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Black Americans. 2. WHAT IS HEART DISEASE?. 2. What is Heart Disease?. Heart disease is a broad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect your heart. Coronary Artery Disease. (heart attack & stroke). ID: 567726 Download Presentation

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Presentations text content in HEART DISEASE AND YOU



Black Americans






What is Heart Disease?

Heart disease is a broad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect your heart

Coronary Artery Disease

(heart attack & stroke)


Conditions & Infections


Coronary Artery Disease

(heart attack & stroke)

Coronary Artery Disease

Your heart is a pump that

circulates blood, oxygen and nutrients throughout your body

Coronary artery disease is

a disease of the heart, and

can lead to:

Chest pain

Shortness of breath

Heart failure

Heart attack



Heart Arrhythmias

Electrical impulses cause your heart to beat When your heart beats too fast, too slow or irregularly, you have an arrhythmiaMost are harmless. However, some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome — sometimes even life-threatening — signs and symptoms



The Heart of the Matter

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women and men, regardless of race and ethnicity

African American Males


African American Females



White Males


White Females



Hispanic/Latino Males



Hispanic/Latino Females


82.6 Million American Adults Have Heart Disease


American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2012 Update

American Heart Association

. African Americans and CVD – 2012 Statistical Fact SheetAmerican Heart Association. Whites and CVD – 2012 Statistical Fact SheetAmerican Heart Association. Hispanics/Latinos and CVD – 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet









The Heart of the Matter: Major Causes of Death

African American men and women are


more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic white males2

American Heart Association. African Americans and CVD – 2012 Statistical Fact SheetThe Office of Minority Health. Heart Disease and African Americans. Accessed http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?lvl=3&lvlID=6&ID=3018

Black Men

Black Women


The Heart of the Matter

Heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes are prevalent among Black Americans

Some people have simply accepted this is a way of lifeThis doesn’t have to be true for youHeart disease and most risk factors can be prevented or treated

Take responsibility for your heart’s health





Disparities in Health Care


Ethnic Groups



Over 65


Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR. Institute of Medicine. Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, Board on Health Policy, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Accessed: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12875&page=R1

Racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care that are not due to access-related factors, clinical needs, preferences,

or appropriateness of intervention



Reasons Are Complex

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Why the Difference Power Point Presentation, slide # 26. Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare: March 2000.

Health System



















Know Your Risk Factors

Take Charge of Your Heart Health

Talk to Your Doctor


Know Your Risk Factors


Risk Factors Lead to Heart Disease

Risk Factors You Can NOT ControlIncreasing AgeFamily History

Risk Factors You CAN ControlDiabetesHigh Blood PressureHigh CholesterolPhysical InactivityOverweight/ObesitySmokingStressAlcohol

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. “Your Guide to a Healthy Heart.” 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5269


Age and Family History

Increasing AgeFor men, are you over 45?For women, are you over 55?Family HistoryDoes anyone in your immediate family have a history of heart diseaseor diabetes?

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. “Your Guide to a Healthy Heart.” 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5269



What is it?A lifelong disease in which there are high levels of sugar (glucose) in the bloodWhy a major risk factor?Heart disease and stroke account for about 65% of deaths in people with diabetes1How many Black Americans affected2?Nearly 15% of men and women have diagnosed diabetesAlmost 5% of men and women have undiagnosed diabetesNearly 32% of men and 27% of women have pre-diabetes

Good diabetes management can help

reduce your riskMany people are not even aware that they have diabetes

American Heart Association. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. Accessed: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Diabetes/WhyDiabetesMatters/Cardiovascular-Disease-Diabetes_UCM_313865_Article.jsp

American Heart Association.

