March

Northern Missouri—Late March to Early April

Plant Fall tomatoes by

Mid-July.

Slide29

Tomatoes

Concerns: Need at least 1 in. of water per week May through June.Need at least 2 in. of water per week July through September. Structure and equipment considerations include stakes, cages, or other supporting method.

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Small Fruits and Berries

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Strawberries

Days to Maturity: 15 to 30 days after flowering. Flowering should commence in early to mid-March in order to begin harvesting in early April.

Planting:

Plugs

: Plant in mid-September.

Dormant runner tips: Plant in late August (Cheaper than plugs)

‘Chandler’ variety is recommended.

Do not plant too deeply; plant midway up the plug.

Slide32

Strawberries

Concerns: Drip irrigation is recommended. If two or more rows of berries are planted, 2 to 3 drip lines are needed. Soil salinity can be a problem, particularly in a high tunnel where soil is not leeched.

Effective pollination is essential for maximum yield. If over-wintering, consider the use of row covers.

Can

be rotated with crops such as tomatoes or peppers as long as there are no soil borne disease outbreaks.

In

order to be profitable, each plant must yield at least

1

lb. of marketable fruit.

Slide33

Raspberries/Blackberries

Days to Maturity: Production can begin in May for some

floricane

-fruiting (summer fruiting) cultivars and extend through November for some

primocane

-fruiting (fall fruiting) cultivars.

Planting: Fall-bearing plants should be established as early in the Spring as possible in the planting year to further maximize first year harvest. Summer fruiting brambles may be grown outside during the first season in or near the uncovered high tunnel.

Slide34

Raspberries/Blackberries

Concerns: Trellises will be needed for each containerized plant. The high tunnel floor should be covered with weed barrier fabric or gravel before plants are moved inside for fruiting. Be mindful that brambles will need to be pruned annually. Containerized brambles may be used for several seasons. Containerized brambles may need to be mulched with compost, particularly in first year.

Slide35

Activity

You are the manager of two high tunnels. You need to produce as many different crops as possible in a year’s time. Create a chart of what you would grow at what times in each of the two high tunnels, again attempting to include as many different crops as possible.

Slide36

Summary

In order to determine the best crop to plant during certain times of year, a person must be able to:

Identify

produce suitable to growth in a high

tunnel

Compare

and

contrast

the fruits and vegetables grown in the warm season versus the cool

season


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