SYL L

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SYL L - Description

OGIS. TIC. REASONING. PART 2. Properties and Rules . SYL. L. OGIS. TIC. REASONING. The 4 types of quantifiers. The 4 types of causes. The proof by the effects. The rules of syllogism . P. R. O. P. E. ID: 602802 Download Presentation

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SYL L




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Slide1

SYLLOGISTICREASONING

PART 2

Properties and Rules

Slide2

SYLLOGISTICREASONING

The 4 types of quantifiers

The 4 types of causes

The proof by the effects

The rules of syllogism

Slide3

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of quantifiers

1. Universal affirmative: ALL S are P

2. Universal negative: NO S is P

3. Particular affirmative: SOME S are P

4. Particular negative:

SOME

S

are NOT

P

Slide4

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of causes

Material cause: Because S is made of / has M

Why can men breathe?

Because everything with lungs can breathe

And because all men have lungs

Thus, all

men

can

breathe

Slide5

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of causes

2. Efficient cause: Because S is effected by / effects M

Why can men breathe?

Because everything that inhales & exhales can breathe

And because all men can inhale & exhale

Thus, all

men

can

breathe

Slide6

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of causes

3. Formal cause: Because S is a M

Why can men breathe?

Because all mammals can breathe

And because all men are mammals

Thus, all

men

can

breathe

Slide7

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of causes

4. Final cause: Because S is for M

Why can men breathe?

Because all that must live on earth can breathe

And because all men are for life on earth

Thus, all

men

can

breathe

Slide8

PROPERTIES

The 4 types of causesSome Practice

Why can humans be religious?

Because all spiritual souls can be religious

1. Proof by the material cause:

Because all that God attracts can be religious

2. Proof by the efficient cause:

Because all that is in God’s image can be religious

3. Proof by the formal cause:

Because all that is for God can be religious

4. Proof

by the

final

cause

:

Slide9

PROPERTIES

The proof by the effects

Because the effect of S is M

Why can men breathe?

Because what rejects water & CO2 can breathe

And because all men reject water & CO2

Thus, all

men

can

breathe

Slide10

RULES

. 2 premisesMajor: M is P – Minor: S is M

# 1: The BARBARA formula

. 1 conclusionS is P

. 3 terms twiceS twice subject (minor & conclusion)

… in good order M is P ► S is M ► S is P

M once subject of the major and once predicate of the minor

P twice predicate (major & conclusion)

Slide11

RULES

No valid conclusion with 2 negative premises

# 2: The quantifiers

Because no human is an angel

And because no seraphim is human

Thus, no seraphim is an angel

INVALID

Slide12

RULES

. No valid conclusion with 2 negative premises

# 2: The quantifiers

Because some Americans are saints

And because some humans are American

Thus, some humans are saints

. No valid conclusion with 2 particular premises

INVALID

Slide13

RULES

. No valid conclusion with 2 negative premises

# 2: The quantifiers

Because no human is from the moon

And because all saints are human

Thus, no saints are from the moon

. No valid conclusion with 2 particular premises

. 1 negative premise = a negative conclusion

Slide14

RULES

. No valid conclusion with 2 negative premises

# 2: The quantifiers

Because all humans are mammals

And because some 2 legged creatures are human

Thus, some 2 legged creatures are mammals

. No valid conclusion with 2 particular premises

. 1 negative premise = a negative conclusion

. 1 particular premise = a particular conclusion

Slide15

RULES

A valid syllogism can be false if a premise is false

# 3: Validity & Truth

Because all saints are humans

And because all angels are saints

Thus, all angels are humans

FALSE

VALID

Slide16

RULES

. A valid syllogism can be false if a premise is false

# 3: Validity & Truth

Because all saints are humans

And because some saints are Christians

Thus, all Christians are humans

INVALID

TRUE

. A

true

conclusion can follow an invalid syllogism


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