The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962
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The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962

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The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962




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Presentation on theme: "The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962

Slide2

Objective questions

What was the background to the events that happened in Cuba?

How successful were the early attempts at containment?

Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba?

What happened during the crisis?

What was the outcome of the crisis?

Slide3

Cuba is a small island 90 miles off of the coast of Florida.

After the Spanish American War, the United States’ corporations controlled a lot of the commerce in Cuba.

Cuba was an ally of the US, contained US businesses, and held a US naval base at Guantanamo

.

In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrows US-backed dictator,

Battista

, and establishes a Communist government.

Battista

:

Fulgencio

Batista

Zaldívar

was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban

Revolution.

Slide4

containment

First introduced by Harry Truman and his “Policy of Containment,” in 1945, with the idea that he had three choices to stop the spread of communism.

Choice 1: invade Japan

Choice 2: Demonstrate an atomic threat

Choice 3: Drop the atomic bomb

1960: John F. Kennedy is elected President

Slide5

How successful were the early attempts of containment in the Cuban missile crisis?

Castro takes over US businesses

January 1961, US breaks off diplomatic relations

April, 1961, Bay of Pigs –

1,500

anti-Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow Castro

Autumn 1962, Cuba has received

1000s

of USSR missiles, jets, boats &

personnel

When Castro takes over he nationalizes U.S industries, causing U.S- Cuban relations to worsen

.

Slide6

Bay of Pigs Invasion

The Bay of Pigs was an American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans. The incident was an embarrassment for the U.S. and ultimately led to Castro pleading for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis

).

Slide7

Operation mongoose

Covert CIA operation to overthrow Fidel Castro using the mafia. The CIA agreed to all the money and gear necessary to carry out the assassination. The operation was entirely planned by JFK's brother, Robert, so that the president would have deniability

. Eisenhower used covert operations during his presidency, Kennedy assumed that using covert operations as well was acceptable for a president to do. Unlike at the Bay of Pigs, these actions allowed Kennedy to act without being held accountable.

Slide8

Why was the

u.s.s.r

interested in helping

cuba

?

Cuba was a new communist state.

Perfect location for a launch base for USSR inter-continental missiles (ICMs)

Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFK

Khrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over US missile in

Europe

Slide9

What happened during the crisis?

14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos of suspected USSR missile sites on Cuba

Sites nearing completion, experts believe they could be ready in 7 days

15 October US spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles

Slide10

Like Truman, JFK knew he had options and had to make a choice in order to

contain

the U.S.S.R.

President Kennedy had 6 options….

Slide11

Choice 1

Air Strike

- At least against missile sites, and perhaps against wider targets

-May

provoke a Soviet response in West Berlin

Slide12

Choice 2

Do Nothing

-Ignore

missiles in Cuba.

-U.S

. had military bases in 127 different countries including Cuba.

-U.S

. had nuclear missiles in several countries close to the Soviet Union.

-Therefore

, only right that the Soviet Union should be allowed to place missiles

in

Cuba.

Slide13

Choice 3

Diplomacy/Negotiate

-Offer the Soviet Union a deal

-USSR

remove missiles in

Cuba>U.S

. withdraw its nuclear missiles from Turkey

and

Italy.

Slide14

Choice 4

Military Blockade

-Use the US Navy to block any missiles from arriving in Cuba

-Announce

that any ships coming into Cuba would be searched for weapons

before

entering

-Soviet

ships could decide to not stop when U.S. ships blocked them which

could

trigger gunfire and possible escalation

Slide15

Choice 5

Invasion

-Send troops to overthrow Castro

-Missiles

could then be put out of action

Slide16

Choice 6

Nuclear Weapons

-Use nuclear weapons against Cuba and/or the Soviet Union.

Slide17

What choice did

jfk

make?

Choice 4: Military Blockade

October 20, 1962: JFK blockades Cuba

October 22, 1962: JFK calls on

Kruschev

to remove his weapons

October 25, 1962: Photos continue to show construction of missile sites

October 26, 1962: JFK receives offer- the U.S.S.R will remove their missiles if the U.S will end the blockade and promise not to invade Cuba.

October 27, 1962: JFK receives another letter requesting removal of U.S missiles in Turkey.

Slide18

October 28, 1962: Khrushchev

agrees to dismantle Soviet missiles in Cuba

U.S. publicly declares it will never invade

Cuba. Meanwhile, Attorney General Robert Kennedy meets with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly F.

Dobrynin

and agrees privately to withdraw U.S Jupiter missiles from Turkey once the crisis is resolved.

Slide19

Credits/Work cited

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/

educ

/

america_at_war

/.../

Cuban_power_werner.ppt

www.tamdistrict.org/

cms

/lib8/CA01000875/.../975/Cuban%20Missile%20Crisis.ppt

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