The Crux of Education and the Strategies to Teach Adult Lea

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The Crux of Education and the Strategies to Teach Adult Learners with Emphasis on Reading


Vir Kundra




never let my schooling get in the way of my education.

- Mark Twain


Definitions of Education

Plato’s educational philosophy was grounded in his vision of the ideal. Plato thinks education as a key for society.

Aristotle,” Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.”

As per the definition of John Dewy, Education reconstructs and remodels. It is the continuous reconstruction of our experience.


Definitions of Education

Prof. Huxley,” An educated man is one whose intellect is a clear cold logic engine, whose mind is stormed with all the best of knowledge in the world, who loves beauty both in art and nature and hates all vileness, and who respects others as he respects himself.”

We give the village boy, not mere instruction or information, but the ability to take a view of things for himself.

In short, Education aims at giving,” the philosophic mind, the gentle judgment, the interest in knowledge and beauty for their own sake,” that marks the harmoniously developed man.


Characteristics of Adult Learners

Are autonomous and self-


Have a foundation of life


Are goal


Are relevancy


Are practical

Need to be shown



Implications for the Instructors

Involve participants, serve as facilitator, determine interest of learners.

Recognize their expertise, encourage them to share their experiences and knowledge.

Be organized. Have clear objectives.

Explain how training objectives relate to training activities.

Show relevance of training to job.

Acknowledge the wealth of knowledge and experiences they bring to the training. Treat them as equals rather than subordinates.


Active Learning

Learning is not a spectator sport.

The more actively engaged the learner is, the more learning takes place.

Different instructional methodologies have greater rates of retention.


Surveys: Students’ Interests , Skills, and Styles

Based on students’ interest surveys, it should be ensured that every one is valued through activities and their interests and activities are connected with their language learning.

Based on diagnostic, formative, and summative assessments, students’ skills need effective ways to give feedback that will improve learning.

Using knowledge of students’ learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic), instruction should be planned to meet their needs and manage varied activities for effective learning.


Multicultural Education

It is structured process designed to foster understanding among people of many different cultures. Like an Ice-burg, we can see only 10% of an individual’s attributes. We do not see the most important dimensions, those including culture, values, attitudes, and beliefs.

Culture clashes and misconceptions occur when the invisible descriptors or traits of individuals conflict with others.


The Iceberg

Visible 10%

Invisible 90%












“Reading makes a full man”, said Lord Bacon.

It is the most indispensable skill to promote English language proficiency.

It develops the mind, the imagination, the creative side of people, and discovers new things.

It develops whole language proficiency.

It is fundamental to function in today’s society.


Extra Reading

The reading of course books for five hours in a week is not enough. The students have to be exposed to a reading of a lot of extra books commensurate with their level and interest at home. The extra books can be arranged at the college level or borrowed from a library.


Purpose for Reading

Good readers invariably have a purpose for reading. While reading, the importance of purpose can hardly be undermined. Indeed, the purpose identifies the important and differentiates it from the details. It makes reading meaningful and without it the readers will be lost in the mazes of confusion and boredom.


Reading Process

Furthermore, reading is not just pronouncing words.

It is a complex process of constructing one’s own meaning from the text.

Good readers don’t say just words, they comprehend the text.


Comprehension Strategies

Good readers preview their reading and get sense as to how the materials are organized. Timelines, Chapter Titles, footnotes, visual aids, bold print and biographical information help comprehension.

Above all, the core comprehension strategies like connecting with the background knowledge, predicting, making questions, inferences, visualizing, determining important ideas, analyzing and synthesizing information are essential to constructing meaning and present the realistic anatomy of the reading process.


Three Phases of the Reading Process:Pre-reading Strategies

Surveying the text

Using titles, pictures, captions, graphs, and blurbs to predict

Accessing prior knowledge

Making predictions

Formulating questions

Setting purposes


During Reading Strategies


Making Connections

Answering own questions about text

Determining Important ideas

Using fix-up strategies, such as Re-reading Questioning Changing reading mode (silent and oral)


After Reading





Drawing Conclusions


Validating the purpose for reading

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