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BRINGING LITERACY TO LIFE: RECHARGING THE SLP TOOLKIT FROM ABC TO AAC

DOREEN BINNIE, MA, CCC-SLP. CAROL SPEARS, MA, CCC-SLP. 1. Session Objectives. Participants will be able to develop therapy activities that will enhance language skills through literacy.. Participants will be able to create differentiated literacy based activities appropriate for the clients cognitive and communication abilities.

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BRINGING LITERACY TO LIFE: RECHARGING THE SLP TOOLKIT FROM ABC TO AAC






Presentation on theme: "BRINGING LITERACY TO LIFE: RECHARGING THE SLP TOOLKIT FROM ABC TO AAC"— Presentation transcript:

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BRINGING LITERACY TO LIFE: RECHARGING THE SLP TOOLKIT FROM ABC TO AAC

DOREEN BINNIE, MA, CCC-SLPCAROL SPEARS, MA, CCC-SLP

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Session Objectives

Participants will be able to develop therapy activities that will enhance language skills through literacy.Participants will be able to create differentiated literacy based activities appropriate for the clients cognitive and communication abilities.

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LITERACY

Literacy, as defined in the National Literacy Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-73), for speakers of English is “an individual's ability to read, write, and speak in English and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job and in society, to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential.”    --ASHA, Technical Report, Roles and Responsibilities  of Speech-Language Pathologists With Respect to Reading and Writing in Children and Adolescents. (NLA, 1991)

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LANGUAGE DISORDERS IMPACT LITERACY

As high as 60% of children with language impairment may experience difficulties with literacy.

Cook, et. al, 2015

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LANGUAGE AND READING DISORDERS

Children with early language impairment are at higher risk for later reading problems.Approximately 50% meet criteria for reading disorderEven children with isolated speech sound disorders may still lag behind

Cook, et. al, 2015

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Risk of reading difficulties greatest for children with a history in both articulation and receptive language and expressive languageIn general, oral language comprehension have poor reading comprehension with average phonological abilitiesChildren who are poor decoders often have poor phonological abilities with average oral language comprehension

LANGUAGE AND READING DISORDERS

Cook, et. al, 2015

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INTERPLAY BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND READING DISORDERS

It’s important because…Reading difficulties are generally not apparent until the child has been exposed to formal literacy instruction, generally in school. Speech sound disorders and language impairments are more likely to appear and be apparent earlier in the child’s life and may be an indicator of later problems in reading

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LITERACY AND THE SLP

ASHA Position Statement for Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists with Respect to Reading and Writing in Children and Adolescents [Position Statement] (2001)“It is the position of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) play a critical and direct role in the development of literacy for children and adolescents with communication disorders, including those with severe or multiple disabilities” (emphasis added)

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LITERACY AND THE SLP

ASHA recommends that Speech-Language Pathologists play a role in literacy intervention and have the following responsibilities:Educate both teachers and parents in relationships between oral language and literacy.Identify children who are at risk of having literacy difficultiesMake referrals to good literacy-rich programs.Recommend assessment and treatment in pre-literacy skills when needed.

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As SLPs, we may provide services to children diagnosed with language disorders that also have an impact on literacy such as: Speech Sound Disorders, Language Impairment, and Reading Difficulties

LITERACY AND THE SLP

ASHA, 2002

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CHALLENGES FOR THE SLP AND LITERACY INTERVENTION FOR AAC USERSKnowing which activities are most likely to result in literacy learningUnderstanding how to adapt the tasks to enable active participation

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

LITERACY AND THE SLP

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EMERGENT LANGUAGE AND LITERACY

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LITERACY STARTS VERY EARLY

Language development and literacy development go hand in handBegins very early, not just in preschoolReading and enriching experiences should begin at birth (and before!) WHY?????????