African Americans and CVD – 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet


High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

What is it?Blood pressure (the force of blood against thewalls of arteries) that stays high and damages the heart over timeWhy a major risk factor?About 69% of people who have a first heartattack, 77% who have a first stroke, and 74%who have congestive heart failure have highblood pressure, i.e. higher than 140/90 mm Hg.1 How many Black Americans affected?More women (45.7%) than men (43%) havethe condition1

American Heart Association

. High Blood Pressure– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet


High Blood Cholesterol

What is it?The body needs cholesterol — a waxy, fat-like substance in your blood — but too much bad (LDL) cholesterol can lead to plaque build up in arteries and veinsYour LDL cholesterol level is a better gauge of risk than total blood cholesterol 1Why a major risk factor?When levels of bad (LDL) cholesterol are 130 mg/dl or higher there is a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease 1 How many Black Americans affected? 228% of women have high bad cholesterol 34% of men have high bad cholesterol

American Heart Association.

What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. Accessed: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/What-Your-Cholesterol-Levels-Mean_UCM_305562_Article.jsp

American Heart Association

. High Blood Cholesterol– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet


Physical Inactivity

What is it?Lack of regular moderate physical activityWhy a major risk factor?Exercise helps to prevent or reduce high blood pressure, diabetes and being overweight or obeseHow many Black Americans affected?Over 40% of men and women are inactive1Moderate exercise for 30 minutes/dayImproves physical wellnessDecreases risk of developing heart diseaseBoosts mental wellnessRelieves tension, anxiety, depressionImproves mental alertness

Key Guidelines Snapshot

3Adults (aged 18–64)Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise; 2 hours and30 minutes /week; Muscle-strengthening; 2+days per week Older Adults (aged 65+)Follow adult guidelines(as abilities allow)Inactivity should be avoided

American Heart Association

. Physical Inactivity– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/factsheetprof.aspx


Overweight & Obesity

What is it?When your weight exceeds what is generally considered healthy for your heightA waist measurement greater than 40 inches for men and 35 inches for womenWhy a major risk factor?Leads to many diseases and conditions, including high blood pressure and Type 2 diabetes which can cause heart diseaseHow many Black Americans affected 171% of men are overweight or obese78% of women are overweight or obese

American Heart Association. Overweight & Obesity– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet


Cigarette and Tobacco Smoke

What is it?Inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars Why a major risk factor?Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke further raises risk of heart disease when combined with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and being overweight or obeseHow many Black Americans affected? 124% of men smoke17% of women smoke

American Heart Association

. African Americans & CVD– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet


Stress and Heart Disease

What is it?Stress affects each of us in different ways — youmay have physical signs, emotional signs or bothWhy a major risk factor?Stress sets off a chain of eventsStressful situation Breathing and heart rate speed up; blood pressure risesBody experiences “fight or flight” responseWhen it lasts days/weeks = chronic stressChronic stress increases heart rate and blood pressureHow many Americans affected?22% of Americans reported extreme stress in 2011Top reasons: money, work, economy, relationships, family responsibilities

American Psychological Association. Stress in America report. http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2012/01/chronic-disease.aspx


Alcohol Beverages and Heart Disease

What is it?1The relation between alcohol and heart disease is complexSome say no alcohol at all, butModerate-alcohol use has been shown to reduce coronary heart diseaseExcessive or binge drinking can lead to high blood pressure, heart failure and a higher calorie intakeHow many Black Americans affected? 2In 2010, rates of alcohol use among Black persons 12 and older was 43%Rates of excessive/binge alcohol use among Black persons was 20%

4 oz.

American Heart Association. Alcoholic Beverages and Heart Disease. Accessed http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Alcoholic-Beverages-and-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_305864_Article.jsp

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,

Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

, NSDUH Series H-41, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11-4658. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011.


The Multiplier Effect

Risk Factors Don’t Add Their Potential Danger Like 1 + 1 = 2  They Multiply It1

= 10

 more likely to develop heart disease

Woman over 55


+ High Blood Cholesterol3

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute “The Heart Truth” speaker’s guide. 2010. Publication No. 10-520B, p. 17

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2006), HEART DISEASE RISK FACTOR "MULTIPLIER EFFECT“ IN MIDLIFE WOMEN infographic


Talk to Your Doctor


Talk to Your Doctor

Being honest will get you the most realistic assessmentHelp your doctor develop a plan to lower your overall riskVisit your doctor regularly and bring 2–3 questions


Talk to Your Doctor

Do I have heart disease? What tests should I have?What do my test results mean?Are my blood pressure numbers within a normal range? Cholesterol numbers?Can you help me plan a safe weight loss and exercise program?What are the possible side effects of the medications I’ve been prescribed?

