P Peterson
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P Peterson

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P Peterson




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Presentation on theme: "P Peterson"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

P Peterson

1

, SV Fowler

2

, M Merrett

3

and P Barrett

41LCR, PN, 2LCR, Chch, 3The Open Polytechnic of NZ, Lower Hutt, 4Massey University, PN

Heather beetle impact assessment

Slide2

Heather (

Calluna vulgaris

)

Slide3

Spreading- Te Aroha- Rotorua Tarawera Pureora Mt Egmont National Park Hokitika Mt Cook Queenstown Te Anau

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Slide4

Slide5

Slide6

Slide7

Slide8

Slide9

Slide10

Photo by Shaun Forgie

Heather beetle (

Lochmaea suturalis

)

Slide11

Impact assessment

Slide12

Assessment area

Slide13

Treatments:

Herbicide (2,4-D ester)

Heather beetle

Control

Beetle vs herbicide

Design:

3 treatments

4 blocks

2 reps per block

Slide14

Vegetation cover

Pre-treatment 50 x 50 cm

Merilyn Merrett estimating vegetation cover

Slide15

37 vascular species

37 vascular common

25 dicot species

20 native

5 exotic

12 monocot species

8 native

4 exotic

9 vascular uncommon

Native and

exotic,

i.e. sedges, lilies,

grasses,

etc.

Slide16

Applied treatments

Slide17

No beetle establishment Herbicide impacts were interesting

Beetle vs

herbicide

Slide18

2002–2011

Herbicide only assessment

Before and after photos

Slide19

Control

2011

Herbicide

2002

Slide20

Heather

(

Calluna vulgaris

)

Slide21

Slide22

Monoao (

Dracophyllum subulatum

)

Sprawling coprosma (

C.cheesemanii

)

Mountain heath (Pentachondra pumila)

Tauhinu (Ozothamnus leptophylla)

Native dicotyledons

Slide23

Slide24

Hawkweed

(

Pilosella officinarum

)

Slide25

Slide26

All monocotyledons

Browntop (

Agrostis capillaris

)

Yorkshire fog (

Holcus lanatus

)

Red tussock (Chionochloa rubra)

Silver tussock (

Poa cita

)

Slide27

Slide28

Red tussock

(

Chionochloa rubra

)

Slide29

Slide30

Browntop

(

Agrostis capillaris

)

Slide31

Slide32

Summary (herbicide only assessment)

Four herbicide applications kill 80% of heather but signs of recovery 4 years later

Heather may recover faster than dicot natives?

Monocot cover (both native and exotic) increases following herbicide application

Heather cover doubled in 9 years if nothing was done

Slide33

Summary (herbicide only assessment)

Four herbicide applications kill 80% of heather but signs of recovery 4 years later

Heather may recover faster than dicot natives?

Monocot cover (both native and exotic) increases following herbicide application

Heather cover doubled in 9 years if nothing was done

Slide34

Summary (herbicide only assessment)

Four herbicide applications kill 80% of heather but signs of recovery 4 years later

Heather may recover faster than dicot natives?

Monocot cover (both native and exotic) increases following herbicide application

Heather cover doubled in 9 years if nothing was done

Slide35

Summary (herbicide only assessment)

Four herbicide applications kill 80% of heather but signs of recovery 4 years later

Heather may recover faster than dicot natives?

Monocot cover (both native and exotic) increases following herbicide application

Heather cover doubled in 9 years if nothing was done

Slide36

But what about the beetles?

Slide37

Difficult to establish

Released (

1996–2009

)

36 000 all stages

78 sites

Establishment

9 outbreaks (9%)

2 false starts

Slide38

Impact assessment

(beetle vs herbicide – 2

nd

attempt)

Slide39

Assessment area

Slide40

Beetle vs

herbicide

Beetle feeding damage visible in 2007

Slide41

2007

Small heather beetle outbreak

Slide42

Plots set up outside

beetle-damaged

area

2007

Slide43

I

H+I

H

4 treatments, 6 blocks assigned

2007

Slide44

2007–

?

I

H+I

H

Predicted beetle dispersal

Slide45

Vegetation cover

Pre-treatment 50 x 50 cm

Merilyn Merrett estimating vegetation cover

Slide46

32 vascular species

32 vascular common

25 dicot species

21 native

4 exotic

7 monocot species

5 native

2 exotic

15 vascular uncommon

Native and

exotic,

i.e. sedges, lilies, orchids,

grasses,

etc

.

Slide47

Applied treatments

TreatmentCodeEffectDo nothingBeetle impactSpray insecticide(Karate zeon: lambda-cyhalothrin)IHeather protectedSpray herbicide(Pature Kleen: 2,4-D ester )HBeetle + Herbicide impactSpray herbicide + insecticideH+IHerbicide impact

Slide48

Slide49

2008

Slide50

2009

Slide51

2009

Slide52

2009

Slide53

Slide54

2009

Slide55

Unsprayed (heather beetle impact)

Herbicide (beetle + herbicide impact)

Insecticide (heather protected)

Herbicide + insecticide (herbicide impact)