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EARLY LANGUAGE ABILITIES

Children’s early language abilities have positive relationships with later language and literacy skill development

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EMERGENT LITERACY

Emergent Literacy Refers to the earliest period of learning about reading and writing Children’s literacy abilities depend heavily on the oral language skills they begin to acquire in infancy and toddlerhood—those skills needed to comprehend language and use language expressively.

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EMERGENT LITERACY

YOUNG CHILDREN NEED:Well-developed phonological systems before they can make sense of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences Well-developed vocabularies to derive meaning from text.

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TAPP THE BOOK STRATEGY T = Title P = Picture A = Author P = PrintIncreases Print AwarenessPhoneme-grapheme awarenessReading conventionsLearning to Read/Reading to Learn

TEACHING EMERGENT LITERACY

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TEACHING COMMUNICATIVE PARTNERS TO USE STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Select appropriate books

Introduce the topic of the bookIntroduce new vocabulary as neededRead the text of the bookUse time delay/wait expectantlyAsk appropriate questionsModel use of AAC and speechRespond to communication attemptsEncourage the learner to retell the story

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

TEACHING EMERGENT LITERACY- AAC

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Aspects of literacy that are important to SLPsphonological awarenessmorphological awarenesscomprehension

LITERACY AND THE SLP

Cook, et. al, 2015

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PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Knowledge of the sounds and syllable

and sound structure of words.Phonemic awareness- specific ability to manipulate sounds such as blending sounds to create new words or segmenting words into sounds.

Cook, et. al, 2015

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SKILLS INVOLVED IN PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Syllabication and phoneme identificationAlliterationRhymingBlendingSegmentation

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Activities that require children to judge presence/absence of a phoneme, to identify a phoneme in a particular word position, or to match words which have the same (initial or final) phoneme Name environmental soundsSequence soundsWhat sound is missing when word is repeated missing a soundClap out the number of syllables in words

Bowan, 2011

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PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESSINTERVENTIONS FOR AAC

CHALLENGE- Traditional phonological awareness interventions require students to produce oral responses for blending sounds form words, segmenting words into component sounds, rhyming, and determining initial, medial, and final sounds.

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESSINTERVENTIONS FOR AAC

INTERVENTIONSSOUND BLENDING- Interventionist says word by extending each phoneme for 1-2 seconds (ex. mmmmmooooommmm). The student to blend the phonemes heard using subvocal rehearsal and state the word using their AAC method.

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESSINTERVENTIONS FOR AAC

INTERVENTIONSPHONEME SEGMENTATION-Interventionists says the word and asks students to identify sounds within the word using their AAC method. Also may give a group of words and ask student to identify the word that has /t/ in the initial position.

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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MORPHOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Cook, et. al, 2015

An ability to recognize, understand,

and use affixes or word parts (prefixes, suffixes, etc) that “carry significance” when speaking as well as during reading tasks. It is a hugely important skill for building vocabulary, reading fluency and comprehension as well as spelling

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MORPHOLOGICAL AWARENESS INTERVENTIONS

Direct intervention on tense, plurals, possessives, prefix, suffixFind root word in longer wordsChange words by adding an additional element

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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MORPHOLOGICAL AWARENESS INTERVENTIONS FOR AAC USERS

Direct intervention on tense, plurals, possessives, prefix, suffix on speech generating deviceIdentify root word in longer words by pointing, circling, using AAC method to spell root wordMatch words with morphological differences to corresponding pictures

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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COMPREHENSION

Occurs on several levelsBasic Comprehension: Deriving meaning by blending understanding of words and sentences with personal meanings and experiences.2. Critical literacy- “reading between the lines”3. Dynamic literacy- “reading across and beyond the lines”

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

GOT IT!