Your doctor is your partner — working together you can live a longer, healthier and happier life


Take Charge of Your Heart Health


Enjoy Regular Physical Activity

RecommendationPick a physical activity that you like(brisk walking, dancing, swimming)Make the time!Do it for 30+ minutes 5X per week Why?70% of Americans do not get thephysical activity they need1Daily physical activity will guarantee you a healthier and more satisfying life while lowering your risks for heart disease, stroke and diabetes1Studies show that for every hour of walking, life expectancy may increase by 2 hours2

American Heart Association. My Life Check.


American Heart Association: Get Moving. Where Do I Start http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/StartWalking/Get-moving-Where-do-I-start_UCM_307978_Article.jsp


Eat a Heart-Healthy Diet

Recommendation:Stock up on healthy foodsEat a lot of vegetables and fruitsEat unrefined fiber-rich whole-grain foodsEat fish at least twice a weekChoose skinless lean meats and poultrySelect fat-free, 1% fat, and low-fatdairy productsCut back on saturated/trans fats,cholesterol, salt and added sugarsRemember candy, cakes, cookies, ice cream, etc. are occasional special treats!


One of your best weapons for fighting heart diseaseOver 90% of us fail to eat a heart-healthy dietPoor eating can lead to heart disease, stroke, diabetes and obesity

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=10&CultureCode=en-US


Maintain a Healthy Weight

RecommendationKnow your Body Mass Index or BMIUnderstand your caloric needsTrack your caloriesOnly eat at restaurants/fast food1-2 times per weekWhy?When you shed extra fat and unnecessary pounds, you reduce the burden on your heart, lungs, blood vessels and skeleton

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=11&CultureCode=en-US


Body Mass Index (BMI) Chart

Weight-control Information Network: an information service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Web page, “Understanding Adult Obesity.” Accessed http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/understanding.htm#bodymass


Stop Smoking (please!)

RecommendationDo whatever it takes to quit! Talk with your health-care provider or look for a quit-smoking programWhy?Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1Smoking is one of our nation’s top causes of early death1Smoking will only add to your stress by taking away your good health and shortening your life1On average, smokers die 13–14 years earlier than nonsmokers 2

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=14&CultureCode=en-US

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/.


Reduce Your Blood Sugar

RecommendationReduce consumption of simple sugars that are found in soda, candy and sugary dessertsGet regular physical activity! Take medications or insulin, if prescribed for youWhy?High levels of blood sugar can damage your heart, kidneys, eyes and nervesWhen you reduce excessive sugars you help protect your vital organs

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=13&CultureCode=en-US


Control Your Cholesterol

RecommendationEat healthy foods low in cholesterol, trans fats and saturated fats and lots of fiberSchedule a cholesterol screeningGet active Maintain a healthy weightTake your prescribed medicationWhy?When you control your cholesterol, you are giving your arteries their best chance to remain clear of blockages that can lead to heart disease and stroke

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=9&CultureCode=en-US


Manage Your Blood Pressure

Recommendation:Eat a heart-healthy diet with less sodiumEnjoy regular physical activityMaintain a healthy weightTake your prescribed medicationManaging stressLimit alcoholAvoid tobacco smokeWhy?High blood pressure is the single most significant risk factor for heart diseaseManaging it is common sense forgood health

American Heart Association. My Life Check. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Multitab.aspx?NavID=12&CultureCode=en-US


Stress and Heart Disease

Recommendation for StressExerciseMaintain a positive attitudeDo not smoke or drink toomuch coffeeEnjoy a healthy diet Maintain a healthy weightTalk to your doctor or other healthcare professionalsWhy?Managing stress is good for youroverall healthAfter a heart attack or stroke, people can feel depressed, anxious or overwhelmed by stress

American Heart Association/American Stroke Association: webpage, “Stress and Heart Health” Accessed http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Stress-and-Heart-Health_UCM_437370_Article.jsp


Alcohol Beverages and Heart Disease

RecommendationTalk to your doctor about benefits and risks based on your own family history and healthIf you drink alcohol, do so in moderation 1 to 2 drinks per day for men1 drink per day for womenWhy?Alcohol use may be harmful for anyone with:Personal/family history of alcoholismHypertriglyceridemiaCertain blood disordersHeart failureUncontrolled hypertension Taking certain medications





Standard Drink Equivalents

American Heart Association. Alcohol Beverages and Cardiovascular Disease. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Alcoholic-Beverages-and-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_305864_Article.jsp





How Heart Healthy Are You?