Slide56

Initial observations

Almost all heather dead following beetle feeding and/or 3 herbicide applications

No non-target damage from beetle feeding

Again, significant non-target damage from herbicide application to dicots

Slide57

Slide58

Initial observations

Almost all heather dead following beetle feeding and/or 3 herbicide applications

No non-target damage from beetle feeding

Again, significant non-target damage from herbicide application to dicots

Slide59

Dracophyllum subulatum

Chionochloa rubra

Coprosma cheesmanii

Pentachondra pumila

Slide60

Initial observations

Almost all heather dead following beetle feeding and/or 3 herbicide applications

No non-target damage from beetle feeding

Again, significant non-target damage from herbicide application to dicots

Slide61

Dracophyllum subulatum

Slide62

Vegetation cover

post-treatment (2009 & 2010) 50 x 50 cm

Merilyn Merrett estimating vegetation cover

Slide63

Heather

(

Calluna vulgaris

)

Slide64

Slide65

Monoao (

Dracophyllum subulatum

)

Sprawling coprosma (

C.cheesemanii

)

Mountain heath (Pentachondra pumila)

Tauhinu (Ozothamnus leptophylla)

Native dicotyledons

Slide66

Slide67

Mouse-ear hawkweed (

Pilosella officinarum

)

Catsear (

Hypochoeris radicata)

Lotus major (

Lotus pedunculatus)

Exotic dicots minus heather

Slide68

Slide69

All monocotyledons

Browntop (

Agrostis capillaris

)

Yorkshire fog (

Holcus lanatus

)

Red tussock (Chionochloa rubra)

Silver tussock (

Poa cita

)

Slide70

Slide71

Red tussock

(

Chionochloa rubra

)

Slide72

Slide73

Browntop

(

Agrostis capillaris

)

Slide74

Slide75

Summary (beetle vs herbicide)

Beetle feeding kills 99% of heather vs 90% after 3 herbicide applications

N

o non-target damage from beetle feeding but significant damage to dicots from herbicide application

Some evidence for dicot response after beetle feeding but too early to be sure

All monocots trending upwards following heather removal by either method

Slide76

Summary (beetle vs herbicide)

Beetle feeding kills 99% of heather vs 90% after 3 herbicide applications

N

o non-target damage from beetle feeding but significant damage to dicots from herbicide application

Some evidence for dicot response after beetle feeding but too early to be sure

All monocots trending upwards following heather removal by either method

Slide77

Summary (beetle vs herbicide)

Beetle feeding kills 99% of heather vs 90% after 3 herbicide applications

N

o non-target damage from beetle feeding but significant damage to dicots from herbicide application

Some evidence for dicot response after beetle feeding but too early to be sure

All monocots trending upwards following heather removal by either method

Slide78

Summary (beetle vs herbicide)

Beetle feeding kills 99% of heather vs 90% after 3 herbicide applications

N

o non-target damage from beetle feeding but significant damage to dicots from herbicide application

Some evidence for dicot response after beetle feeding but too early to be sure

All monocots trending upwards following heather removal by either method

Slide79

Conclusions (both experiments)

Both methods are effective for killing heather

Herbicide non-target impacts can significantly alter vegetation composition after 9 years

More time required to assess full impact of heather removal by beetle feeding but no non-target damage seen

Exotic monocot invasion seems inevitable using either method if close to a seed source

Doing nothing will result in more heather

Slide80

Conclusions (both experiments)

Both methods are effective for killing heather

Herbicide non-target impacts can significantly alter vegetation composition after 9 years

More time required to assess full impact of heather removal by beetle feeding but no non-target damage seen

Exotic monocot invasion seems inevitable using either method if close to a seed source

Doing nothing will result in more heather

Slide81

Conclusions (both experiments)

Both methods are effective for killing heather

Herbicide non-target impacts can significantly alter vegetation composition after 9 years

More time required to assess full impact of heather removal by beetle feeding but no non-target damage seen

Exotic monocot invasion seems inevitable using either method if close to a seed source

Doing nothing will result in more heather

Slide82

Conclusions (both experiments)

Both methods are effective for killing heather

Herbicide non-target impacts can significantly alter vegetation composition after 9 years

More time required to assess full impact of heather removal by beetle feeding but no non-target damage seen

Exotic monocot invasion seems inevitable using either method if close to a seed source

Doing nothing will result in more heather

Slide83

Conclusions (both experiments)

Both methods are effective for killing heather

Herbicide non-target impacts can significantly alter vegetation composition after 9 years

More time required to assess full impact of heather removal by beetle feeding but no non-target damage seen

Exotic monocot invasion seems inevitable using either method if close to a seed source

Doing nothing will result in more heather

Slide84

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank John Mangos (New Zealand Army) for

continued support,

Lawire Cairns for aerial

photography,

and Lindsay Smith (LCR) and Andrew Blayney (Massey University) for help with field work.

This project has been

funded by

the Ministry for Science and Innovation (formally the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology) Contract No.

C09X0210,

and the New Zealand Army.

Slide85

Scale of beetle feeding impact

Slide86

1 km

Slide87

1 km

2001–2004

.

Slide88

1 km

.

2005 (1 m²)

Slide89

1 km

.

2006 (25 m²)

Slide90

1 km

2007 (¼ ha)

.

Slide91

1 km

2008 (1½ ha)

.

Slide92

1 km

2009 (4½ ha)

.

Slide93

1 km

2010 (17 ha)

.

Slide94

1 km

2011 (80 ha)

.

Slide95

Slide96

Slide97

Slide98

Slide99

Slide100