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COMPREHENSION INTERVENTIONS

Vocabulary development Answering questions (Dumb Bunnies Easter)Generating questions (Where Can It Be)Summarizing/retelling (Bear Hunt)

Adler, 2001

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Picture taken from

No Glam Articualtion, 2003, Lingua Systems

IN THE WOODSByJohnny Student Once upon a time, Rashawn went hiking in the woods. He likes to go really far in the woods so he can see animals. While he was in the woods he saw a snake, a hawk, and a duck. He was so happy to see all these animals he fell off of his pogo stick. When he fell, he hurt his knee. He put ice cubes on his knee to help it feel better. After he felt better, Rashawn listened to music and read a book. It was almost time to go home, so he used the rake to clean the area. It is almost dark and Rashawn had to get home, so he hopped on his bike and rode home. Rashawn was happy to be home.THE END

Use artic scene pictures to write a story

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THE

BUSY MOTHER Once upon a time, there was a very busy, busy mother. Her baby, whose name is Christian, was crying and pulling his mothers hair. His big brother, Malik was asking his mother for food. The dog, Daday, is scratching her dress. All of a sudden the phone starts ringing. Now, Mom looks and her hands are full. She is stirring the soup in the pot on the stove with one hand, and she is holding the baby with her other hand. Mom feels really tired and frustrated because she cannot get everything she needs to do done. Mom decides to put the baby in his crib to take a nap and answers the telephone. Mom’s boyfriend named JoJo was on the phone and he asked her what she was doing. Mom said, “I am frustrated because I have too much stuff to do”. Jojo said, I know you have a lot to do, but I would like to give you something so you would feel better. Jojo said, I got you a card, a box of chocolates, and some new clothes

for mother’s day. “HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY” he said. This made Mom feel really happy. She was so happy she went to take a nap after she hung up the phone. When she woke up, she was able to get all of her work done and the children were fed. They all lived happily ever after. THE END

Use funny Pictures from Google Images to prompt literacy and comprehension activities.

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DUMB BUNNIES EASTERWhich eggs should you dye for Easter and why?Summer clothesEaster pictureWhat you carve for HalloweenFood you can carveWinter clothesChristmas picture

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PRAGMATIC ISSUES

Has trouble getting

along with others.

Has

trouble understanding the rules of

games.

Has a hard time following

directions.

Perseverates on a thought.

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PRAGMATIC INTERVENTIONS

Choose books that explore social experiences (Dr. Jed Baker)Video Modeling/DVDS (School Rules, My Community)Social StoriesRole Playing while videoing on IPAD Write own scripts for social situationsRead and respond to different scenarios

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CHALLENGES WHEN TEACHING LITERACY

“MY CHILD/STUDENT DOES NOT LIKE TO READ”!How many times have we heard this?WHAT CAN WE DO?

NOT!

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ESTABLISH AN INTEREST IN READING

CREATE MOTIVATIONIntroduce materials the students are interested in such as magazines, computers, social media, or TV shows.Immerse reading activities in fun activities such as “I spy” type game, “What am I” activity, sentence lotto, or “Test the Teacher, Story Starters” about reading passage with a reward system.Allow student to choose materials/activitiesChoose materials with cultural relevance

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Storybook reading interactions differ between AAC users and typically developing peersPeers often choose book to be read usually choosing the same book repeatedly--- Parents of AAC users often chooses book to be read and tends to choose a different book each timeRESULT- AAC user may not be as interested during the reading session and become less responsiveAAC user does not benefit from the comprehension, inference, retelling, anticipate event, and pretend reading skills that repeated readings offer

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

LITERACY CHALLENGES FOR AAC USERS

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ESTABLISHING INTEREST IN READING

PAIR READING WITH HANDS ON ACTIVITIESBenefits of hands-on interactive experiencesDifferent modalities/different learnersMemory retentionComprehensionShared experienceEnjoymentMakes reading more interesting to children who may not like to/be interested in reading--create life-long love of reading

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ESTABLISHING INTEREST IN READING

EXAMPLES OF PAIRED READING WITH HANDS ON ACTIVITIESAbiyoyoSeven Blind Mice Journal Cards

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PAIRING READING WITH CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Take advantage of literacy materials and activities introduced in the school setting.DUCKS HATCHINGSCIENCE EXPERIMENTS