Raise your hand if you….

Have immediate family members who have heart disease/diabetes

Smoke or live with someone who does

Have been tested for type 2 diabetes in the last 2 years

Had your blood pressure checked in the last year

Know your cholesterol numbers, i.e., total, LDL and HDL

Exercise for 30 minutes a day at least 4 days a week

Know how many calories you should eat in a day


Know Your Numbers

Risk Factor GoalTotal cholesterolless than 200 mg/dLLDL “Bad”less than 160 mg/dL; < 130; <100, <70HDL “Good”women > 50 mg/dL; men > 40 mg/dLTriglyceridesless than 150 mg/dLBlood Pressureless than 120/80 mmHgFasting Glucoseless than 100 mg/dLBody Mass Index (BMI)less than 25 Waist Circumferencewomen < 35 inches; men < 40 inchesExercise30 minutes ≥ 5 X week of moderate-intensity aerobic AND muscle strengthening ≥ 2 X weekDiet and Nutritionwith your doctor, determine how many calories you need each day and eat healthy, low sodium/sugar and high fiber foodsTobacco and AlcoholStop smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke; women: one drink or less per day; men: 2 drinks or less per day

American Heart Association; webpage, “Numbers That Count for a Healthy Heart.” Accessed http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Numbers-That-Count_UCM_305427_Article.jsp





Thank You!


Heart Attack Signs in Women

Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in center of chestPain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfortBreaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness Most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfortShortness of breath, nausea/vomiting and back or jaw pain are likely

American Heart Association. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women. Accessed http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Heart-Attack-Symptoms-in-Women_UCM_436448_Article.jsp

If you have any of these signs,

don’t wait more than five minutes

before calling 9-1-1 and get to a hospital right away


Stroke Warning Signs

Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the bodySudden confusion, trouble speaking or understandingSudden trouble seeing in one or both eyesSudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordinationSudden severe headache with no known cause

American Stroke Association: home page. Accessed: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/WarningSigns/Warning-Signs_UCM_308528_SubHomePage.jsp

If one or more of these signs is present,

don’t delay — call 9-1-1


CVD Risk and Black American Women

Heart disease is more prevalent among Black women than White women1As are some of the risk factors, high blood pressure (46%), obesity (51%), and diagnosed/undiagnosed diabetes (19%) 2Women can lower their heart disease risk by as much as 82% just by leading a healthy lifestyle1However, in a 2006 study of women3:Only 57% knew heart disease is leading cause of deathamong womenAwareness was lower among Black (31%) and Latina women (29%) compared with White women (68%)Majority (≥ 50%) reported confusion related to heartdisease preventionMore outreach and education clearly is warranted

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s “The Heart Truth for African American Women: An Action Plan.” NIH Pub. No. 07-5066




. African Americans &

CVD– 2012 Statistical Fact Sheet

Christian, A. et al. Nine-Year Trends and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Women’s Awareness of Heart Disease and Stroke: An American Heart Association Study. Journal of Women’s Health. Volume 16, Number 1. 2007.

Abstract accessed: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jwh.2006.M072?journalCode=jwh


Diabetes, Heart Disease and Stroke

High blood glucose levels can lead to increased deposits of fatty materials inside blood vessels, affecting blood flow and increasing the chanceof clogging and hardening of blood vessels If you have diabetes: You are 2X more likely to have heart disease or a stroke than someone who does notAnd are a woman, you have an even greater risk of heart diseaseAnd have already had one heart attack, you run an even greater risk of having a second oneYour heart attack may be more serious and more likely to result in death than someone without diabetes

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Diabetes, Heart Disease and Stroke. Accessed: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/stroke/#connection

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