Health Promotion - PowerPoint Presentation

Health Promotion
Health Promotion

Health Promotion - Description


Defining and conceptualising Using models Case studies Session outcomes The explain the roots of health promotion To apply three different frameworksmodels or typologies that explain the scope of health promotion to different contemporary topics ID: 530510 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Health Promotion

Defining and conceptualising

Using models

Case studies Slide2

Session outcomes

The explain the roots of health promotion

To apply three different frameworks(models or typologies) that explain the scope of health promotion to different contemporary topics.

To explain selected principles of health promotion practice to a case study Slide3

The roots of health promotion

Health Promotion emerged from health education movement.

Health education noticeable in early 1900s with emphasis on cleanliness

, personal behaviour and therefore responsibility for ones own ill-health and health.

The

Central Council for Health Education was founded in 1927.

This explains why health education is often viewed as the main Slide4

What is Health Promotion?

Today Health Promotion is more than personal and population education.

Defined in a number of ways

The process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health”

(World Health Organisation 1986)

Health Promotion

= health education x healthy public policy.

(Tones and

Tilford

, 1994)

Slide5

The scope of health promotion activity

Frameworks and Models are tools that help explain phenomena.

Many tools developed to explain the scope of health promotion.

Tannahill

, (1985) model

of health

promotion

Naidoo

and Wills (2000) typology of health promotion

Beattie’s (1991) model of health promotion

Tones and

Tilford’s

(1994) empowerment model

of health

promotion

Caplan

and Holland’s (1990)

Four

perspectives on health promotion Slide6

Beattie’s model of Health Promotion

Individual

Authoritative

Collective

Negotiated

Health persuasion

Needs to focus on why behaviour is happening

Legislative Action

Focus

Act

Resources

Policy

Community Development

Empowerment community level

Skills

Personal Counselling

Greater control

Slide7

Beattie’s model applied

Key features

Examines 2 axis

i

) type of approach used top down (authoritarian) or bottom up

(negotiated or owned by clients)

ii) size of approach

Categorises 4 types of activities

Personal Counselling

eg

working with dietician on food and physical individual personal plans and goals

Health persuasion

eg

Campaign of eating 5 fruit and vegetables a day on TVLegislative action eg laws that subsidise the price of healthy food stuff

Community development eg communities producing and distributing food themselves Slide8
Slide9

Tones and

Tilford’s

(1994) model of health promotion

Key features

States interaction between two main sets of processes for health improvement

i

)development and implementation of healthy public policy ii) health education in which people are empowered to take control of their life.

Example is attempts of Jamie’s School Diners campaign where school meals was brought into public consciousness and lead to standards for meals and an increase in the budgets for school meals.

Only when these two approaches work in parallel can the conditions for living and individuals behavioural aspects of health be addressed Slide10

Caplan and Holland’s model of health promotion

(

1990

)Slide11

Caplan and Holland’s model of health promotion

(

1990

)

Key features

More complex and theoretically driven

Attempts to unpick what determines health and ill-health and therefore what activities can be used to address health issues.

One

axis refers to a theory of knowledge and how knowledge is

generated in relation to health

The other axis refers to how society is

constructed and how this impacts

on health.Slide12

Application to domestic violence

Nature of knowledge

Traditional

Treatment of injuries

Educational campaigns about the issue to raise awareness and change attitudes to domestic violence in populations.

Radical Humanist

Provide supportive networks and self help groups and use of safe houses to remove women from violence.

Women to gain more power by developing economic and social power via work and stronger networks.

Radical

structuralist

Working to reduce power inequality between men and women through legislation for gender equality.

Issue to be taken seriously by criminal justice system .

Social unacceptability of issue generated through advocacy and lobbying.

Humanist

Working with women (and men) directly so they can understand the nature of their experiences and what they can do themselves. Using cognitive-

behavioural

therapy (CBT) approaches to understand the issues and change

behaviour

.

Nature of societySlide13

Key principles in health promotion

Principles are important as they relate to how we should work in practice.

The World Health Organisation provides a global perspectives

Gregg and O’Hara (2007

) provide a good synthesis of many of these Slide14

Focus on upstream approaches

“You know”, he said, “...sometimes it feels like this. There I am standing by the shore of a swiftly flowing river and I hear the cry of a drowning man. So I jump into the river, put my arms around him, pull him to shore and apply artificial respiration. Just when he begins to breathe, there is another cry for help. So I jump into the river, reach him, pull him to shore, apply artificial respiration, and then just as he begins to breathe, another cry for help. So back in the river again, reaching, pulling, applying, breathing and then another yell. Again and again, without end, goes the sequence. You know, I am so busy jumping in, pulling them to shore, applying artificial respiration, that I have

no

time to see who the hell is upstream pushing them all in” (

McKinlay

, 1979 p 249).Slide15

Non- victim blaming approaches

Victim

blaming is an approach to health education which only focuses on individual action rather than the external forces that influence an individual person resulting in blaming people for their health behaviour and related consequences (

Hubley

and

Copeman

, 2008).

Practitioners

should resist victim-blaming as it does not show understanding of the influences of health

behaviour.

Instead

practitioners should consider the social and economic experiences of people’s lives and which may explain how & why people behave in the manner that they do. Slide16

Evidence based practice

Evidence

based practice

is

concerned with trying to understand which approaches and methods of working are likely to produce the strongest health improvement.

The

principle of generating evidence by providing stronger evaluation of programmes and initiatives as they are developed & implemented and encouraging the utilisation of the existing

evidence

base by practitioners, are

both

key principles of practice. Slide17

Participation and empowerment

Participation

implies

‘being present and taking part’ in health promotion activities and secondly

recognising

that when people participate what they say should be listened to and acted upon (

Lowcock

and Cross, 2011).

Empowerment is

an

approach that facilitates people working together to increase the control that they have over events that influence their lives and health (Woodall

et al

. 2010)

Given that a definition of health promotion is about taking control then these two interlinked concepts are fundamental to how we act as practitioners Slide18

Equity

Equity

in health is concerned with fairness and the idea that everyone should have equal right to the fullest health possible.

The

term inequity enshrines an

unfair

distribution of health status.

Eg

poorer health is experienced in lower social classes

Health

should be more equally distributed and that health promotion approaches should, as a high priority, address health inequities.

Policies

and projects are now being evaluated to assess their impact on health equity, to reduce the disproportional impact on those that already experience poorer health, using a technique known as health equity audits (Health Development Agency, 2003)Slide19

Ethical principles

There are four major ethical principles outlined in

Naidoo

and Wills, 2009

Autonomy – “Respect for the rights of individuals and their rights to govern their own lives” (

Naidoo

and Wills, 2000 p91)

Beneficence - Doing and promoting good but we would need to consider whose good, the individual or wider group

Non-maleficence - Doing no harm

Justice - People should be treated equally and fairly.

Slide20

Summary

The scope of health promotion is varied and diverse and not limited to health education.

In order to address health issues a wider range of health promotion approaches should be used that directly address the wider upstream determinants.

Approaches should be evaluated on the basis of key health promotion principles.

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