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Individuals who read to AAC users often provide few opportunities for them to participateFocus is on reading the storyParticipation of the AAC user is limited to turning pages and pointing to picturesRESULT- Interaction and discussion of story does not happen limiting comprehension, language, and communication development

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

LITERACY CHALLENGES FOR AAC USERS

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INTERVENTIONS FOSTERING LITERACY FOR AAC USERSEmergent Literacy

Provide access to AAC method that has appropriate vocabulary during reading timeUsing signs gestures during reading activity (Abiyoyo)Using object to communicate choices and interactions (Snake Alley Band)Provide simple switches programmed with repeated story lines (Snake Alley Band)Use low tech boards with vocabulary for questions/comments (Abiyoyo)

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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INTERVENTIONS FOSTERING LITERACY FOR AAC USERSEmergent Literacy

Provide access to AAC method that has appropriate vocabulary during reading timeUsing signs gestures during reading activityUsing object to communicate choices and interactions (Snake Alley Band)Provide simple switches programmed with repeated story lines (Snake Alley Band)Use low tech boards with vocabulary for questions/comments (Abiyoyo)

Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013

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LITERACY PROJECT

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MAKING YOUR OWN LITERACY PROJECT

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MAKING YOUR OWN LITERACY PROJECT

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FROGGY BUILDS A TREE HOUSE

Title: Froggy Builds A Tree House

Author: Jonathan LondonIllustrator: Frank Remkiewicz

Shared Reading Activity Directions: Read the book together, then have fun with this activity.Froggy and his friends had a lot of fun playing in their tree house. Have you ever built a tree house or a fort? Lets build a cool fort for you to play in! Gather three or four chairs.Arrange the chairs in a way to form the boundaries of the fort.Find a large bed sheet or a large blanket.Throw the sheet or blanket over the tops of the chairs.

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FROGGY BUILDS A TREE HOUSE SHARED READING: VOCABULARY AND QUESTION IDEAS

Vocabulary WordsPoint to the words on the page and sound out the letters.Example: Frog--What sound does /f/ make? What does F-r-o-g spell? “Frog”Green, he, his, they, hammer, hammers, hammering, tree

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FROGGY BUILDS A TREE HOUSE SHARED READING: VOCABULARY AND QUESTION IDEAS

Ask questionsUse the vocabulary words in sentences. What color is Froggy? Froggy is green!What is Froggy building? He is building a tree house.What tools are they using? Froggy and his friends are using hammers. They are hammering.

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REFERENCES

Adler, C. R. (2001). Seven Strategies to Teach Students Text Comprehension. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/seven-strategies-teach-students-text-comprehension. Retrieved July, 2016American Speech-Hearing Association. (2002). Augmentative and alternative communication: knowledge and skills for service delivery [Knowledge and Skills]. Available from 222.asha.org/policy.Beukelman, D. and Mirenda, P. (2013). Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Supporting Children and Adults with Complex Communication Needs, Fourth Edition. Baltimore: MD. Paul Brookes PublishingBowan, Caroline. (2011). Phoneme Awareness Intervention. http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=81:pa&catid=11:admin&Itemid=118. Retrieved July, 2016.Cook, A., Polgar, J. (2015). Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice, Fourth Edition. St. Louis MI: Elsevier Publishing.David Newmonic Language Resources (DNLR). (2016). Language Literacy Disorders. www.speechlanguage-resources.com/language-literacy-disorders.html. Retrieved July, 2016.National Literacy Act (NLA) of 1991. Public Law 102-73-July 23, 1991. gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-105/pdf/STATUTE-105-Pg333.pdf. Retrieved July, 2016.Owens, R., Farinella, K., Metz, D. (2015). Introduction to Communication: A Lifespan Evidence-Based Perspective, Fifth Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.Richmond, Keli. (2013). OSSPEAC Convention. www.LiteracySpeaks.com. Retrieved July 2016.

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